Kaplan Ch. 5 - Motivation, Emotion, Stress Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioral Sciences > Kaplan Ch. 5 - Motivation, Emotion, Stress > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kaplan Ch. 5 - Motivation, Emotion, Stress Deck (35):

What is unique about the schachter - singer theory?

Aspect of cognitive appraisal: to feel an emotion, one must consciously analyze the environment in relation to nervous system arousal


Left prefrontal cortex associated with ___ emotions, right prefrontal cortex associated with ___ emotions.

Left = positive
Right = negative


Emotional memory

Unconscious (implicit) memory, storage of actual feelings of emotions associated w/ event


What are the two general classifications of stressors

Distress = occurs when experiencing unpleasant stressors

Eustress = result of positive conditions


Opponent Process Theory of motivation

Explains continuous drug use, when a drug is taken repeatedly, the body will attempt to counteract the effects of the drug by changing its physiology


What is the James - Lange theory of emotional response?

Stimulus --> Nervous system arousal (physiological response) --> Conscious emotion (emotional response)

Believed that when peripheral organs receive info and respond then the response is labeled an emotion by the brain


What is the Lazarus theory of emotional response?

Stimulus --> cognitive appraisal --> emotional response and physiological response simultaneously


Ventromedial prefrontal cortex associated with what wrt emotions?

Decision making and controlling emotional responses from amygdala



Internal states of tension that activate particular behaviors focused on goals


Primary appraisal of stress and possible outcomes of appraisal

- Initial evaluation of environment and associated threat
- Stress can be classified as irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful


Expectancy - value theory of motivation

Amount of motivation needed to reach a goal depends on individual's expectation of success in reaching the goal and degree to which they value succeeding at the goal


What three things does secondary appraisal assess?

1) harm caused by the event
2) threat for future damage caused by event
3) challenge/ potential to overcome and benefit from event


Drive reduction theory

Motivation is based on the goal of eliminating uncomfortable states


What are the 7 universal emotions?

Happiness, Sadness, Contempt, Surprise, Fear, Disgust, Anger


What are the 3 elements of emotion?

Physiological response (changes in body temp, heart rate, sweat, etc.), cognitive response (subjective interpretation of feeling being experienced), behavioral response (facial expressions and body language)


Incentive Theory of motivation

Behavior is motivated by desire to pursue rewards and to avoid punishments


Arousal theory

People perform actions in order to maintain an optimal level of arousal


How does the hippocampus contribute to emotional experience?

Aids in creating context for stimuli to lead to an emotional experience


What is the Cannon - Bard theory of emotional response?

Stimulus --> physiological and emotional response occur simultaneously --> action



Psychological and physiological state of being awake and reactive to stimuli


Dorsal prefrontal cortex associated with what wrt emotions?

With attention and cognition


Describe the pathway of emotional experience in the brain briefly (involving hippocampus and amygdala)

Emotion --> sensory system transmit info to explicit memory system (conscious, event memory) controlled by hippocampus --> and to implicit memory system (unconscious, skills/tasks) controlled by amygdala


What is the secondary appraisal of stress?

Directed at evaluating whether an organism can cope with stress


What is the Schachter - Singer theory of emotional response?

Stimulus --> physiological response --> cognitive appraisal --> emotional response


What is the instinct theory of motivation?

People are driven to do certain behaviors based on evolutionarily programmed instincts


In addition to one's aggression, the amygdala plays a role in emotional response in the following ways:

1) signals ___ about stimuli related to ___ and ___.
2) Role in analyzing environment
3) Associated w/ which universal emotion and role in interpreting ___?

1) signals cortex about stimuli related to attention and emotions
2) Processes environment, detects external cues and learns from surroundings in order to produce emotions
3) Associated with fear and plays role in interpretation of facial expressions


What is the self - determination theory (3 components, need based)?

Emphasizes the role of three universal needs
(1) Autonomy - need to be in control of oneself
(2) Competence - need to excel at different tasks
(3) Relatedness - need to feel accepted and wanted in friendships


Secondary drives

Drives not related to biological processes


What is an instinct?

An innate, fixed pattern of behavior in response to a stimuli


Where is the hippocampus stored?

Within temporal lobe


What are Maslow's hierarchy of needs, from lowest level to highest level?

Physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization


Ventral prefrontal cortex associated with what wrt emotions?

Connects region of brain responsible for experiencing emotion


What are the 4 primary factors that influence motivation?

Instincts, arousal, drives and needs


Primary drives

motivate us to sustain bodily processes


When does the secondary appraisal of stress occur?

If primary appraisal deems stress source as a threat