Flashcards in ITCOM Paragraphs Deck (13)
Hisham Matar's 2006 novel, 'In the Country of Men', chronicles the summer of 1979, when "the sun was everywhere" and the impact of Gaddafi's oppressive regime was wide-reaching.
(sentence on prompt themes)
Though..., Matar ultimately presents that...
Paragraph: Suleiman is endangered by Faraj and is prematurely stripped of his innocence.
-Faraj might argue he is "fighting for a better Libya for...Suleiman"
-Faraj "away on business" leaves Suleiman with a hole in his family unit
-Sharief = "gun", "Baba's fiery English mints"
-"My Land, Your Land" echoes political games of fathers, tension causes Suleiman to lose Kareem's friendship "traitor"
-gruesome execution detail "fainting" "trousers...wet" "something yellow" leaves "no illusions" of innocence equating immunity
-"heavenly" mulberries symbolism, Faraj spits "chewed up berry into the dirt"
-bitter tone 24-yo Suleiman suffers "an ever-present absence"
Paragraph: Najwa is endangered by Faraj
-Najwa prefers "walk by the wall"
-ironic Faraj "fighting for a better Libya" = Libya's worst
-"recklessness" leads to "heavy...huge frame" of "the Guide" hung in house, symbolises Gaddafi infiltration into the sanctuary of the domestic sphere, burden of upholding appearance of loyalty.
-symbolic and physical = Revolutionary Committee raid, "medicine" illegal, at risk
-serve "tea" to "those rats" out of fear they will "put [Faraj] behind the sun"
-1979 Libya, social security tied to Faraj, must be "a good wife, loyal and unquestioning", give up dream to "see the clouds above [her] country", see Libya "a distant map, reduced to lines, reduced to an idea"
-bargain for Faraj's release, "cake", "eyes wide open, eager to convince"
-word choice "inauguration into the dark art of submission" = "dark day" implies submissive wedding behaviours "accept[ing] slavery over death"
Paragraph: Najwa lost her innocence due to the men of her family, both past and present.
-flashbacks and tragic retellings = "clarity of innocence" stolen by "the greed of men"
-fourteen, innocent moment "the Italian Coffee House", destruction of identity as a "girl", "thrust...over the border into womanhood."
-metaphors husband "executioner", uncle's betrayal "dagger", wedding day "black day" = figurative death of innocence
-fairytale heroine Scheherazade, Suleiman reveres, Najwa "wretched woman" and a "coward who accepted slavery over death", disparity shows lack of innocence
-sacrifice dreams to "see the clouds above [her] country" and see Libya "a distant map, reduced to lines, reduced to an idea" to remain "loyal and unquestioning" to Faraj "recklessness"
Paragraph: Matar uses Najwa to present that hope has the potential to be restored through love.
-stuff from earlier paragraph about how she needed to give up dreams and sacrifice innocence
-p.123, Suleiman recalls how Najwa used to sing like "a girl unaware of herself...a moment before the Italian Coffee House"
-repetition on p.213, Faraj returned, Najwa "floating with love" = reclaiming of innocence lost
-final line of novel, Suleiman bitterness evaporates "Mama! Mama!" = love can restore hope
Paragraph: The Resistance Men destroy the idealism of the hero.
-Matar depicts Resistance men as heroes (+ children)
-deconstruction of these images reflect movement as "massacre in the making", no such thing as "hero"
-Najwa chides Moosa and Faraj "children playing with fire"
-as sun is a ball of fire and is symbolic of Gaddafi, implies that Resistance attempts are as idiotic and dangerous as child with fire.
-sun symbolism continues, Najwa "change" = "clouds" that "flit away"
-accentuates naivete "handful of men" who "hide together in a flat", choose "conveniently located" headquarters to be "museum"
-Suleiman narration might encourage reader to view Najwa sceptically
-Suleiman reveres the idea of the hero
-Rashid "heroic chords", "undying loyalty", "heroic drip of blood"
-wants to be Najwa's "prince", "white horse"
-Yet Faraj "melted like butter" came home alive, Rashid "hero" brutally executed, no one "immune from being burned"
-Suleiman reflection "where were the heroes...the happy endings" = final death of hope/idealism
Paragraph: Suleiman's interactions with Bahloul demonstrate how Gaddafi and his regime encourages oppressive behaviour.
-Matar likens oppression to a plague
-Suleiman emulates Gaddafi's behaviour in the face of another fearful force, Bahloul
-Bahloul notices "strange smell" Najwa's alcohol, Suleiman "handful of stones", "hurled them at him", fear of spreading "smoke" illegal drinking
-similar to Gaddafi executing Rashid for involvement with Resistance, movement spreads information discrediting Gaddafi
-Later, Suleiman nearly drowns Bahloul "secret rush of power", pleasure in fear mimicked by "spectators...punching the air and cheering", "happy" at gruesome execution
-after garden encounter, symbol of Gaddafi as sun reflected in "how hot [Suleiman's] head had become", Suleiman "hot" as sun, ruthless as Gaddafi
Redefine the "Suleiman is endangered by Faraj" paragraph in terms of the different themes.
Oppression = Suleiman is oppressed due to association with Faraj.
Guilt = Despite being innocent, Suleiman is labelled as guilty due to his association with Faraj.
Betrayal = Suleiman is betrayed by Faraj.
Innocence = Suleiman's innocence is stolen due to Faraj.
Roles of men and women = Suleiman's view of men is warped by Faraj.
Family = Faraj's absence severely affected Suleiman.
Absence/loss = Suleiman's sense of absence was caused by Faraj.
Redefine the "Najwa is endangered by Faraj" paragraph in terms of the different themes.
Oppression = Najwa is oppressed due to association with Faraj.
Guilt = Despite being innocent, Najwa is labelled as guilty due to her association with Faraj.
Betrayal = Najwa is betrayed by Faraj.
Roles of men and women = Najwa illustrates women's lack of choice in 1979 Libya.
Family = Najwa is endangered by her husband.
Absence/loss = Najwa suffers from an absence of free will and choice.
Redefine the "Najwa lost her innocence" paragraph in terms of the different themes.
Oppression = Najwa faces both physical and emotional oppression.
Betrayal = Najwa is betrayed by her family, both past and present.
Innocence = Najwa lost her innocence due to her family, both past and present.
Roles of men and women = Najwa represents what becomes of women in the “country of men”.
Family = Najwa lost her innocence due to her family, both past and present.
Absence/loss = Najwa suffers from a loss of innocence and choice.
Redefine the "Hope has the potential to be restored" paragraph in terms of the different themes.
Oppression = Love has the potential to reverse the effects of oppression.
Betrayal = Love has the potential to reverse the effects of betrayal.
Innocence = Love has the potential to restore lost innocence.
Roles of men and women = Though men were the cause of much of Najwa's trouble, their love has the potential to restore hope.
Family = Though family was the cause of much of Najwa's trouble, their love has the potential to restore hope.
Absence/loss = Absence and loss are not permanent.
Redefine the "The Resistance Men destroy the idealism of the hero" paragraph in terms of the different themes.
Oppression = The oppression faced by the Resistance Men proves that under Gaddafi's regime, there is no such thing as heroes.
Betrayal = The Resistance Men betray Suleiman by destroying his idealism of heroes.
Innocence = The innocent idealism of heroes is destroyed by the Resistance Men.
Roles of men and women = The Resistance Men redefine Suleiman's view of heroic men.
Absence/loss = Suleiman's sense of absence is in part caused by the Resistance Men destroying his idealism of heroes.