Flashcards in Beaujolais Deck (134):
What type of soil is preferred by Gamay?
What is the northernmost Beaujolais Cru?
What grape varity(ies) is/are used to produce Red Beaujolais AOC?
Beaujolais AOC wines must contain at least 85% Gamay. The balance can be Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Aligoté and Melon. (In practice, this is rare, however.)
What grape is used for the white wines of Beaujolais?
What river flows to the east of Beaujolais?
The Saône River
What Beaujolais Cru has the highest elevation and coolest climate?
What grape variety(ies) is/are used to produce White Beaujolais AOC?
All white Beajolais is made from 100% Chardonnay
What is the southern-most Beaujolais Cru?
What grape is responsible for 98% of the wines in Beaujolais?
What river divides northern Beaujolais from the south?
What is the climate of Beaujolais?
Semi-continental with Mediterranean influences
What Beaujolais Cru is considered the most fruity, delicate and floral?
What Beaujolais Cru is the newest?
Régnié AOC (1988)
What Beaujolais Crus is considered to be "the king of Beaujolais"?
Moulin à Vent
What three Beaujolais Crus are regarded as having the greatest aging potential?
Moulin à Vent, Morgan, Chénas
What Beaujolais Cru is famous for its soils of "roches pourries" (decomposed schist)?
What Beaujolais cru is the largest in size?
What is "arrène" (or "gorrhe")?
A sandy, mineral-rich soil found in northern Beaujolais
What method is generally used to make sparking sweet rosé wine in Beaujolais?
Which Burgundian appellations can include grapes grown in Beaujolais?
Côteaux Bourguignons, Bourgogne Rouge, Rosé and Blanc, Bourgogne Pinot Noir, Aligoté and Gamay
When is Beaujolais Nouveau Day?
The third Thursday of November
What Beaujolais Crus is generally considered the most age-worthy, full-bodied and tannic?
What is the smallest Beaujolais Cru?
Chénas (mnemonic: "Chénas" has the fewest letters in its name)
What soil type generally produces more structured, complex wines in Beaujolais?
Granite and schist
Is Beaujolais Nouveau a style of wine or an AOC?
It is a style of wine that can be made under the Beaujolais or Beaujolais Village AOCs
"Pinoter" is a verb used in Beaujolais to describe:
The tendency for Moulin-à-Vent to become Pinot Noir-like as it ages
What Beaujolais Cru is considered to be benchmark Beaujolais?
What Beaujolais Crus is known for cornes verts (blue-green soils)?
- Prior to the French Revolution, the province of Bourgogne included Beaujolais
- After the revolution, France was divided into “regions” and “departments” (Provinces were eliminated). There is a Bourgogne regions which includes the departments of Yonne, Côte d’Or, Nievre and Saône et Loire (Nievre actually contains the wine regions of the upper Loire)
- Yonne Department includes v/yards of Chablis and Grand Auxerrois. The Côte D’Or lies within a department of the same name. Cote Challonaise and the Macconais belong to the Saône et Loire Department. And Beaujolais is divided b/ween the department of Saône et Loire and Rhone (The Rhone department itself is part of the Rhone- Alps
- Wine regions boundaries do not correspond to the admin district within France
- Beaujolais lie in two seperate Departments and each of these lie within different admin Regions
- Bourgogne organisation= Bureau Interprofessional des Vins De Bourgogne
- Beaujolais= Inter- Beaujolais
- There are 6 Communes In Beaujolais that can provide fruit for inclusion in Bourgogne Aligote, 42 Communes that can provide Chardonnay to Bourgogne Blanc and 19 Communes (including 10 Crus) which can provide fruit for Bourgogne Gamay
- Gamay from these approved Beaujolais areas may also be incorporated into Bourgogne Rouge And Rose
- These loopholes being cleared up, Bourgogne Aligote will no longer accept fruit from Beaujolais as of 2035. This means existing plots of Aligote are being phased out.
Ancient Past to the Middle Ages- Beaujolais
- 1st cultivated by the Romans in Middle Ages- planted vines from the mouth of the Rhone through to the Saône River Valley
- Mont Brouilly named after Brulius, Roman lieutenant who oversaw the region, Julienas one of 10 Beaujolais Cru was named after Julius Caesar, whose troops were all over
- 7th Century through to Middle Ages, Benedictine monks made responsible for v/yards
- 10th Century; Ruled by Dukes of Beaujeu, town In are takes it’s name
- 1395: Phillippe the Bold, outlawed cultivation of Gamay
Turn of the 20th Century to the Modern Era- Beaujolais
- Railway expansion of the 19th Century. Beaujolais expanded its distribution Paris became a top market
- 1936 to 1938: 8 out of 10 Beaujolais Crus established (St Amour 1946, Régine 1988)
- 1950s: Lyonnais became obsessed with drinking Beaujolais en premier
- Gamay is particularly suited to this kind of consumption, which inherent soft fruitness , low tannin Level
- 1951: Union Interprofessional des Vins Du Beaujolais (UIVB) set the date at November 15th
- 1985; INAO officially called it the 3rd Thursday of every November “Beaujolais Noveau” day- 1201 am boxes can be opened
- 1970- 1990: Nouveau became popular and soon accounted for 1/3 of total Beaujolais production. 1995- 2000, Nouveau phenom creates huge visibility for Beaujolais, but also over took terroir- driven bottlings
- The number of Terroir drive. Estate bottled Wines made from single v/yards or crafted from within 1 of the Beaujolais Cru AOCs on the rise and Inter- Beaujolais works diligently to give the Wines more recog.
- Small Region 38,062 acres/ 15, 403 ha
- 34 miles/ 54 kms long from Nth to Sth, 7 to 9 miles/ 11-14 kms wide
- Bordered by Macon (Bourgogne) to the Nth, city of Lyon to the Sth, The Monts Du Beaujolais Mtns to the Wst, Saône River to the east
- Saône River is sourced in the Voges Mtns in Lorraine runs Sth for 300 miles/ 480 kms into Lyon where it is joined by the Rhone on its journey to the Mediterranean
- Like Alsace, The v/yards are strategically placed between a mountain range that serves to black clouds and rain the temp mOderating effects of a large river
- Region is divided into Nth and Sth by Nizerand River, Near Villefrande-Sur- Saône. River is also a marker of the different soil types of the region, Marl and limestone of Sthrn Beaujolais, whilst most of the Beaujolais Villages and Cru are produced in the Granitic and Schist Soils Of Nth Beaujolais
Climate: Continental with Mediterranean Influences- Beaujolais
- Semi Continental Climate- Region experiences all 4 seasons. But due to the proximity of The Mediterranean Sea, Summers are bottle warm and dry
*Summers; Bring Mediterranean warmth which allows for greater ripening
* Springs; Cool and Wet fréquent frost hazards, but the Monts du Beaujolais protect the v/yards from Cold winds and help to provide an environment for safe budding and flowering
* Warm Autumns; Common, some rain. Gamay can suffer from Grey rot, so vignerons employ management practices to open the canopy and maximise sun exposure. This stops humidity build up and facilitiates drying
* Cold Winters; Light snow, frost, hail. Achieve full dormancy, like sleep for humans, this is key to health, productivity and longevity of the wine.
Geology and Soils- Northern Beaujolais
Granite created 300 millions years ago, it was pushed to the surface due to the Massif Central. The heat and pressure cause Schist to appear as well. Interspersed with this are sandy soils composed of field spurs, micas, quartz and other minerals called arene an gorthe
Geology and Soils- Southern Beaujolais
Composed of clayey limestone formed at the same time and in the same fashion as the Soils Of The Macconais to the North. It contains old soil, but not as the granite and schist of the North. Broken yellow limestone (Pierres Dorees) are also found. Whereas Nth is igneous (granite) and metamorphic (Schist) all of the Sth soils are sedimentary in nature. This is significant because Gamay demonstrates different characters on different soils. Granite and Schist= structured, complex Wines, Limestone, Clay= lighter, fruitier, easy drinking wines
Typography; Mountain Peaks- Beaujolais
- Best v/yards on the steep granite outcropping of the Monts De Beaujolais (nthwst Of The Region)- where Crus of Beaujolais are grown SthWSt nature of these slopes maximise sunlight exposure. Beaujolais Crus (Nth) are usually harvested before Sth.
- V/yard slopes are b/ween 650 and 1300 ft/ 195- 300 m above sea level
- Highest peak Mont Saint Rigaud (3300 ft/ 990 m). But a string of peaks are b/ ween 2000 and 3000 ft/ 600- 900 m
Typography: Gentle Slopes- Beaujolais
Sth and Est from the Granite peaks are the gentle slopes of the Beaujolais and Beaujolais Villages producing areas
Typography: Rolling Plains- Beaujolais
Further Sth from this is a rolling plain where the bulk of general Beaujolais AOC is located. V/yards stop before they reach the Saône River. Land is too gentle for the vine, devoted to farm land and housing
Typography: Alpine backdrop- Beaujolais
To the Est are the PreAlps and Alpine Mountain Ranges. On clear days, Mont Blanc can be seen. When harvest is complete in Beaujolais valley, the peaks of the Massif to the Wst and Alps to the far Est will have seen their first snow.
Red Grapes- Beaujolais
98% is Gamay
- Gamay Noir a Jus Blanc
- Pinot Noir
White Grapes- Beaujolais
- Of 38,062 acres/ 15,403 ha of Beaujolais, only 571 acres/ 231 ha are dedicated to white wine
- Melon De Bourgogne
- Pinot Gris
Optional Field Blend- Beaujolais
- Red Beaujolais, Beaujolais Supieur and Beaujolais Villages, w/makers can supplement Gamay with Pinot Noir, Gris, Chardonnay, Aligote and Melon, but only if these grapes are co- planted and Entre the vat as a field blend.
- These secondary grapes can only be less than 15% of the total
- All White wine made from Chardonnay, Crus are 100% Gamay
Viticultural Practices- Beaujolais
- Gobelet training mandatory in Red Beaujolais Village category and Beaujolais Cru AOCs, Cordon (simple or double) and éventail are now authorised
- Gobelet limits yields, this concentrates flavour in the clusters, providing high- quality grapes, full- flavoured wines with aging potential
- Corton and Éventail methods are also efficient at spacing out the shoots and canes within the canopy while providing yield control through pruning
- Long training methods such as Guyot are only permitted for red/ white Beaujolais and White Beaujolais Villages
- Guyot trains the vine higher off the ground and puts fruit zone at a height that facilitiates hand harvesting. Generates higher yield than the Gobelet pruning Method
Red and Rose Wines- Beaujolais
- Beaujolais, Gamay Fermented via Semi- carbonic Maceration
- Wines are racked off of their lees and aged in oak casks, concrete or s/less steel tanks. After aging, they may undergo filtration
- Nouveau released only without aging:
* Dry Red: All areas within the Beaujolais region produce, dry red wine from Gamay
* Dry Rose: Made from Gamay. Rare, Production is on the rise. In fact, making a market presence in France, Japan and Britian
* Sparkling Sweet Rose: Grown in popularity in the last few years. Usually Methode Ancestrale. Not AOC sanctioned in Beaujolais
White Wine Styles- Beaujolais
- Demand is increasing. Made using traditional white Winemaking practices. Go through MLF. Small amount of producers ferment and age in oak cask ps creating rounder, toasted Beaujolais Blanc with butter, nut, spiced apple flavours.
* Dry Whites: Beaujolais Blanc Or Beaujolais- Villages Blanc. Currently white production, specifically Chardonnay is on the rise
* Sparkling Wines; Chardonnay, Gamay, Pinot Noir used for Cremant De Bourgogne
- 96 Villages, 11 AOCs among them
- Beaujolais streamlined in 2011 by putting Beaujolais, Beaujolais Supérieur, Beaujolais- Villages and Beaujolais and named Commune under one AOC
- These Wines are now categories within the general Beaujolais AOC
What year was Beaujolais AOC established?
Beaujolais and Beaujolais Superieur
- 12, 889 acres/ 5,216 ha of v/yards dedicated to Beaujolais production. Zone of production split into two;
* Southern Beaujolais; Area south of Nizerand River
* Nth Beaujolais; Band Of contiguous v/yards running north from Villefranche-Sur-Saône to the villages of St Amour
- 98% Production is red
- By law, red and Rose Beaujolais can include up to 15% of P/Noir, Chardonnay, Aligote, P/Gris, Melon. In reality most wines 100% Gamay. Wines must achieve a minimum alcohol level of 10%
- Red Beaujolais= fresh overt grapiness, light pigmented, light tannins, bright acid, aromas of Banana, Cranberry, Raspberry, Cherry
- White= Chardonnay. Minimum alcohol, 10.5%. Most unoaked, fresh and vibrant, bright apple acidity
- Red and Rose Beaujolais can be superieur meaning slightly higher alc (+0.5%) and more concentration due to lower yields (3.7 tons/ acre, 6.2 hl/ ha). No white supérieur can be produced.
- Just like Macon, producers can add, the name of the actual village/ Commune to the gen AOC. Beaujolais has 30 villages granted this licence. Minimum alcohol for Wines so labelled is 10.5% for the reds and roses, 11% for the whites.
- Best performing areas of the AOC
- Much like the Rhone Vialkges is added to highlight this- 38 Villages (Pioneered here in the 50s)
- Guyot training System is not allowed at this level. Wines (Red) must achieve a minimum alcohol of 10.5%
- Beaujolais Villages= more density in pigment, less overt graphics deeper berry fruit. It’s more tannic and possess a solid core of minerality. This is due to the presence of granite in Beaujolais Village is 100% Chardonnay. Guyot allowed. Wines must get to 11%. Slightly more concentrated in flavour than regional Beaujolais, deeper richer more supple on the palate, mirrors white Macon in style.
* Hard harvesting is the norm for Beaujolais, machine harvesting is allowed by permission
Nouveau Releases; Beaujolais and Beaujolais Villages
- Released in 110 countries, these festive wines are not entitled to their own AOC though. Either classified as Beaujolais or Beaujolais Villages
- Though in its infancy, Nouveau Rose is popular in France, Japan and Britain
- All 96 Villages are allowed to produce Nouveau wines. As Nouveau is not its own AOC, production is split between Beaujolais (producing 2/3 of the total) and Beaujolais Village accounts for the balance
- 50 million cases, 4.2 million cases. 1/2 of the Beaujolais region total production
- Wines are labelled either ‘Nouveau’ or ‘Premieur’. Follows same blending formulas yield, minimum alcohols for the AOC category under which it is bottled (ie Beaujolais or Beaujolais Villages). It can be either Red or Rose
- Released on the 3rd Thursday of November following harvest
- Hand harvesting and semi- carbonic Maceration are required
- Aromatic evolves fresh fruit (pressed grape juice, raspberry, strawberries, cranberries) candied fruit, banana, bubble gum. Can have a slight chill, due to bright acid, light tannins
The Beaujolais AOC Cru
- Much more structured
- Well crafted wines showing specific terroir
- Better aging due to longer skin contact during fermentation. Most complex in whole Beaujolais region
Beaujolais Cru- Overview
- Red and 100% Gamay
- 14,802 acres/ 5,990 ha total v/yard area
- All wines must be short- pruned and trained in Gobelet, Eventail p, Cordon Simple, Cordon Double fashion
- Yields are lowest in Beaujolais (3.37 tons/acre, 56 hl/ha)
- Crus harvested by hand, some producers hand sort to ensure unblemished fruit goes into fermentation tank
- Minimum alcohol 10%, named climats within the Crus must contain 9 minimum of 10.5% alcohol
- “Cru De Beaujolais” maybe written on the label
Nth to Sth: St Amour, Julienas, Chenas, Moulin-a-Vent, Fleurie, Chirobles, Morgon, Régnie (Brouilly), Cote De Brouilly and Brouilly
**Cote De Brouilly lies within and completely encircled by Brouilly, Brouilly both proceeds and follows this cru in a Nth- Sth line up
Saint- Amour AOC
- Nth most cru; borders Macconais
- Production n St Amour (village that dates to Roman Times)
- “St Love”- promoted around Valentine’s Day
- 1946 AOC, 75 acres/ 304 ha of vines. Soil; Granite and Clay. East/ Sthest
- 12 Climat, must achieve 10.5% (vs 10%)
- Wines of Short and Long Maceration. Wines with shorter Maceration times are light, fruity, perfumed. Aromas of grape, peach, violet. Long Maceration more tannic, hints of kirsch, cake spices. Richer mouthfeel intended to age in bottle at least 2 yrs, but can keep for 5 yrs (or longer)- P/Noir like with age
What are the Climats Of St Amour?
Cote De Besset, Le clos de la Brosse, Les Champ Grilles, Le Clos Des Guillons, Les Mas Des Tines, Vers l’Eglise, Le Châtelet, Les Clos des Billards, Les Bonnets, En Paradis, La Foile, Les Clos du Chapite
Julienas AOC- Beaujolais
- Julienas and Jullie (two of the 4 villages in this appellation) named after Julius Caesar- troops stationed here at one time. Romans cultivated the v/yards, left their mark. Other two villages are Emeringes and Pruzilly
- V/yards between 700- 1500 ft/ 210- 450m above sea level
- AOC Status: 1938, 1391 acres/ 563 ha of vines in production
- Soils; Acidic, Granite veined with magnesium, porphyry. Estrn section of AOC= deep pockets of alluvial clay
- Granite; structured, age- worthy Beaujolais. All cru possess granite in soil, their trace elements and mineral content are different, thus creating diversity
- Sth facing v/yards 4 special climats minimum alcohol of 10.5% (vs 10%)
- Strawberry, lingonberry, hints of violet, cinnamon. Some peach cassis as well.
What are the climats of Julienas AOC?
Les Capitans, La Bottiere, Les Chers, Les Paquelets
Chenas AOC- Beaujolais
- 18th Century; Chenas well known for exporting highly valued wines to Paris, favourite wine of Louis XIII. Chêne= oak tree, due to forest surrounding
- Some time in bottle needed to prior, local all it “a bouquet of flowers in a velvet basket”
- Smallest and rarest of all Beaujolais cru. Two Villages; Chenas and La Chapelle De Guinchay
- AOC status in 1936. 600 acres/ 243 ha. Soils; Range Of Composition, based on elevation, Highest points on Mont Remont, Soils are Granite, lower on the slopes= clay and stone
- Vineyards= Nth- Wst, east and Sth. South and est facing v/yards are ideal, Nth- Wst v/yards, more challenged in terms of sunlight hours/ wind exposure
- 2 special climats, minimum Alc 10.5% (vs 10%): Clos Des Belmont’s and Les Bruneaux
- With Moulin-a- Vent and Morgon, Chenas considered longest aging potential. 2 yrs in bottle to manifest its true character, can hold 8-10 yrs, in the cellar, depending on vintage.
- Floral with subtlenotes Of peony and Rose. Voluptuous mouth feel, finish hints of spice and wood (even if no Oak regime).
- Local windmill, became a landmark in 1930. Two villages: Romanche- Thorins and Chenas
- AOC: 1936, 1,552 acres/ 628 ha in production
- Soils: Soft and Flacky arene (weathered fieldspar, mica, quartz, other minerals) plus pink granite rich in manganese
- 14 Special Climats: minimum alc Of 10.5% (vs 10%): Champ De Cour, Champagne, en Morperay, la Delatte, la Roche, La Rochelle, Le Carquelin, les Bois marechaux, les Burdelines, les Caves, les Joies, les Rouchaux, les Verillats and Rochegres
- King of Beaujolais- Most full bodied, tannic Wines. Youth= plum and cherry, violet perfume. As they age= nuanced with dried fruit, truffle, cake spice, Rose, meaty, musky, undertones.
- Wines can last 10 yrs depending on vintage. With time wines became like Pinot. Locals call it: pinoter. Their wines become ‘Pinotent’
- Terminology (name) attributed to Roman Legonaires
- AOC 1936, 2004 acres/ 811 ha in production
- Two distinct soil types:
* High Altitudes (on the foot of La Madone)- decomposed pink granite are thin and dry
* Down the slope: Deeper, richer, incorporates clay
- Granite soils generate elegant, aromatic soils. More clay: full- bodied, wines for cellaring
- Vineyards: sth-est, nth-wst
- 63 special climats- minimum alc of 10.5% (vs 10%): Poncie Les Moriers, La Roilette, Les Garants, Montgenas, La Mundane, La Joie du Palais, Grille- Midi, La Chapelle des Bois, Les Cotes le Bon Cru, Champagne, Les Roches
- Wines are wide range of fruity and floral aromas including peony, violet, iris, rose, red berries and peach, most feminine of the crus, but can age and develop sweet spice
- The most Beaujolais of the crus. Soft, light, fruity, delicate....benchmark Beaujolais
- AOC: 1936, 872 acres/ 353 ha
- Soils: Granite and gore (weathered feldspars, micas, quartz and other minerals)
- AOC highest of the 10 crus, vineyards located on steep slopes b/ween 820- 1480 ft/ 246- 444m in altitude. Coolest of the crus, harvest is later here
- Vineyards face sth-est
- 2 special climats- minimum alc 10.5% (vs 10%): La Grosse Pierre and Les Cotes
- Highly perfumed: rose, raspberry, ligonbery, cake spices, silky mouth feel
- 2nd largest Cru behind Brouilly. Named after the hamlet Morgon, which borders the village of Ville- Morgon
- Wines are great for laying down, full bodied, rich, powerful, meaty flavours,
- Wines can be cellared for 5-10 yrs
- AOC status in 1936, 2696 acres/ 1091 ha of production
- Soils: roches pourries (rotted rocks)- decomposed schist. Rocks are flakey and crumbly and rich in iron and manganese. V/yards: sth-est, nth-wst
- 6 special climats (10.5% alc vs 10%)- Corcelette, Cote du Py, Douby, Grand Cras, Les Charmes, Les Micouds
- Ripe cherry fruit: warm years, can be like cherry jam/ kirsch (locals say this is because of "rotted rocks" or decomposed schist
- The wines of Morgon are not one dimensional
- More than cherry in the glass. The wine also possesses hints of apricot, peach, plum within a powerful and rich framework of silken tannins
- Wines of this cru picks up earthy tones of forest floor (sous bois) reminiscent of P/Noir
- Locals refer to this Pinotent change 'Morgonner'. When a wine becomes 'morgonne' it expresses terroir
- Newest Cru: celebrated 20th Anniversary in 2008. Wine hails from two villages: Regnie- Durette and Lantignie
- 1,085 acres/ 439ha in production
- Soils: pink granite, decomposed schist and arena (weathered feldspar, mica, quartz, other minerals). V/yards face est
- 2 special climats (10.5% alc vs 10%): Grange Charton and La Plaigne
- Wines display tart cherry, raspberry, ligonberry, cassis flavour. Sometimes a hint of white peach. Aromatic apex after 3-5 yrs of cellaring
Cote De Brouilly AOC
- Cotes of Brouilly located on the slopes of Mount Brouilly. 4 Villages: Odenas, Saint- Lager, Cercie, Quincie. AOC in 1938. 776 acres/ 314ha in production
- Soils contain diorite: pockets of pink granite on the west side of the slopes (similar to Brouilly)
- Only Cru to have v/yards that face each point on the compass
- 2 special climats: L' Ecluse and L'Heronde
- Fresh grapes, cranberries, silken tannins, vibrant acid, solid core of minerality, may take a couple of years to show true exposure
- Takes its name from Mont Brouilly, a wide flat mountain rises to 1,000ft/ 300m dominates the landscape
- Named after Bruilius, Roman army lieutenant, who looked after it 2000 yrs ago. Sthrn most Beaujolais Cru: much more Mediteranean warmth and sunshine than its Nrthn neighbours
- Brouilly comprises 20% of the total area devoted to Beaujolais Crus. V/yards are located on a plateau surrounding the base of Mont Brouilly
- Villages of Odenas, Saint- Lager, Quincie, Cercie, Charentay, Saint- Etienne-la- Varenne
- AOC status in 1938, Cote de Brouilly lies within this AOC
- After Regnie heading South, there is the Nrthrn portion of Brouilly, then the Cote de Brouilly within it, then Brouilly again to the Sth of the Mount.
- 3,074 acres/ 1,244ha of production. Largest of Crus; 9 million bottles/ 750,00 cases
- Soils; composed of diorite; volcanic rock, that is almost blue- black in colour, as they break down they release minerals, create a soil with blue-green hue. Locals call this cornes vertes= green horns
- 50 acres/ 20 ha of the cru near Cercie (hilltop stern exposure) only special climate in Brouilly. Called Pisse- Vielle
- Wines show fresh grape, red berry, plum aromas and flavours- like other climats it must possess at least minimum alas of 10.5%
What is the one grape that is 98% of plantings in Beaujolais?
What is the type of fermentation that is used in Beaujolais to emphasis fruit flavours rather than colour and extraction?
What is the percentage of Beaujolais nouveau in Beaujolais?
What was the Grande Bourgogne?
- Grande Bourgogne (Greater Burgundy)= Provence of Bourgogne
- Consisted of: Chablis, Cote d'Or, Cote Chalonnaise, the Maconnais and Beaujolais
- After the revolution, France was divided into administrative 'regions' and 'departements'
- The wine region of Beaujolais is divided between the Saone et Loire department (Bourgogne region) the Rhone department (Rhone- Alps Region)
What are the two inter- professional organisations in Bourgogne and Beaujolais?
- BIVB: Bourgogne wines (Chablis, Cote d'Or, Cote Chalonnaise and the Maconnais)
- Inter- Beaujolais
What are the Beaujolais AOCs can source fruit from Greater Bourgogne?
- Coteaux Bourguigons (formerly Bourgogne Grand Ordinaire)
- Bourgogne Blanc, Rouge and Rose
- Bourgogne Pinot Noir
- Bourgogne Aligote
- Bourgogne Gamay
What year will Beaujolais not accept Aligote from Bourgogne?
2035, this is the reason why existing plots of Aligote are being phased out, and, by the same deadline
Who first cultivated Beaujolais?
- The Romans
- The massif of Mont Brouilly; named after Brulius, a Roman army lieutenant who oversaw the region
- Julienas: named after Julius Caesar whose troops were stationed all over the area.
Which monks maintained the vineyards in Beaujolais from the 7th Century?
Through the Middle Ages it was the Benedictine Monks
Who ruled the Beaujolais region in the 10th Century?
The Lords of Beaujeu
How did Paris become a top wine market for Beaujolais?
Through the development of the railroad in the 19th Century
In the 1950s Paris caught on to the Lyonnais tradition of En Primeur, which lead to................
Beaujolais Nouveau. Gamay is perfect for early release and consumption due to its fruit forward nature
In 1951 the UIVB formerly set what date as the date of Beaujolais Nouveau?
The 15th of November.
In 1985 the INAO designated which day as Beaujolais Nouveau day?
The 3rd Thursday in November
Beaujolais Nouveau in recent years.....
1970-1990: It gained in popularity. It accounted for 1/3 of the total production in Beaujolais
1995- 2000: Nouveau phenomenon provided huge viability for Beaujolais but began to overshadow its terroir- driven bottlings
What is the focus and receives attention from consumers for Beaujolais nowadays?
Estate, single vineyard and cru Beaujolais
Where is Beaujolais located?
It is a small region: 38,062 acres (15,403 hectares)
A stretch of land 34 miles/ 54 kms long from north to south and between 7-9 miles/ 11-14 km wide east to west
What is Beaujolais bordered by?
The Macconais (Burgundy) to the North
The city of Lyon to the South
The Monts du Beaujolais (mountains) to the West
The Saone River to the East
Where does Saone River takes its source?
The Vosges. It runs for 300 miles/ 480 kms into Lyon where it joins the Rhone river.
What naturally divides the Northern Beaujolais from the Southern Beaujolais?
The Nizerand River which flows past the town of Villefranche-sur-Saone.
The majority produced on the marl and limestone soils of Southern Beaujolais.
Most of the Beaujolais Villages and Crus: produced in the granitic and schist soils of Northern Beaujolais
What is the climate of Beaujolais?
It is semi- continental. It experiences all four seasons, but because of its proximity o the Mediterrean, its climate is slightly buffered
- Cool and wet carry the risk of frost
- Monts du Beaujolais protects from cold winds and help provide an environment for safe budding and flowering
- Hot and dry
- Mediterranean warmth ensures proper ripening
- Warm and accompanied by some rain
- Gamay is susceptible to grey rot> management practices to open up the canopy and maximise sunlight exposure
- Cold with light snow, frost and hail
- The vines achieve full dormancy
What is the distinction between Northern and Southern Beaujolais?
In the soils
What are the soils of the Northern Beaujolais?
- Granite (igneous rock)
- Schist (metamorphic rock)
- Arene and Gorrhe (weathered feldspars, micas, quartz and other minerals)
What are the soils of the Southern Beaujolais?
- Clay (sedimentary) and Limestone (sedimentary) formed 220-160 million years ago
- Sedimentary in nature and were deposited by water
- A specific broken yellow limestone: Pierres Dorees (Golden Stones)
What characters does Gamay display on different soils?
Granite and Schist: more structured, complex wines: the Beaujolais Crus
Limestone and Clay: Light, fruity easy- drinking wines: the regional Beaujolais AOC
Typography of Beaujolais?
Beaujolais is comprised of mountain peaks, gentle slopes and rolling plains.
There is dramatic Alpine relief on the Eastern horizon, and the Massif looms large to the west
Mountain Peaks of Beaujolais?
- Best vineyard sites on the steep granite outcrops of the Monts du Beaujolais in the Northwestern part
- Where the Beaujolais Crus are located
- Between 650-1300 ft/ 195- 390 m high (average of 1000 ft/ 300m)
Gentle Slopes of Beaujolais?
South and east of the granite peaks are the gentle slopes of the Beaujolais and Beaujolais Villages zones of production
Rolling Plains of Beaujolais?
Further east from these gentle slopes is a rolling plain where the bulk of the Beaujolais AOC is located
Vineyards stop before they reach the Saone River
List Beaujolais three topographies from North to South
- Monts du Beaujolais
- Gentle Hills
- Rolling Plains
What river flanks Beaujolais' eastern border?
Gamay Noir a Jus Blanc (Black Gamay with White Juice):
- A cross between Gouais Blanc and a member of the Pinot family
- Thin- skinned grape with low tannins and pigments and high acidity
- Light to medium- bodied wine with bright purple pigments, bold aromatics
- 98% of the plantings
- Ripens to high sugar and high extract levels
- Sole grape permitted in white Beaujolais/ Beaujolais Villages
- Only 571 acres/ 231 ha planted (out of Beaujolais' 38,062 acres/ 15,403 ha)- not much, showing the real focus is red
Aligote, Pinot Noir, Melon, Pinot Gris- Beaujolais
Can supplement Gamay within the Beaujolais AOC (Beaujolais, Beaujolais Superieur, Beaujolais Villages):
- Pinot Noir
- Pinot Gris
Only if these grapes are co-planted and enter the vat as a field blend.
No more than 15% of the total.
Other Bottlings- Beaujolais?
Chardonnay, Aligote and Pinot Noir: into regional Bourgogne bottlings but closing the loop holes that allow this.
What is the main sort of viticulture is practiced in Beaujolais?
Short Training Methods
Gobelet (traditonal), Cordon (simple or double) and Eventail: Red Beaujolais Villages, Beaujolais Crus
Keeps the vine low to the ground. No stake or trellis is used. The vine is pruned to five or 6 short spurs that form a bowl shape (goblet) around the trunk. Limits yields and concentrates flavour compounds in the clusters
Cordon and Eventail- Beaujolais?
Space out the shoot and canes while providing yield control through pruning.
Long Training Methods of Viticulture in Beaujolais?
- Guyot: red and white Beaujolais and white Beaujolais Villages
- Guyot: involves one six to ten-bud cane with renewable two-bud spur. It lifts the vine higher off of the ground and puts the fruit zone at a height that facilitiates hand-harvesting
- Generates higher yields than the Gobelet pruning method
What sort of harvesting is practiced in Beaujolais?
Hand harvesting is the norm for Beaujolais and is mandatory for Beaujolais Nouveau
Machine harvesting is authorised, but only by request.
What is Carbonic Maceration?
Enzymatic fermentation convernting malic acid into ethanol (+ aromatics)
1. Whole clusters, whole berries are put into tank without pressing or crushing.
2. Anaerobic environment created from a partial yeast- driven ferment. The weight of the grapes helps to start ferment from the top. Length of batting time determines wine style.
How long do Beaujolais spend on skins?
Beaujolais Nouveau: 2-3 days
Beaujolais Cru: 8-15 days
Wine Styles- Beaujolais?
- Dry Red: All areas within Beaujolais produce dry, red wine from Gamay
- Dry Rose: Beaujolais rose is made from Gamay also. Getting popular in France, Japan and UK
- Dry Whites: White Beaujolais and white Beaujolais Villages are both made from Chardonnay and vinified dry. There is no white Beaujolais Cru.
- Sparkling Wines: Small amounts of Chardonnay, Gamay and Pinot Noir grown in Beaujolais are used for production of Cremant de Bourgogne. A new wine style, growing in popularity in Beaujolais, is sparkling rose produced via the methode ancestrale. Sparkling Rose is not AOC-sanctioned in Beaujolais.
Red and Rose Beaujolais?
Red and Rose:
- Up to 15% of Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Aligote, Pinot Gris and Melon (as a field blend)
- Min. alc. 12.5%
- Min alc 13%
Red and Rose Beaujolais Supérieur:
- Slightly higher alcohol (+0.5%)
- More concentrated in flavour due to lower yields
No white superior can be produced.
Beaujolais + Named Commune
Beaujolais + name of the village or commune where the grapes were grown
- 30 villages granted this licence
- Min alc. for reds and roses: 13%
- For whites: 13.5%
A smaller zone of production, 38 villages.
Reds and Roses:
- Yields are lower, planting density is higher
- No guyot training system is not allowed
- Min. alc. 13%
- 100% Chardonnay
- Yields are slightly lower
- Guyot training system is allowed. Min. alc. 13.5%
What are the differences between Beaujolais Superieur and Beaujolais + Named Village/ Commune?
- Beaujolais Supérieur has extra ripeness required to deliver a slightly higher alcohol
Beaujolais + Named Village/ Commune:
- Smaller zone of production
- A short stint in vat (4-6 days) undergoing carbonic maceration
What is the biggest difference Beaujolais Villages and Beaujolais +Names Commune vs Beaujolais/ Beaujolais Sup?
- Villages and Named commune: partially granitic
- Beaujolais, Beaujolais Sup, and Beaujolais + named commune: 4-6 days in tank
- Beaujolais Villages: 5-9 days in tank
What are the 10 crus of Beaujolais?
North to South:
1. St Amour
10. Cote de Brouilly
- 100% red; 100% Gamay
- Soils; granite, schist, mineral sands
- Yields: lowest in Beaujolais; planting density is high
- Vines are short- pruned; fruit is harvested by hand.
- Vatting; 8-15 days
What are the 3 light bodied crus of Beaujolais?
3. Saint Amour
Silken tannins and ethereal perfume
Chiroubles (cru)- Beaujolais:
- Highest in elevation; vineyards on steep slopes
- Coolest of the crus; harvest starts later here than in all others
- Granite and gorrhe (weathered feldspars, micas, quartz and other minerals)
- Vineyards face southeast
- Benchmark Beaujolais
Fleurie (Cru)- Beaujolais
- Named after a Roman legionnaire
- Two distinct soil types; pink granite, clay
- Elegant and aromatic (granite) or fuller- bodied and cellar-worthy (clay)
- The most feminine of all the crus
Saint- Amour (cru)- Beaujolais:
- Northernmost Cru
- Soils: granite and clay
- Short maceration: light, fruity, perfumed wines
- Long maceration: tannic and structured
What are the 4 medium- bodied crus in Beaujolais?
2. Cote de Brouilly
Brouilly (cru)- Beaujolais
- Takes its name from Mont Brouilly, a wide flat mountain that rises to 1000 ft/ 300m
- Southern- most of the Beaujolais Cru
- Largest of the Crus
- Soils: decomposed volcanic diorite (cornes vertes or green horns)
Cote de Brouilly (cru)- Beaujolais
- On the slopes of Mount Brouilly, a mountain which lies within Brouilly zone of production
- Only cru to habe vineyards on slopes facing each point of the compass
- Soils: decomposed diorite (with pockets of pink granite on the western slopes)
Julienas (cru)- Beaujolais
- Named after Julius Caesar
- Soils: granite veined with magnesium and porphyry (deep pockets of alluvial clay in the east)
- Vineyards are south-facing
Regnie (cru)- Beaujolais
- Newest cru
- Soils: pink granite, decomposed schist and arena (weathered feldspar, mica, quartz and other minerals)
- Vineyards face east
What are the Beaujolais crus with the most structure and staying power?
2. Moulin- a- Vent
Chenas (cru)- Beaujolais
- On an ancient oak forrest; chin means 'oak tree'
- Smallest of the crus
- Soils: granite (at higher elevations); clay and stone (lower on the slopes)
- Described as 'a bouquet of flowers in a velvet basket'
Morgon (cru)- Beaujolais
-Named after the local hamlet of Morgon
- Second largest cru
- Soils: roches pourries (rotted rocks) ie decomposed schist rich in iron and manganese
- Characterised by ripe cherry fruit; in warm years, cherry jam or kirsch
- "Morgonner" / "Morgonne"= to pick up notes of forest floor (sous bois)
- Age- ability: 5-10 years
Moulin- a- Vent (cru)- Beaujolais
- Named after a local windmill
- Soils: arene (weathered feldspar, mica, quartz and other minerals) plus a decomposed pink granite rich in manganese
- Most full- bodied and tannic wine of all the crus
- Has a tendency to become 'Pinot- like' (pinoter)
- Can last a decade