Flashcards in Joints Deck (36):
Describe the anatomical position:
arms by sides
palms facing forward
Toes facing forward
Define the Sagittal plane:
A plane that cuts the body vertically from anterior to posterior
What is the median plane?
A type of sagittal plane cutting the body directly down the centre. i.e. the mid sagittal plane
Define the frontal plane and give its other name:
The plane that cuts the body vertically into posterior and anterior. Also known as teh Coronal plane
Define the transverse plane:
A transverse plane is one that cuts the body horizontally. Convention dictates that scans of this kind show the superior view of the body (looking up from the floor)
What is a joint?
A union between two or more rigid structures (bone or cartilage)
Why are joints needed?
For movement and Growth
Name the 3 main joint types (structurally):
What makes up a fibrous joint?
Dense connective tissue (collagen) of high tensile strength
Do fibrous joints move?
They move in children but not in adults
What makes fibrous joints useful?
They have flexibility in children so enable flexibility in the skull of babies when passing through the tight birth canal.
Give 3 examples of fibrous joints:
Sutures between flat bones in skull
Syndesmosis, such as the interosseous membrane between bones (e.g. tibia and fibula)
Name the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?
Synchondroses (primary) and symphyses (secondary)
What is the difference between primary and secondary cartilaginous joints?
Primary contain only one type of cartilage, secondary contain two.
What is the purpose of the synchondroses, how long do they last and what cartilage makes them up?
They allow for bone growth but not movement.
they ossify in adulthood.
Give an example of a synchondrose
The epithyseal growth plate in long bones
Do symphases move, where are they found and how long do they last?
Symphases have limited movement
They are found in the midline (e.g. spine and pelvis)
They last your whole life, never ossifying due to age.
Give 2 examples of symphases:
The pubic symphysis that connects the front of the pelvis
The intervertabral disc, the disc is made from stron fibrocartilage and the ariticular cartilage surrounding the bone ends is hyaline cartilage.
What made synovial joints special?
They have the greatest freedom of movement
What common features do all synovial joints have?
A synovial cavity
A fibrous capsule surrounding bothq
What 3 features do some synovial joints have?
Bersae, a fluid filled sac that combats friction in joints
Articular discs, thin disc of fibrocartilage seperating synovial cavity allowing for seperate movement in each section
Ligaments, fibrous connective tissue connecting bones.
Name the 6 main joint shapes:
Ball & socket
Define flexion and extension:
Flexion is bending around a join (e.g. knee) to reduce angle btween bones
Extension is the opposite
Define adduction and abduction:
Abduction is movement away from the body's midline
Adduction is opposite.
What are lateral and median rotation:
Rotation away from the midline is lateral and towards the midline is median rotation.
Define inversion and eversion:
Inversion is tilting the sole of the foot so it faces towards the midline
Eversion if the opposite
A combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction.
It refers to conical motion of a joint such as swinging to serve a tennis ball.
What is dorsiflexion?
Dorsiflexion is flexing the foot upwards towards the doria surface (front) of the body.
It is extension of the ankle joint and therfore True extension
Explain what plantarflexion is:
Plantarflexion is flexing the foot downward towards the rear (plantar) surface of the body.
It's flexion of the joint and therfore known as true flexion.
What 3 things does joint stability rely on?
The shape of the joint
Muscles around it
the prescence of Ligaments and a fibrous capsule
What does anastomoses mean?
An anastomose is an area around a join where blood vessels heavily branch then rejoin together.
This provides multiples pathways for blood should one be squashed during joint movement.
What is proprioception and how is it related to joints?
Proprioception is awareness of all body parts locations and proprioceptors exist in the joints.
What is Hilton's Law?
A nerve supplying muscle cross a joint will also innervate said joint
Give 3 examples of joint pathology:
Arthritis (Osteo- and Rheumatoid)
what is craniosynostosis?
Premature closure of sutures between flat bones in the skull in babies.