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Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2 > Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Joints Deck (66)
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1

point of contact between bones or between bones and cartilage

articulation

2

immovable joints

synarthoses

3

slightly moveable joints

ampiarthoses

4

mostly moveable joints

diarthoses

5

no joint cavity and made of fibrous connective tissue

fibrous

6

classification by type of connective tissue at the joint and whether or not there is space between the bones

structural classification

7

classification based on the amount of movement at the joint

functional classification

8

exist only in the skull

sutures

9

has a connection that uses a ligament

syndesmoses

10

holds the teeth in place

gomphoses

11

types of fibrous joints

sutrues, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

12

type of joint held together by cartilage

cartlaginous

13

connected by hyaline cartilage.

synchondroses

14

examples of a synchondroses

the first rib being connected by hyaline cartilage and the epiphyseal plates

15

synchondroses are made of what

hyaline cartilage

16

joint that uses fibrocartilage

symphyses

17

example of a symphysis

the intervertebral disks

18

type of joint where there is space between the articulating bone

synovial

19

extension of the periosteum from the two bones.

fibrocapsule

20

what is the fibrocapsule made of

dense irregular connective tissue

21

inner part of the fibrocapsule

synovial membrane

22

what is the synovial membrane made of

areolar connective tissue

23

acts as a cushion to prevent friction in joints.

synovial fluid

24

what are ligaments made of

connective tissue

25

what do ligaments do

add strength to the joint

26

what are menisci

extra cushion in synovial joints

27

what are menisci made of

fibrocartilage

28

sac that has fluid

bursae

29

what does the bursae do

prevent things from rubbing against each other

30

where can bursae be found

between ligaments and bone, skin and bone, and bone and bone

31

fluid filled sac between bone and tendons

tendon sheath

32

what are some factors limiting movement (5)

non-boney parts, articulating bones, number of ligaments, tension of ligaments, and muscle tone

33

type of movement where surface of two bones glide across each other

gliding

34

examples of gliding movement

inter carpal or inter tarsal or intervertebral

35

types of cartilaginous joints

synchondroses and symphyses

36

type of movement that incr or decr the angle between two bones

angular

37

decr the angle between two bones

flexion

38

brings bones closer together

flexion

39

incr the angle between two bones

extension

40

extend beyond anatomical position

hyperextension

41

when the distal end of the bone moves in a circle around the proximal end of the bone

circumduction

42

movement of the bone around its own longitudinal axis

rotation

43

anterior surface of the bone toward the midline

medial rotation

44

anterior surface of the bone away from the midline

lateral rotation

45

rotating the ankle up

inversion

46

sole of the foot outward

eversion

47

push the clavicle or mandible forward

protraction

48

movement of the palm up with the elbow bent

supination

49

turning the palm downward

pronation

50

movement of the bone up

elevation

51

movement of the bone down

depression

52

most human movement

opposition

53

forcible twisting of a joint.

sprain

54

tearing of the attachment of the joint

sprain

55

displacement of the joints at a joint

dislocation

56

tearing of the capsule

dislocation

57

what is bursitis caused from

bursae accumulation

58

what does bursitis result from

trauma

59

inflammation of the tendon sheath

tendonitis

60

what does tendonitis result from

overuse

61

inflammation of a joint

arthritis

62

wear and tear disease

osteoarthritis

63

what can osteoarthritis be caused from

obesity

64

autoimmune disease when the immune cells attack the synovial membrane.

rheumatoid arthritis

65

accumulation of salt crystals between the joints

gouty arthritis

66

what is the accumulation of salt crystals in gouty arthritis caused from?

an accumulation of uric acid in the blood. (Na ions combine to form Na urate salts)