Flashcards in Jura Deck (81):
What is the climate of the Jura?
What is the largest Jura AOC by volume and geographic size?
What Jura AOC produces only Vin Jaune?
Which Jura region produces more red wine than white?
The Arbois AOC
A Vin Jaune labeled "vin de garde" is intended for:
What Jura native created the "Bordeaux Mixture" for treating mildew and pioneered the grafting of French vines onto American rootstock?
What does the term "Sous Voile" signify on a bottle of Jura wine?
The wine has been made with controlled exposure to oxygen, under a surface layer (or "veil") of yeast
Melon d'Arbois, Melon a Queue Rouge and Gamay Blanc are all synonyms for:
What was Charles Rouget's contribution to winemaking?
Rouget noted that the same grape variety can be given different names in different places
What three Jura AOCs produce Vin de Paille?
Arbois AOC, L'Etoile AOC and Côtes du Jura AOC
What was Louis Pasteur's contribution to winemaking?
Pasteur discovered that a microbe he named "yeast" is responsible for fermentation
What is a "clavelin"?
A 620 ml bottle used in the Jura for Vin Jaune
What are the five permitted grapes in the Jura?
Chardonnay, Savagnin Blanc, Poulsard, Pinot Noir, Trousseau
What is the sole grape used in the production of the Jura's Vin Jaune?
What is the name of the grape indigenous to the Jura and known for making "almost-red" wines?
What is Macvin du Jura?
Fortified grape must
What is "ullage"?
The controlled exposure of of wine to oxygen in a barrel that is not filled completely
Does the Jura produce more white or red wine?
What does the "Ouillé" signify on a bottle of Jura wine?
The wine has been made reductively, with minimum oxygen exposure
What is the most widely planted grape in the Jura?
What two Jura AOCs represent styles of wine rather than geographic locations?
Macvin du Jura AOC and Crémant du Jura AOC
What Jura AOC grows only Savagnin Blanc?
The main grape used in the production of Crémant du Jura is:
What is the Jura's Vin de Paille?
A wine made with air-dried grapes
- Mountainous region between Bourgogne and Switzerland
- Geologically; uplift of the Soane Graben
- Politically; Part of the Franche- Comte region of which Bourgogne is linked
- Only 10% of Production is exported, even though they have reached cult status. Produces unique wine products from now mainstream grape varieties
- Long Viti history; Pliny the Elder (died 79AD) chronicles the area in “Natural History”
- 14th Century; Regcognition for the Wines Due to the Dukes of Burgundy controlled the area
- 1732 and 1774: Decrees specifying a limited list of approved grape varieties, 1774 decree, recommended a total of 14. Decrees not enforced.
- 19 Century V/ yards covered 50,000 acres/ 20,000 ha, planted with 42 different varieties
- 1879: Phylloxera, whittled down thé approved varieities to 5
- Red Wines designed for aging (19th Century), now whites are designed for long term aging
- Current v/ yards 48 miles/ 80 km from Nth to Sth, cover 5000 acres/ 2,000 ha. The fraction of what is used to be, avg quality is high
- V/ yards in Jura département, in turn, located in Franche- Comte region of France
- 400 Wine growers, 200 market their wine.
Jura Personalities- Louis Pasteur (1822- 1895)
- French Chemist/ Microbiologist born in Dole
- Pasterization milk, and the anthrax and rabies vaccines. Also worked on ground breaking alcoholic fermentation
- Pasteur found yeast was involved
- Despite being Paris based, he would return to the Jura every summer
Charles Rouget (1828- 1899)- Jura Personalities
- Wrote an ampélographical compendium in 1897
- life- long student of the vine, noted that identical grape varieties often assumed alternate names, esp. where different sites/ soils
Alexis Arpin (1867- 1946)- Jura Personalities
- Winegrower in Arbois, championed for an appellation for Arbois
- Work led to Arbois to get the first AOC in 1936
Alexis Millardet (1838- 1902)- Jura Personalities
- Jura born botanist and mycologist who studied vine diseases
- Creator of Bordeaux mixture
- Together with Jules Emile Planchon, created the grafting of French vines onto American rootstock to protect from Phylloxera
Jura- Geology, Soils and Climate
- Lay under sea during the late Triassic through the middle Jurassic (230- 160 mya). Layers of marl (limestone- clays) formed as sea creatures died, accumulated and compacted. Eventually land emerged from the sea and the Saône graben occurred
- Graben uplifts (the escarpments of the Côte d’Or and the Jura Mtn) were seperated by the Bresse plain. Blind valleys also formed in the Jura at this time creating a distinctive typography
Blind Valley/ Steephead Valley- Jura
- A deep narrow valley common to limestone landscapes
- An abrupt ending. Formed when a Valley with perméable soil or rock such as limestone rests atop an impermeable sublayer (dolomite, sandstone, shale, flysch). Water moves through the permeable top layer and erodes it down to the impermeable later forming the Valley
Jura- Geology and Soil (Slide 2)
- As the Alpes rose to the est of the Jura (34- 23 mya), they pushed the Jura Mtns wstward creating a series of folds that are now plateaux
- Some Jura v/yards lie on the Sth-wstern facing foothills below the 1st plateau. V/yards also located on slopes of small limestone hills that detached themselves during all the geological upheaval. V/yards positioned b/ween 660- 1320 ft/ 200- 400m in elevation
- Jura is often described as the mirror image of the Côte d’Or. Soils are the exact opposite.
- In General, The base rock in the Côte d’Or is comprised of about 80% limestone and 20% Clay. Jura is the reverse.
- Heavy clay hard to work during the wet and dry, they dry out fast when the weather is warm and sunny
- Top soils varied: Marl (clay- limestone) outcrops appear in different colours
- Red Marl good for red grapes; grey/ blue Marl (sometimes with shale) is ideal for Savagnin or Poulsard; Gravel is good for Trousseau/ P-Noir; outcrops of pure limestone with sea- fossils are surfed for Chardonnay
- Semi Continental, cold winters, can have very summers, summer nights tend to stay cool
- Burgundy similar in temps, and hours of sunshine. Avg temps have increased in the past 15 yrs (esp. during growing season)
- Hazards; similar to Nrthn winegrowing (ie risk of spring frosts, in low lying v/yards or hail storms which occur at any time)
What are the 5 main grapes of the Jura?
Chardonnay, Savagnin, Poulsard, Pinot Noir, Trousseau
- Since 14th Century, sometimes called Melon d’Arbois, Melon a Queue Rouge (a known natural variation still govern today) and Gamay Blanc
- 66% of all white grapes planted, 42% of total planted in the Jura
- Prefers limestone soils
- High acid means ideal for Jura’s signature long aged, long lived “Vin Jaune” (yellow wine)
- 34% of white grapes planted 23% of total area under vine
- Vine prefers grey/ blue Marl soils
Poulsard (also known as Ploussard)- Jura
- Pale coloured reds, thin skinned grapes
- Used for roses including sparkling Crèment De Jura Rose
- Forms blend of Vin De Paille
- 40% of red grapes planted 14% total area under vine
- Indigenous and appears in texts from the 15th Century
- Difficult to grow
- Prefers gray/ blue marks
Pinot Noir- Jura
- Long history in the Jura (as long as Chardonnay), grow in the South of the region
- Vulnerable to frost, ripens dependently and is usually 1st grape to be harvested
- 37% of red grapes planted and 13% of the total acreage under vine
- most used for Macvin Du Jura and Crèment Du Jura, some red Wines also made.
- First mention dates back to 18th Century
- Believed to be indigenous to Jura, even though it is identical to Portugal’s Bastardo grape
- Likes gravel or stony soils or red Marl on Sth facing slopes
- Trousseau represents 23% of all red grapes planted and 8% of the total acreage under vine
Arbois AOC- Jura
- Two Celtic words ‘ar’ and ‘bos’ which means fertile land
- One of the first AOCs to get this status in 1936 (Alexis Arpin started a certification program in 1906 to protect from fraud)
- Largest in the Jura (both by volume and by size, spanning 13 villages and 2,125 acres/ 850 ha)
- Soils: Outcrops of Red Marl/ heavy clay. Classic grey Marl can be found here as well
- All 5 varieties are all styles of wine are made. Production is red dominant (70% Red, 30% white)
- Includes Villages: Arbois, Abergement- Le- Grand, Les Arsures, Mathenay, Montigny- les- Arsures, Mesnay, Molambaz, Vadans, Villettentes-les- Arbois, Pullipilin is allowed its own sub- appellation Arbois- Pullipilin
Chateau- Châlon AOC
- Composed of 125 acres/ 50 ha of Savagnin
- AOC name can only be used for wine made from Vin Jaune
- v/ yard evaluated each year for quality and yield. If not satisfactory it cannot be called Chateau- Chalon
- Declassified Chateau- Chalon can be sold as AOC Cotes du Jura Vin Jaune or Cotes Du Jura Savagnin. Taken place in 1974, 1980, 1984 and 2001. Wines from other grapes must be bottled as Cotes Du Jura.
- From two serendipitous occurrences
- Wine region is surrounded by 5 hills that form a star, plus the v/yards while composed of the usual clay-limestone marls, have more limestone than other areas and are dotted with star shapped 'pentacrin' fossils
- French words l'etoile means star
- Chardonnay widely planted, then Savagnin and Plousard (only white wine can be produced)
- Vin Jaune and Vin de Paille fall into the white category even if Poulsard is incorporated. Reds are labelled Cotes De Jura
Cotes Du Jura AOC
-Second largest AOC in size spanning 105 villages, 1600 acres/ 640ha mostly in the sthern part of the region
- 2nd largest in wine volume
- Wide variety of soils. White wine and Crement are the top wines produced
Macvin Du Jura AOC
- More added (1/3 volume) to grape must
- Slurry (fortified) is pressed, aged in cask for 10 mths. Final alc of 16-20% by volume
- Uses Jura grape marc. A minimum 14 mths barrel regime before it can be used
- Macvin can be red or white, all 5 grapes allowed
- Most producers use Chardonnay and produce a white version
- Dates back to the 14th Century
- Used to have spice added but no longer can be called Macvin
Cremant Du Jura AOC
- Dates back to the 18th Century
- Until 1995, sparkling in trad style, were sold mousseaux under Jura AOC
- 1/4 of region's production
- All 5 varieties allowed, but must be hand harvested
- White Crement du Jura comprises 90% and must use 100% Chardonnay
- AOC law states that the cuvee must consist of at least 70% or more of Chardonnay, P/Noir, Trousseau
- Can be produced in both brut/ demi-sec versions
- Rose, Crement du Jura must contain 50% or more of P/Noir, Poulsard, and/or Trousseau
Jura Wine Styles
Jura produces dry red, rose, white wine, crement, Macvin (fortified), Vin Jaune, Vin de Paille
White Wine Styles- Jura
- Some white wines are aged in barrel without topping up. This means they are exposed to Oxy and allows for flor like surface yeast to develop. Known as aging oxidatively or 'with ullage'. Other whites made 'without ullage' (ie Oxy exposure is avoided- like winemaking in other parts of the world
(Without Ullage): Not legally defined by AOC law but can be found on labels. White wines from Savagnin. Means 'topped up'. Wines are reductive (ie Minimum oxygen exposure like other white wines. Chardonnay aged in this manner only a few Savagnin and blends (hence the need to mention the technique on Savagnin labels)
Sous Voile- Jura
(Under flor/ with ullage) Most Savagnin made in this way were originally destined to make Vin Jaune. This was made to make Vin Jaune, some chardonnay is also made like this. This is 'controlled oxidation' due to the semi-permeable nature of the surface yeast. The by product is aldehyde. Wines aged this way develop aromas of walnut, hazelnut spice. Label terms include. 'Traditon', but like 'Ouille' not legally defined by AOC laws.
Red Wines- Jura
- Can be single variety or blends
- Light coloured high acid, low tannin wines
- Made for early drinking, matured in tank or old large casks and bottle within one year
- Some Poulsard is made using semi-carbonic maceration.
- Some trousseau/ pinot noir made typically like red burgundy, aged in oak barrels for 6-18 mths
Vin Jaune (Yellow Wine)- Jura
- Not sure if originated in Vin Jaune or Arbois, but now produced here and in L'Etoile and Cotes Du Jura. Solely from Savagnin grape
- After ferment, transferred to old barrels, not always completely filled stored in aerated environments either above or below the ground (no temp control)
- Barrel is not allowed to be moved or topped up or moved for 60 mths. A film or veil of surface yeast (similar to Sherry flor) develops over time and metabolises ethyl acetate and acid into aldehydes. For the same time, this film protects the wine from direct contact with air. Controlled oxidation delivers a wine of unique 'sherried' characteristics and also conveys long aging potential. Vin Jaune can last for decades
- Can not be bottled until 6 yrs and 3 mths, after vintage (or 7 yrs after harvest)
- Must be bottled in a 'clavelin'- history is disputed. Departing on cellar conditions, a significant amount of wine may be lost during the aging period. Hence the myth that a litre of wine is always reduced to 620 mis, the size of a clavelin
- Vin Jaune is not an AOC but a style of wine produced with the Jura's four geographic AOCs. However all Chateau- Chalon wine is Vin Jaune so Vin Jaune is rarely on the label. Instead wines of Chateau- Chalon will often say 'vin de Garde' (wine for cellaring)
Vin de Paille (Straw Wine)- Jura
- Unblemished Chardonnay, Savagnin, Poulsard and/or Trousseau clusters are picked at the start of the Jura grape harvest and dried for 6 wks, usually in plastic or wooden boxes stacked and aerated loft space
- Paille= straw, some producers dry the bunches on a bed of straw
- Clusters can also be dried from rafters on hooks or strings
- Goal is to allow fruit to desiccate, concentrating sugars and flavour compounds. Storage area is ventilated, but no heated.
- B/ween end of december and Feb, dehydrated grapes are pressed. Ferment is slow and must does not ferment to dryness
- Wine is naturally sweet, finishes 14-15% alc, aged for 18 mths in barrel
- Develops characters of candied orange, prune, honey, caramel
- Can't be released until 3 yrs after vintage. Sold in 375mls bottles, ages very well
- Not an AOC, but rules of making are guided by AOC regulations. There is:
* Arbois Vin De Paille
* Cotes De Jura Vin De Paille
*L'Etoille Vin De Paille
- Minimum alc 14%
- Some producers prefer to make a wine with lower alc, this is classified as 'vin de france'
- Most Vin de Paille is uses Chardonnay, Savagnin and Poulsard, though sometimes Trousseau. PINOT NOIR IS DISALLOWED.
When to drink Jura....
- Vin Jaune: Will age gracefully for at least a decade in bottle, in good vintage it will last a century
- Vin De Paille: also keep for a decade or more based on vintage quality.
- Macvin; Matures 5- 20 yrs will keep for several weeks after opening
- Most other bottling designed for immediate consumption (2-4 yrs) though many red and whites Jura Wines have greater aging potential
Serving Temps and Trads- Jura
- Vin Jaune; Not overly chilled, 57- 60 degrees f/ 14- 16 degrees c. Most serve it at rok. Temp often after several hours in a wide necked decanter
- Vin De Paille; served chilled, 43- 46 degrees f/ 6-8 degrees c
- Macvin Du Jura; should be chilled 43- 46 degrees f/ 6-8 degrees c. Often served as an aperitif. Can be served with desserts.
What makes Jura unique?
- Loyalty to tradition
- Great grapes. Lots of historic grapes.
- Winemaking plays a major roll in regional identity
- Oxygen or lack thereof....oxidation and aldehydes
- Cremant is a quarter of production
What are the mountain ranges that seperate the Rhone and Rhine rivers?
The Jura Mountains
The Jura vineyards lie within which department?
What is the size of the Jura vineyards?
48 miles/ 80 kms from North to South
The Jura's soil is similar to the Cote d'Or but......
Cote d'Or: 80% Limestone, 20% Clay
Jura Soils: 80% clay, 20% limestone
What is the challenge of the clay soils in the Jura?
The heavy clays are hard to work when the weather is wet.
They dry out quickly when the weather is war and sunny
What is the climate of the Jura?
More rain than Bourgogne (45 inches/ 1,100 mm)
1,800 hours of sunshine
What separates the Jura from the Cote d'Or?
The Bresse Plain
- Grown in the Jura since the 14th Century
- Synonyms: Melon d'Arbois, Melon a Queue Rouge, Gamay Blanc
- 66% of all white grapes planted; 42% of total vine acreage
- High acid wines; capable of ageing
- Crafts Jura's signature wine product; Vin Jaune
- 34% of all white grapes planted; 23% of total vine acreage
- Thin-skinned; used to make pale reds, rose (still and sparkling) and vin de paille
- 40% of all red grapes planted; 14% of total vine acreage
- Indigenous to Jura
Pinot Noir- Jura
- Vulnerable to frost, yet ripens dependably; usually Jura's first grape to be harvested
- 37% of all red grapes planted; 13% of total vine acreage
- Used to craft Macvin du Jura, Cremant du Jura and red wine
- Believed to be indigenous to Jura
- Identical to Portugal's Bastardo grape
- 23% of all red grapes planted; 8% of total vine acerage
What are the wine styles in the Jura?
There is a wide range.
- Dry red and white table wines
- Vin Jaune
- Vin de Paille
White Wines- Jura
- White wines made oxidatively ie "with ullage" or "sous voile"; Aged in barrels without topping up; a flor-like surface yeast develops. Most Savagnin is vinified in this manner
- White wines made reductively ie "without ullage" or "ouille": Oxygen is avoided, barrels are topped up. Most Chardonnay is vinifed in this manner
White Wine Terms- Jura
- Ouille (without Ullage)
- Sous Voille (under flor/ with ullage)- this is how Savagnin is usually made
- Neither term is legally defined
Red Wines- Jura
- Single varietal or blends; traditionally made or made via semi- carbonic maceration
- Typically light- coloured, high acid and low tannin
Vin Jaune- Jura
- Originated in either Chateau- Chalon or Arbois (Chateau Challon only produces Vin Jaune
- Produced in the Arbois, Chateau- Chalon, L'Etoile and Cotes du Jura AOCs
- Produced solely from Savagnin under controlled oxidation
Vin Jaune Production?
- Ages in undisturbed in barrels for 60 months, with no temperature control
- Surface yeast protects the wine from air and metabolises ethyl acetate and acids into aldehydes
Vin Jaune Clavelin?
- Bottled 6 years and 3 months after the vintage
- 620 mis bottles called 'Clavelin"
Vin de Paille- Jura
- Vin de Paille is not an AOC, but production is governed by AOC rules
- Made in Arbois, L'Etoile and Cote du Jura AOCs
- Often made with a blend of red and white varieties (usually Chardonnay, Savagnin and Poulsard)
Vin de Paille Production- Jura
- Grapes are dried for at least 6 weeks in aerated loft space
- Naturally sweet; 14-15% alcohol; aged 18 mo. in barrel
- Released 3 years after harvest; always sold in 375 mi bottles
Cote du Jura AOC
- 2nd largest AOC in size and in volume
- White wine and cremant dominate production, but all wine styles my be made
- Celtic for fertile land
- Largest AOC in size and in volume
- Achieved AOC status in 1936
- All five grape varieties, all styles of wine
- 70% red, 30% white
Chateau Chalon AOC
- 125 acres/ 50 ha of Savagnin
- AOC name may only be used for Vin Jaune
- Bad vintages are declassified as Cotes du Jura Vin Jaune or Cotes du Jura Savagnin
- 5 hills + star shaped "Pentacrunus" fossils= L'Etoile
- "L'Etoile" means "star"
- White grapes only (from both white and red grapes)
- Chardonnay, Savagnin and Poulsard
Cremant du Jura AOC
- Cremant represents over 25% of Jura's total wine production
- All five grape varieties are allowed; must be harvested by hand
- White cremant represents 90% of all the cremant produced; much is 100% Chardonnay