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Flashcards in Joints Deck (28)
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1

3 types of joints

fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

2

Fibrous Joint:
1. Describe movement.
2. Describe connection
3. Found where?

1. little to no movement
2. bones connected by dense connective tissue
3. skull.

3

Cartilaginous Joint:
1. Describe movement.
2. Describe connection
3. Found where?

1. little movement
2. 2 bones joined by fibrocartilginous disks between the articular surfaces.
3. sternocostal joint, intervertebral joint, and symphysis pelvis

4

Synovial Joint:
1. Describe movement.
2. Describe connection
3. Found where?

1. most joint movement.
2. 2 bones separated by narrow synovial cavity supported by connective tissue capsule and associated ligaments
3. Major joints of upper and lower extremity (knee, shoulder, elbow, etc)

5

What do synovial joints allow for?

smooth movements between adjacent bones due to synovial/joint cavity.

6

What is the synovial joint cavity surrounded by?

articular capsule

7

What is the articular capsule?

fibrous connective tissue structure that is attached to each bone outside the articulating surface.

8

What prevents the friction between bones at the synovial joint?

articular cartilage

9

What is articular cartilage?

thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the entire articulating surface of each bone at the synovial joint.

10

What lines the inner surface of the articular capsule?

synovial membrane

11

What cells line the synovial membrane?

Intima

12

What do the intima secrete?

synovial fluid

13

What is the function of synovial fluid?

provides lubrication to further reduce friction between bone and joint. Provides a degrees of tension to hold the ends of the bones together. Provides nourishment at the articular cartilage which has no blood vessels.

14

What is the remainder of the synovial membrane referred to as?

Subintima

15

What is subintima consist of?

highly vascularized loose connective tissue

16

What does injury of irritation of the synovial membrane lead to?

excess production of joint fluid or effusion

17

Ligaments are classified based on what?

relationship to fibrous capsule

18

Intrinsic ligament

fused to or incorporated into the wall of the fibrous capsule.

19

extrinsic ligament

located outside of the articular capsule

20

Passive (static) stabilizers of synovial joint

shapes of bones, fibrocartilaginous disks, joint capsule, ligaments, and surface tension provided by the synovial fluid

21

Active (dynamic) stabilizers of synovial joint

muscles and their associated tendons that cross the joint. Important for shoulder joint where ligaments are relatively weak.

22

4 joints of the shoulder

acrominoclavicular
glenohumeral
scapulothoracic
sternoclavicular

23

Where is the glenohumeral joint

articulation between the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula

24

Movement of the arm at the glenohumeral joint

flexion and extension, abduction and adduction, internal and external rotation

25

Where are the acrominoclavicular and sternoclavicular joints?

articulations between the clavicle and the sternum and the clavicle and the acromion process of the scapula

26

Movement of the acrominoclavicular and sternoclabicular joints?

relatively immobile and allow for a gliding type of motion

27

What kind of joint is the scapulothoracic joint and where is it?

Functional joint
between the anterior surface of the scapula an nth posterior/lateral thoracic wall

28

Movement of the scapula

elevation and depression
protraction and retraction
upward and downward rotation