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Flashcards in Judaism: Judaism Practices Deck (57)
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1
Q

What is a synagogue?

A

The building where a Jewish assembly or congregation meets for religious worship and instruction

2
Q

Why is the Synagogue important?

A
  • It provides a place of Prayer (daily services, celebrating festivals, Bar mitzvah/weddings etc)
  • Study (well stocked religious library, hebrew classes, Beit Midrash etc)
  • Charity Work (host charity events, support work of organisations, provide a cenue for charity etc)
  • Socialising (social hall, function as a town hall etc)
3
Q

What are Orthodox synagogue services like?

A
  • Person leading the service has back to audience and prays in the same direction as them.
  • Service is in hebrew and singing is unaccompanied.
  • Man and women sit seperately, women at the back or upstairs.
  • Men always cover theor heads when attending a synagogue.
  • Married women cover their head by wearing a scarf or hat
4
Q

What are reformed Synagougue services like?

A
  • Person leading the service always faces the congregation.
  • The service is both in hebrew and the countries own language, singing may be accompanied.
  • Men and women sit together.
  • Reform services are usually shorter because they are more rigidly structured.
  • Women can take a more active role than in orthodox tradition.
  • They only congregate on shabbat and festivals, not daily
5
Q

What is a Kippah?

A

A hat all jewish men cover their head with when they pray as it is a sign of repect for God.

6
Q

What is a Tallit?

A
  • A woolen shawl. Shows the man is obeying God’s laws because each tzitzit symbolises one of the 613 mitzvot
7
Q

What is a Tefillin?

A
  • 2 leather boxes, one is worn on the upper left arm and the other on the forehead.
  • Each contains the shema and wearing them shows that the person loves God with their heart and mind
8
Q

Why is Prayer important to Jews?

A
  • Prayer is important because it is vital for communicating with God.
  • They believe that prayer brings them closer the God as it enables them to focus their hearts, minds, and souls on him.
  • It reinforces their faith by helping them find new insights into their relationship with God.
  • Formal prayer in the synagogue also helps them to remember what their faith is all about and strengthens the sense of Jewish community
9
Q

What is the Format of Jewish services?

A
  • Orthodox Jews pray 3 times a day - morning, afternoon, and evening.
  • In an orthodox service a minimum of 10 men are required and in reform services a minimum of 10 men/ women are required.
  • This is because it creates a minyan. A minyan is important as this is when the shekinah (God’s presence) is present
10
Q

What is the Shema?

A
  • A prayer that affirms belief in the One God, it is found in the Torah.
  • The opening line is recited twice a day and reminds Jews of their monotheistic belief: “Hear, O Israel, the lord our God, the lord is one”.
  • It also implies that God requires total loyalty.
11
Q

What is the Amidah?

A
  • The Amidah is the central prayer of Jewish worship.
  • It is prayed in silence while facing Jerusalem.
  • It forms the core of Jewish prayer service.
12
Q

What does the Amidah consist of?

A
  • First 3 blessings praise God and ask for mercy
  • Second 13 prayers ask for God’s help
  • Final 3 thank God for the opportunity to serve him and pray for peace
13
Q

What is the Prayer hall?

A
  • Usually a rectangular shape and often contains seats of 3 sides facing inwards towards the bimah
  • The fourth side contains the focal point of the synagogue - the ark
14
Q

What is the Ark?

A
  • A cupboard that houses the Torah Scrolls - it is the most important and holiest feature in the synagogue
  • This represents the original art of the covenant
15
Q

What is The Ner Tamid?

A
  • The Ner Tamid is an “Eternal Light” that is always burning
  • It represents that God is always present
16
Q

What is the Bimah?

A
  • The platform in the centre of the synagogue

- The Torah scrolls are read from here

17
Q

What is the Torah?

A
  • The first 5 books of the Tenakh
18
Q

What happens during the Shabbat service?

A
  • The doors of the ark are opened to reveal the Torah scrolls, it is customary for the congregation to stand
  • This is a reminder of how the Israelites stood at the bottom of Mount Sinai when Moses returned with the 10 commandments
  • The Torah is then taken from the ark and covered with a cover and various breastplates, crowns and belts. This reminds the Jews of the vestments that priests wore during early Judaism
  • The Torah is held in front of the congregation while verses from scripture are chanted, after which it is paraded around the synagogue - this represents the match through the wilderness, when the Jews carried the Holy Ark from Mount Sinai to Jerusalem.
  • It also gives the congregation an opportunity to be close to the Torah and give thanks for having God’s word. As it passes many touch it with their tzitzit then touch their lips
  • This is done to show that God’s words should be on the lips and that his words are sweet like honey (as stated in Ezekial 3:3)
  • On leaving the synagogue, Jews wish each other “Shabbat shalom”
19
Q

What is Shabbat?

A
  • The Jewish holy day
  • It lasts from sunset on Friday until sunset on Saturday
  • It is a day to rest, enjoy family life, and worship God. It is a day that God has commanded Jews to celebrate
  • “Keep the sabbath day holy”. It is a celebration of creation (God rested on the 7th day)
20
Q

What happens on Shabbat Saturday?

A
  • After the morning service in the synagogue, the family enjoys another special meal in their home
  • During the afternoon parents may spend time with their children and study the Torah
  • Then there is another smaller before sunset
  • The end of the Shabbat is marked by the havdalah service
  • This is performed in the home after nightfall, once 3 stars can be seen in the sky.
  • Havdalah involves a blessing performed over a cup of wine, spices, and a candle with several wicks
21
Q

Explain The preparation of Shabbat at home

A
  • In Jewish homes all the work is done and the home is prepared before Shabbat begins on Friday evening.
  • The house is cleaned, the food is prepared, and the family washes and changes into clean, smart clothes.
  • The table is laid with the best cutlery and crockery, and at least 2 candles (representing the 2 commandments to remember and observe the shabbat).
  • Wine and 2 loaves of Challah bread are placed on the table. The loaves are then covered with a special cover. the wine represents joy and celebration.
22
Q

Explain The Lighting of the candles for Shabbat at home

A
  • A female member of the family has the honour of
    lighting the candles.
  • She lights them about 18 minutes before sunset and once they are lit she welcomes in the Shabbat.
  • She does this by waving or beckoning her arms around the candles, and then covers her eyes to recite a blessing.
  • She also says a prayer asking God to bless the family.
  • If a female member of the family is not present, a man lights the candles instead
23
Q

Explain The Friday Meal for Shabbat at home

A
  • Once the family have returned home from the
    evening mass, the parents bless their children and
    the head of the household recites the kiddush
    blessings whilst holding up the kiddush cup.
  • The family say “amen” at the end of each blessing.
  • Each family member then washes their hands
    before the meal.
  • The head of the household then removes the cover from the challah loaves and lifts them whilst saying a blessing.
  • The meal ends with a prayer of thanksgiving for the food
24
Q

Explain Private prayer

A
  • Private prayer is prayer by yourself and without
    others.
  • It is good as you can do it anywhere - if you don’t have access to a synagogue, you can
    still be close to God.
  • There are no distractions - fully focused on God and prayer. It shows how devout you are to God because you pray when it isn’t required.
  • Although the Shekinah is not present, the belief that God is one (reinforced in the Shema) states that God is present everywhere.
25
Q

What is a A mezuzah?

A

A mezuzah on the doorpost of a house contains
scrolls of the verses from the Torah and reminds
Jews of God’s laws

26
Q

Explain The Tenakh

A
  • The Tenakh is the Jewish sacred scriptures.

The Tenakh consists of 24 books grouped into 3 main parts.

  • The word Tenakh is formed from taking the first letter for the Hebrew names for these parts:
  • The Torah - the 5 books of moses which form the basis of Jewish Law
  • The Nevi’im - the 8 books that continue to trace jewish history and expand on the laws in the torah
  • The Ketuvim - 11 books that contain a collection of poetry, stories, advice, and historical accounts
27
Q

What is the Talmud?

A
  • The Talmud is an explanation of the Torah by the Rabbi’s.
  • Also called the ‘oral law’. It is made up from th Mishnah and the Gemara.
  • It helps people understand and appreciate the teachings from the Tenakh.
28
Q

What is Kosher?

A

Means allowed

29
Q

What is Trefah?

A

Means not allowed

30
Q

What can Jews eat?

A
  • Jews can only eat:
  • land animals that has completely split hoof and chews the cud
  • fish and sea creatures that have fins and scales
  • birds that only eat grain and are not a bird of prey
  • and fruit and vegetables that have been washed and checked for insects before eating
31
Q

Explain how Animals must be killed according to Jewish Law

A

Animals must be killed according to Jewish Law, the animal must:

° Be healthy

° Have its throat slit by a trained Jew (so it doesn’t suffer)

° Have the blood drained from it before it is eaten

32
Q

Explain the Jewish Kitchen

A
  • A fully kosher kitchen must have 2 sets of kitchen
    equipment, 1 for meat and 1 for dairy.
  • This is because they cannot mix meat with dairy
33
Q

What are the Jewish Rites of Passage?

A
  • Birth
  • Bar and Bat Mitzvah
  • Marriage
  • Death
34
Q

Explain the Naming Ceremony

A
  • Boys and girls born into Orthodox families are taken to be blessed in the synagogue on the first shabbat after their birth.
  • The father goes forwards to recite the Torah
    blessing, and to ask God for the good health of his wife and baby.
  • A baby girls name will be announced at this point, but a boy will be named later at his circumcision.
  • In reform synagogues, both parents will take part in the ceremony, which may not necessarily happen on the first Shabbat after the child’s birth.
35
Q

Explain Brit Milah

A
  • Circumcision recalls the covenant that God made with
    Abraham. It is a lifelong reminder of membership of God’s chosen people.
  • Baby boys have the Brit Milah ceremony when they are 8 days old. Traditionally a close friend or relative places the baby on an empty chair, symbolising the presence of the prophet Elijah.
  • The Mohel (a trained circumciser) then places the baby
    on the knee of the grandfather or respected member of the synagogue congregation. A blessing is said and the
    circumcision is performed
36
Q

Explain Redemption of the first born son:

A
  • Some orthodox jews give a small amount of money 31 days after the birth of their first born son to “redeem” him from temple service.
37
Q

What is Bar Mitzvah?

A

Bar Mitzvah is the celebration of a boy coming of age at 13; literally meaning “son of commandment”.

38
Q

What is Bat Mitzvah?

A

Bat Mitzvah is the celebration of a girl coming of age at 12, it is only in reform synagogues; literally meaning
“daughter of commandment”.

39
Q

Explain Berothal

A
  • Berothal is the 12 months before the wedding ceremony.
  • During the berothal the couple do not live together
    but they do prepare for their future lives together.
  • During the berothal part of the
    ceremony. A wedding contract is drawn up, for orthodox jews this involves a husbands duties to his wife, the conditions of inhertiance upon his death, how the couples children will be supported, and how he will provide for his wife if they get divorced.
  • For reform Jews this contract mostly focuses on spiritual aspirations rather than legal rights.
40
Q

Explain The Wedding

A
  • The wedding ceremony takes place in the synagogue. The ceremony is led by the Rabbi and is held
    under a canopy called a Chuppah, which
    represents the couple’s home.
  • The couple may fast on their wedding day to cleanse
    themselves of sin and come to the ceremony with the right attitude.

-The bride circles the groom, they recite 2 blessings
over wine, and the groom places a plain ring on the brides finger.

  • Reform couples usually both exchange rings. The groom then breaks a glass (wrapped in cloth for
    safety) under his heal to show regret for the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.
  • This symbolises that in life there is hardship as well as joy. The congregation then shouts “Mazel Tov” which mean good luck”.
41
Q

Explain Death

A
  • When someone dies close relatives tear a small tear on the right side of their clothes to symbolise that death has torn a hole in the fabric of their life, if a parent has died, the child will make a small tear over their heart to symbolise a permanent tear in their heart.
  • Judaism has 4 periods of mourning. The first lasts 24 hours and the funeral is in this period. Jews believe that
    the deceased soul must be comforted and supported as it does not fully leave the person until they are buried.
  • After the funeral there is a meal of condolence.
  • The second is called “shiva” and lasts 7 days. Shiva is a week long period of intense mourning, mourners stay at home and sit on the floor, mirrors are covered so that they do not focus on their appearance, prayers are held 3 times a day and they recite kaddish prayers.
  • The 3rd period lasts 30 days and normal life resumes, however activities that are not in the spirit of mourning
    are avoided.
  • The 4th period lasts 11 months and mourners do not attend parties. If a Jew visits a grave they will leave a
    pebble to show that they have visited, unlike a flower this sill not die
42
Q

Explain Rosh Hashanah Festival Origins

A
  • Rosh Hashanah recalls the creation story from the book of Genesis; it is considered to be the anniversary of the day on which God created humans.
  • It is also a day of judgement. Jews believe that God keeps a record of peoples good and bad deeds and on Rosh Hashanah God weighs them and judges them
43
Q

Explain Yom Kippur Festival Origins

A
  • Yom Kippur takes place 10 days after Rosh Hasahnah and is the holiest day in the Jewish Calendar.
  • This is the day of atonement when God seals the Book of Judgement so it is the last chance to repent for any sins and restore your relationship with God
44
Q

Explain ways how Yom Kippur is celebrated

A

Yom Kippur is celebrated in many ways:

  • No work is done
  • Jews fast
  • Bathing, wearing leather shoes and sexual intercourse is forbidden
  • Jew wear white as a symbol of purity
45
Q

Explain what Jews do during Yom Kippur

A
  • Many Jews spend much of Yom Kippur in the synagogue, where services will be held throughout the day.
  • The congregation confesses sins as a community and the doors of the Ark are open, requiring all to stand.
  • This is the last chance for people to make their confessions before the Ark door is shut to show that God’s judgement is now sealed
46
Q

Explain celebrating Rosh Hashanah in Britain today:

A
  • The Judgement can be influenced by the actions taken during the festival, so jews pray, do works of charity and try to atone for any harm or upset they have caused another person.
  • They also reflect on and take responsibility for their own actions.
  • The month before Roth Hashanah, a rams horn is blown daily in the synagogue to announce the coming day of judgement.
  • Special prayers of forgiveness are said all month. On the day before, similar preparations to that of Shabbat are made
47
Q

What is Pesach?

A
  • Pesach is also called “passover” as it represents the night when God “passed over” the houses of the Jewish slaves but killed the firstborn children and animals of the Egyptians.
48
Q

Explain the preparation for Pesach

A
  • God commanded the Jews to celebrate their escape from egypt by eating unleaved bread for seven days each year.
  • The most important preparation for Pesach is to remove leaven from the home. This includes wheat, barley, oats, or any grain that has been allowed to ferment or rise.
  • Removing leaven recalls how the escaping Israelites did not have time to let their bread rise. Jews clean their homes thoroughly so that no trace of leaven can be found
49
Q

Explain the importance of Pesach

A
  • Pesach has great significance as it celebrates the birth of the Jewish nation, freedom from slavery, entering the promised land, and being given the law that made the Jews God’s chosen people.
  • The celebration of Pesach with their families gives Jews a chance to show gratitude to God for their redemption.
  • Jews are encouraged to feel empathy with those who still live under political or religious oppression
50
Q

Explain the Passover Seder

A
  • Pesach lasts for 7 days. On the first evening of Pesach, the family holds a special Seder service and celebrate with a meal.
  • The mother lights candles to welcome the festival into the home.
  • The meal begins with the kiddush blessing over the wine.
  • On the table there is red wine, 3 pieces of unleavened bread, the seder plate, and a copy of a special book which should be read during the Seder service.
51
Q

What is on the Seder plate?

A

On the Seder plate there is:

  • A green vegetable
  • Bitter herbs
  • Charoset
  • A roasted egg
  • A lamb bone
52
Q

What does the Red wine remind Jews of?

A

Red wine reminds Jews of the lambs’ blood painted on the doorposts to save their children from the final plague

53
Q

What does the Unleavened bread remind Jews of?

A

The unleavened bread fulfils God’s command, and recalls that the Israelites did not have enough time to let the bread rise
before their escape`

54
Q

What does the Salt water remind Jews of?

A

The salt water represents the bitter tears shed in slavery

55
Q

What does the Green vegetable remind Jews of?

A

The green vegetable represents new life in

the promised land

56
Q

What does the Roasted egg and lamb remind Jews of?

A

The roasted egg and lamb bone are 2 reminders of sacrifices made in the Temple of Jerusalem.

57
Q

What do the Bitter herbs and Charoset remind Jews of?

A

Bitter herbs represent the bitterness of slavery, are dipped in the sweet charoset, that reminds Jews how their life is now “sweet: by comparison