Flashcards in Italy 2 Deck (53):
True or False: Orvieto DOC is located within the Marches.
What is the main grape of Chianti Classico?
What is the principal red grape of Taurasi DOCG?
True or False: Brunello di Montalcino DOCG wines are produced from the Prugnolo Gentile clone of Sangiovese.
What white grape in the Marches received two DOCG zones for Riserva wines in 2009?
n which of the following DOC zones does the Super-Tuscan Sassicaia have its own sub-appellation: Pomino, Bolgheri, Aglianico del Vulture, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, Rosso Piceno?
What is the only white wine DOCG of Tuscany?
Vernaccia di San Gimignano
Which of the following DOCG zones is located within Campania: Fiano di Avellino, Chianti Classico, Brunello di Montalcino, Vermentino di Gallura, Vernaccia di San Gimignano?
Fiano di Avellino
In which region is Cerasuolo di Vittoria DOCG located?
Which of the following regions does not contain any DOCG zones: Marches, Umbria, Campania, Tuscany, Calabria?
Where is Primitivo di Manduria DOC?
Cannonau is a synonym for what grape varietal?
____________ is the sole DOCG zone in Basilicata.
Aglianico del Vulture Superiore
Which grape comprises the majority of Cerasuolo di Vittoria DOCG blends?
Red dessert wines are produced in the_________ DOCG of Tuscany.
Elba Aleatico Passito
trail-blazing Tuscan wine made, largely from cabernet sauvignon, originally by Mario Incisa della Rochetta at the Tenuta San Guido near bolgheri and one of the first Italian reds made in the image of fine red bordeaux. The first small commercial quantities were released in the mid 1970s. For more details, see vino da tavola. In 1994 Sassicaia was granted its own DOC as an official subzone of Bolgheri (Bolgheri-Sassicaia DOC), the only wine from a single estate in Italy to enjoy this privilege.
Italian term applied to doc wines which are deemed superior because of their higher minimum alcoholic strength, usually by a half or one per cent, a longer period of ageing before commercial release, or a lower maximum permitted yield, or all three. Among the more significant wines which fall into this category are the three barbera DOCs or DOCGs of piemonte (Alba, Asti, Monferrato), bardolino, caldaro, grave del friuli, soave, valpolicella, and valtellina (where the Superiore-designated area includes the crus of Grumello, Inferno, Maroggia, Sassella, and Valgella). Triggered by the eu reforms of 2008, the Superiore versions of several DOCs such as frascati have been elevated to DOCG status while, confusingly, the normal DOC continues to co-exist. These promotions, notably that of Agliancio del Vulture Superiore and, earlier, Soave Superiore, are often petty compromises, born out of resistance to elevating the often much smaller historic classico heartland of a zone to DOCG status.
Riviera di Ponente
extensive, overarching Ligurian doc along the north-western coast of Italy producing wines made of vermentino (called Pigato here) and alicante (probably grenache), and rossese di dolceaqua.
Dry white wine from the veneto region of north east Italy. Based on garganega grapes (a minimum of 80%, with 20% of trebbiano di Soave or Trebbiano Toscano (verdicchio)), it is produced in the townships of Gambellara, Montebello Vicentino, Montorso, and Zermeghedo, only a short distance from soave but in the neighbouring province of Vicenza rather than that of Verona. Gambellara is tiny compared to its neighbour: based on about 600 ha compared with Soave’s 5,645 ha/13,943 acres in 2012 but with generally more Garganega and lower yields. Since the enlargement of the prosecco zone, much of Garganega planted on the plains to the south of the town of Gambellara have been replaced with glera, to capitalize on Prosecco’s ongoing success. So hillside vineyards represent a healthy 60% of the Gambellara total. Although much Gambellara is as bland as the vast majority of Soave, several producers with vineyard holdings in the hills have turned to quality rather than quantity. The biodynamic La Biancara Estate, for example, which espouses fermentation on skins, has helped change the perception, even if it cites igt rather than Gambellara on the labels of some of its wines, not least because of a quality control system unwilling to recognize the wines as typical. A good Gambellara is characterized by notes of camomile and yellow fruits, while taking on honeyed smoky notes after several years in the bottle.
The doc Gambellara zone is elevated to docg for the sweet recioto di Gambellara which has a long history in the region, while Gambellara classico is not a smaller, historic subzone, but a wine with higher alcohol and from (marginally) lower yields.
Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso
Named after its red stem, is a member of the refosco group of red grape varieties that makes usefully vigorous wine in the friuli region of north-east Italy. It has a long history in the area, apparently praised by pliny the Elder and reputedly producing the favourite wine of Livia, the second wife of Augustus Caesar, cited in the Annals of Friuli of Francesco di Manzano in 1390. dna profiling at san michele all’adige recently revealed a parent–offspring relationship with marzemino, another ancient variety of Northern Italy.
This vine is cultivated both in hillside vineyards and in flatter parts of Friuli and gives a deeply coloured wine with plummy flavours and a hint of almonds, a medium to full body, and a rather elevated acidity which can be difficult to control or moderate, the variety being a notoriously late ripener. Refosco has the advantage of good resistance to autumn rains and rot.
There was a significant return of interest in Friuli's Refosco in the 1980s, and much greater care was taken in its cultivation and vinification in an effort to improve the wine’s quality, although total plantings in 2010 were just over 1,000 ha/2,470 acres.
The most promising zone for Refosco is colli orientali and the Koper district in slovenia. Others include grave del friuli, lison-pramaggiore (outside Friuli), Latisana, and Aquileia.
Small doc zone in the hills of Bologna in north central Italy.
Red wine from emilia-romagna in Italy.
Extensive doc for the wines of the volcanic hills south east of Rome in the region of lazio which stretch from just outside the city gates (some of the vineyards are in fact within the administrative borders of the city) into the province of Latina, south of the township of Velletri. Nine different docs fall completely or partially within the zone, making Castelli Romani, once known for its malvasia-based whites, more akin to an igt than a carefully delineated vineyard area. Except for the potentially interesting Cori DOC (based on the local bellone for whites and Nero Buono for reds), Colli Lanuvini (whites based on Malvasia and reds on Merlot and Sangiovese), and the recent, rather commercially opportunistic DOC Roma (a canvas for international varieties blended with Malvasia in the case of whites and with Montepulciano for reds), the overwhelming majority of the DOCs are devoted to whites, of which the best known is the generally underperforming frascati.
Malvasia is the traditional variety here and Malvasia di Candia is more widely grown than Malvasia di Lazio, principally for its high productivity, although better producers prefer the quality level of the latter. A wide variety of different strains of Trebbiano is also grown (Verde, Giallo, Toscano, Romagnolo, di Soave). High yields—ranging from the 98 hl/ha (7 tons/acre) of the Colli Lanuvini to the more than 115 hl/ha of the Colli Albani and Marino—make many of the discussions of blends and subvarieties purely nugatory; interesting wines from Malvasia and Trebbiano cannot be made at these yields and there is little distinction between the wines of the different DOCs. Over three-quarters of the total production is in the hands of co-operatives, the rest principally in the hands of large commercial wineries. Both have followed a marketing strategy based on high volume and low prices, counting on the advantages of the proximity of the millions of visitors who flock to Rome each year. If the Castelli Romani wines are principally intended for undiscriminating tourists, the character of the wines themselves has changed considerably. Once fermented on their skins, these wines were golden in colour, full in flavour and aroma. The colour deepened as the Malvasia, a variety whose wines oxidize quite rapidly, began to age, and the aromas and flavours followed suit. Modern Castelli Romani wines, from high-yielding vines, cold fermented off the skins, filtered, and stabilized, lack the defects of old but are essentially industrial. Several avant-garde estates in Marino and Frascati are producing good wines from Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Viognier, while there is increasing interest in indigenous varieties. The results have demonstrated that the soil and climate of the Castelli Romani can indeed produce good-quality wines, but few of these wines, self-consciously detached from the history and traditions of the zone, provide a key to resolving the area’s viticultural problems, which, with a severe drop in demand for central Italy’s standard Trebbiano–Malvasia wines, are becoming increasingly acute. This problem is exacerbated by high vineyard land prices, given that the hills are such an attractive place to live for Romans who want to distance themselves from the congestion of the city. For this reason, the total area of vineyard continues to shrink.
Tiny republic within Italy between the regions of emilia-romagna and the marche. Its elusive wines, from 200 ha/500 acres of vineyards, are based on sangiovese for its red, and pignoletto (here called, confusingly, Ribolla di San Marino), Biancame, and Cargarello for its whites.
Adriatic port and doc for robust red wine made mainly from negroamaro grapes, and Chardonnay-based whites shipped mainly in bulk.
Castel del Monte
DOC in puglia in the far south east of Italy, associated with the nero di troia grape, although it may also be a 100% aglianico or either of the two cabernets. The same flexible production rules are applied to the white, which was traditionally based on bombino bianco, but varietal chardonnay and sauvignon blanc are also allowed. Confusingly, no fewer than three parallel docgs were created in the early 2010s: Castel del Monte Bombino Nero DOCG, Castel del Monte Nero di Troia Riserva DOCG, and Castel del Monte Rosso Riserva DOCG (minimum 65% Nero di Troia), none with the track record for quality that this level implies.
Mediterranean island off tuscany. Viticulture played an important role in the economy of the island in the ancient world, and pliny described Elba as ‘insula vini ferax’ (an island with abundant production of wine). This continued until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when a quarter of the cultivated surface was occupied by vines. Emigration from the island and the increasing attractions of the booming tourist industry have drastically reduced the role of wine in the overall economic picture, however, to the point where hardly 100 ha/250 acres of the Elba doc are in production, three-quarters of it white wine. The whole of Elba is covered by one DOC, called Elba, with whites based on trebbiano Toscano, vermentino, and Ansonica (Sicily’s inzolia), and reds on the ubiquitous sangiovese. The one docg is a sweet dried-grape wine, the red aleatico passito.
Island and tourist destination in the Bay of Naples in the Italian region of campania (see map under italy) which has managed to preserve a small part of the vineyards which once covered a significant part of the island. The doc Ischia wine, produced from 60 ha/148 acres of vineyards, is most commonly a white blend based on 45 to 70% forastera grapes with biancolella. Reds are typically a blend of guarnaccia and piedirosso (locally known as Per’e Palummo), the latter of which, on its own, may be either a dry red or a sweet dried-grape wine. While these red wine grapes are widespread in Campania, Forastera and Biancolella are almost exclusively grown on Ischia on steep, terraced vineyards, often accessible only by monorail. Only few producers persevere but Casa d’Ambra is notable.
Moscato di Sardegna
Relatively new and as yet relatively unrealized doc for sweet, still or sparkling white wines made in sardinia in the image of moscati d’asti.
Wine from vineyards on the slopes of the Sorrento peninsula in southern Italy achieved prominence from the latter half of the reign of Augustus in the first decade of the 1st century ad. It ranked high in Classical rome, but behind caecuban and falernian, in pliny’s assessment. It was produced from the vine known as the Aminnea Gemina Minor, which, unusually for one of the classic wines, was trellised rather than grown up trees. The wine itself was a rather thin white wine, which nevertheless could be described as ‘strong’. It may well have had a high acidity. There are recommendations to age it for 20 to 25 years. It never won universal approval—‘a high class vinegar’ was the opinion of both the emperors Tiberius and Caligula, and there are some signs that its medicinal properties were among its most important selling points.
A white wine which was among the most famous wines of Roman Italy and was much praised by the Roman poets. The type of grape is unknown. The wine was produced on Monte Massico, the line of hills which runs down to the sea on the west coast of Italy between the rivers Garigliano and Volturno. This zone is adjacent to the territory which produced falernian and some writers treat Massic as a subtype of that famous wine. The wine was transported to Sinuessa on the coast, where there were numerous kilns producing the amphorae in which the wine was exported.
Historically the most important producer of taurasi in the southern Italian region of campania. Staunch defenders of the aglianico grape, which was widely replaced after the Second World War by the higher-yielding Trebbiano and Sangiovese, they convinced their grape suppliers to continue growing it by paying higher prices for it. Mastroberardino was the first, and for a long period the sole producer to bottle taurasi rather than selling it off in bulk. The family split in 1994, with one branch retaining the vineyards but setting up under the Vignadora label, and the other branch retaining the name but seeking grapes elsewhere.
Plural colline, is the Italian word for hills, and its use in a wine name indicates that the wine is produced on slopes of a certain elevation (it is an almost direct equivalent of France’s côte, Côtes, and Coteaux). Accordingly, articles about Colli Somewhere are listed not under Colli, but under S for Somewhere.
Elevation is obviously in the eye of the beholder, however, and the word colli is used to describe both mere knolls and near-mountainous viticulture at elevations of over 500 m/1,600 ft. Colli and its variations can be found not only as the title of various docs but also as a part of their descriptive apparatus: chianti, for example, is produced in the Colli Senesi and the Colline Pisane (Chianti dei Colli Senesi, Chianti delle Colline Pisane). The absence of the word does not imply that a given wine is produced in the flatlands; much of Italy’s finest wine—barbaresco, barolo, brunello di montalcino, vino nobile di montepulciano—is produced from hillside vineyards without that fact being indicated in the wine’s name.
The origins of viticulture in tuscany are as problematic as the origins of the Etruscan peoples who flourished in central north Italy from the 8th century bc until being absorbed by the Romans from the 3rd century onwards. However, at its height, Etruscan society was heavily influenced by the culture of the Greek colonies of southern Italy. They imported fine Greek pottery for use in the symposium and made their own copies. The dinner and drinking party was a favourite theme in the lavish paintings which adorned their tombs. Indeed, the Etruscans became a byword among Greek and Roman moralists for luxurious living and eccentric customs, such as allowing wives to participate in banquets. There are literary references to Etruscan wine from the late 3rd century bc, but much earlier, from the late 7th century, the wine was exported in a distinctive type of amphora well beyond Italy to southern France. Various wines are attested throughout the region in the classical period, although none was universally recognized as of the highest class.
Italy- Wine Levels
PGI aka Indicazione Geografica Protetta (IGP) aka Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT)
PDO aka Denominazione di Origine Protetta (DOP) aka Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOC/DOCG)
Valle d'Aosta- Italy
Valle d'Aosta (Vallee d'Aosta) DOC
- Arnad Montjovet
- Blanc de Morgex et de la Salle
- Enfer d'Arvier
What is the smallest and least populous region in Italy?
Valle d’Aosta. It is landlocked and mountainous
What are the characters of Valle d’Aosta?
It is nestled near the western alps and experiences a continental climate, with long cold winters and short, hot summers
Where does Vallee d’Acosta rank in production in Italy?
It ranks last in the 20 major regions Italy
How are the vineyards in Vallee d’Aosta shaped?
In a narrow band of vineyards around the Dora Baltea River
What are the sub regions of Vallee d’Aosta?
Arnad- Montjovet, Blanc de Morgex et de la Salle, Chambave, Donnas, Enfer d’Arvier, Nus and Torrette
What are the grapes in the Valle d’Aosta?
Petit Rouge- Torette, Chambave, Enfer d’Arvier
Picotendro (Nebbiolo)-Donnas and Arnad- Montjovet reds
La Salle- Blanc de Morgex or Prie. It is responsible for making sparkling wines. It is grown on Mont Blanc.
Varietal wines are also allowed.
These include Petit Arvine, Gamay, Petit Rouge, Fumin and Premetta (which is usually a Rose)
- Narrow band of mountainous coastland south of Piedmont
- Viticulture has long been established in the region
- Vineyards are on steep treacherous coastal terrain
- Mediterranean climate
- Pigato (Vermentino) is very successful here especially in Colli di Luni and Riviera Ligure di Ponente.
- The red grape Rossese can be produced as Riviera Ligure Di Ponente DOC or Rossese Di Doceacqua DOC.
- The white wine of Cinque Terre DOC made from Bosco are very well known
When was the DOC system introduced?
1963. DOCG the more prestigious title was introduced this same year.
When was the first DOCG introduced?
1980. Brunello Di Montalcino, Barolo and Vino Noble De Montepulciano were upgraded.
Why did many producers move to Vino De Tavola in the 1970s and 1980s?
Because DOC and DOCG restrictions had been watered down
Which style of wine was most famous for Vino De Tavola status?
“Super Tuscans” (ie Sassicaia, Tiganello)
What did 1992’s Goria Law represent?
It introduced the category of Indicazione Geographica Tipica (IGT). This offered w/makers more freedom
How long after a Region has been DOC may it be able to be DOCG?
What mountain range is referred to as the “spine of Italy”?
The Apennine Mountains. The Alps are the bracket of the Northern region.
What year did Italy unify?
When was Trentino- Alto Adige added to Italy?
After the collapse of the Austo- Hungarian Empire at the end of WW1