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Flashcards in Joints Deck (36):
1

Describe the anatomical position:

Facing forward
arms by sides
palms facing forward
legs/feet together
Toes facing forward
(Penis erect)

2

Define the Sagittal plane:

A plane that cuts the body vertically from anterior to posterior

3

What is the median plane?

A type of sagittal plane cutting the body directly down the centre. i.e. the mid sagittal plane

4

Define the frontal plane and give its other name:

The plane that cuts the body vertically into posterior and anterior. Also known as teh Coronal plane

5

Define the transverse plane:

A transverse plane is one that cuts the body horizontally. Convention dictates that scans of this kind show the superior view of the body (looking up from the floor)

6

What is a joint?

A union between two or more rigid structures (bone or cartilage)

7

Why are joints needed?

For movement and Growth

8

Name the 3 main joint types (structurally):

Fibrous
Cartilogenous
Synovial

9

What makes up a fibrous joint?

Dense connective tissue (collagen) of high tensile strength

10

Do fibrous joints move?

They move in children but not in adults

11

What makes fibrous joints useful?

They have flexibility in children so enable flexibility in the skull of babies when passing through the tight birth canal.

12

Give 3 examples of fibrous joints:

Sutures between flat bones in skull
Teeth
Syndesmosis, such as the interosseous membrane between bones (e.g. tibia and fibula)

13

Name the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?

Synchondroses (primary) and symphyses (secondary)

14

What is the difference between primary and secondary cartilaginous joints?

Primary contain only one type of cartilage, secondary contain two.

15

What is the purpose of the synchondroses, how long do they last and what cartilage makes them up?

They allow for bone growth but not movement.
they ossify in adulthood.
hyaline cartilage.

16

Give an example of a synchondrose

The epithyseal growth plate in long bones

17

Do symphases move, where are they found and how long do they last?

Symphases have limited movement
They are found in the midline (e.g. spine and pelvis)
They last your whole life, never ossifying due to age.

18

Give 2 examples of symphases:

The pubic symphysis that connects the front of the pelvis
The intervertabral disc, the disc is made from stron fibrocartilage and the ariticular cartilage surrounding the bone ends is hyaline cartilage.

19

What made synovial joints special?

They have the greatest freedom of movement

20

What common features do all synovial joints have?

A synovial cavity
Synovial membrane
A fibrous capsule surrounding bothq

21

What 3 features do some synovial joints have?

Bersae, a fluid filled sac that combats friction in joints
Articular discs, thin disc of fibrocartilage seperating synovial cavity allowing for seperate movement in each section
Ligaments, fibrous connective tissue connecting bones.

22

Name the 6 main joint shapes:

Saddle
Ball & socket
Plane
Hinge
Pivot
Condyler (ellipsoid)

23

Define flexion and extension:

Flexion is bending around a join (e.g. knee) to reduce angle btween bones
Extension is the opposite

24

Define adduction and abduction:

Abduction is movement away from the body's midline
Adduction is opposite.

25

What are lateral and median rotation:

Rotation away from the midline is lateral and towards the midline is median rotation.

26

Define inversion and eversion:

Inversion is tilting the sole of the foot so it faces towards the midline
Eversion if the opposite

27

Define CircumductionL

A combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction.
It refers to conical motion of a joint such as swinging to serve a tennis ball.

28

What is dorsiflexion?

Dorsiflexion is flexing the foot upwards towards the doria surface (front) of the body.
It is extension of the ankle joint and therfore True extension

29

Explain what plantarflexion is:

Plantarflexion is flexing the foot downward towards the rear (plantar) surface of the body.
It's flexion of the joint and therfore known as true flexion.

30

What 3 things does joint stability rely on?

The shape of the joint
Muscles around it
the prescence of Ligaments and a fibrous capsule

31

What does anastomoses mean?

An anastomose is an area around a join where blood vessels heavily branch then rejoin together.
This provides multiples pathways for blood should one be squashed during joint movement.

32

What is proprioception and how is it related to joints?

Proprioception is awareness of all body parts locations and proprioceptors exist in the joints.

33

What is Hilton's Law?

A nerve supplying muscle cross a joint will also innervate said joint

34

Give 3 examples of joint pathology:

Trauma
Arthritis (Osteo- and Rheumatoid)
Craniosynostosis

35

what is craniosynostosis?

Premature closure of sutures between flat bones in the skull in babies.

36

What are the effects of craniosynostosis?

Abnormal head shapes
Possible abnormal brain development
Possible increased intracranial pressure leading to brain damage and crushed nerves (blindness etc)