Flashcards in Kaplan Ch. 5 - Motivation, Emotion, Stress Deck (35):
What is unique about the schachter - singer theory?
Aspect of cognitive appraisal: to feel an emotion, one must consciously analyze the environment in relation to nervous system arousal
Left prefrontal cortex associated with ___ emotions, right prefrontal cortex associated with ___ emotions.
Left = positive
Right = negative
Unconscious (implicit) memory, storage of actual feelings of emotions associated w/ event
What are the two general classifications of stressors
Distress = occurs when experiencing unpleasant stressors
Eustress = result of positive conditions
Opponent Process Theory of motivation
Explains continuous drug use, when a drug is taken repeatedly, the body will attempt to counteract the effects of the drug by changing its physiology
What is the James - Lange theory of emotional response?
Stimulus --> Nervous system arousal (physiological response) --> Conscious emotion (emotional response)
Believed that when peripheral organs receive info and respond then the response is labeled an emotion by the brain
What is the Lazarus theory of emotional response?
Stimulus --> cognitive appraisal --> emotional response and physiological response simultaneously
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex associated with what wrt emotions?
Decision making and controlling emotional responses from amygdala
Internal states of tension that activate particular behaviors focused on goals
Primary appraisal of stress and possible outcomes of appraisal
- Initial evaluation of environment and associated threat
- Stress can be classified as irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful
Expectancy - value theory of motivation
Amount of motivation needed to reach a goal depends on individual's expectation of success in reaching the goal and degree to which they value succeeding at the goal
What three things does secondary appraisal assess?
1) harm caused by the event
2) threat for future damage caused by event
3) challenge/ potential to overcome and benefit from event
Drive reduction theory
Motivation is based on the goal of eliminating uncomfortable states
What are the 7 universal emotions?
Happiness, Sadness, Contempt, Surprise, Fear, Disgust, Anger
What are the 3 elements of emotion?
Physiological response (changes in body temp, heart rate, sweat, etc.), cognitive response (subjective interpretation of feeling being experienced), behavioral response (facial expressions and body language)
Incentive Theory of motivation
Behavior is motivated by desire to pursue rewards and to avoid punishments
People perform actions in order to maintain an optimal level of arousal
How does the hippocampus contribute to emotional experience?
Aids in creating context for stimuli to lead to an emotional experience
What is the Cannon - Bard theory of emotional response?
Stimulus --> physiological and emotional response occur simultaneously --> action
Psychological and physiological state of being awake and reactive to stimuli
Dorsal prefrontal cortex associated with what wrt emotions?
With attention and cognition
Describe the pathway of emotional experience in the brain briefly (involving hippocampus and amygdala)
Emotion --> sensory system transmit info to explicit memory system (conscious, event memory) controlled by hippocampus --> and to implicit memory system (unconscious, skills/tasks) controlled by amygdala
What is the secondary appraisal of stress?
Directed at evaluating whether an organism can cope with stress
What is the Schachter - Singer theory of emotional response?
Stimulus --> physiological response --> cognitive appraisal --> emotional response
What is the instinct theory of motivation?
People are driven to do certain behaviors based on evolutionarily programmed instincts
In addition to one's aggression, the amygdala plays a role in emotional response in the following ways:
1) signals ___ about stimuli related to ___ and ___.
2) Role in analyzing environment
3) Associated w/ which universal emotion and role in interpreting ___?
1) signals cortex about stimuli related to attention and emotions
2) Processes environment, detects external cues and learns from surroundings in order to produce emotions
3) Associated with fear and plays role in interpretation of facial expressions
What is the self - determination theory (3 components, need based)?
Emphasizes the role of three universal needs
(1) Autonomy - need to be in control of oneself
(2) Competence - need to excel at different tasks
(3) Relatedness - need to feel accepted and wanted in friendships
Drives not related to biological processes
What is an instinct?
An innate, fixed pattern of behavior in response to a stimuli
Where is the hippocampus stored?
Within temporal lobe
What are Maslow's hierarchy of needs, from lowest level to highest level?
Physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization
Ventral prefrontal cortex associated with what wrt emotions?
Connects region of brain responsible for experiencing emotion
What are the 4 primary factors that influence motivation?
Instincts, arousal, drives and needs
motivate us to sustain bodily processes