Kaplan Ch. 7 - Psychological Disorders Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioral Sciences > Kaplan Ch. 7 - Psychological Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kaplan Ch. 7 - Psychological Disorders Deck (54):

What is a negative symptom?

Absence of normal behavior


What types of disturbances of affect may be observed in schizophrenic patients? (3)

- Blunting = reduction in intensity of affect (emotion)
- Flat affect = No signs of emotional expression
- Inappropriate affect = person's emotional response does not match up with their speech (i.e. laughing when saying something sad)


What is disorganized behavior?

Inability to carry out activities of daily living


What is a disturbance of affect?

An abnormal means of experiencing or displaying emotion


Biopsychosocial approach to treating psychological disorders

Assumes that there are biological, psychological, and social factors that contribute to an individual's disorder and that all three should be considered in the treatment plan of the disorder


What is a delusion? (3)

Delusion (general): False beliefs that part from reality, these beliefs are not shared by others in the culture and community, the individual continues to hold these beliefs despite strong evidence that the beliefs are false.


What are the 8 symptoms associated with a major depressive episode?

Think: SIG. E. CAPS

Sleep (disturbed sleep)
Interest (loss of interest in activities)
Energy (decreased energy)
Concentration (difficulty concentrating / thinking)
Appetite (disturbed appetite)
Psychomotor symptoms (feel slowed down)
Suicidal thoughts


What conditions must be met in order to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder?

Individual must have at least 1 major depressive episode


What characterizes bipolar disorders?

Mania and depression



Anxiety disorder characterized by a fear of being in places where it might be hard to escape


What two kinds of therapy does the biopsychosocial approach seek to provide?

Direct therapy (acts on individual) and indirect therapy (aims to increase social support)


What is the difference between Bipolar I disorder and Bipolar II disorder?

Bipolar I = manic episodes w/ or w/o MDEs
Bipolar II = hypomania + at least one MDE


What is seasonal affective disorder? When are symptoms present? What might the symptoms be attributed to? How can this disorder be treated?

- Major depressive disorder w/ seasonal onset
- Present in winter months only
- Abnormal melatonin metabolism
- Bright light therapy


What are the symptoms of psychotic disorder (6)?

Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought, disorganized behavior, catatonia, negative symptoms


What is hypomania?

Individual still displays some attributes of manic behavior but it is not significant enough to impair tier function or display psychotic features


What are the 5 positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought, disorganized behavior, catatonia


What are the two main approaches to treating psychological disorders?

Biomedical approach and biopsychosocial approach


How is a major depressive episode defined?

- At least 2 weeks in duration
- In this 2+ week time frame, the individual must display at least 5 symptoms, 1 of which must either be depressed mood or loss of interest in activities
- Symptoms must cause significant impairment of function


What is disorganized thought?

Presents as speech that shifts from one idea to another with no connection or structure


What are the 2 negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

Disturbance of affect, avolition


What criteria must be met to define a manic episode? What are the 7 symptoms of mania? (DIG FAST)

Persistent, abnormally elevated mood lasting at least 1 week w/ at least three symptoms.

Distractible (increased)
Insomnia (decreased sleep)
Flight of ideas (racing thought)
Speech (increased talkativeness)
Thoughtlessness (involved in high risk behavior)


What are the 5 types of delusions in the text?

- Delusions of reference: common elements of world around individual are directed toward them
- Delusions of persecution: Individual believes they are being plotted against/threatened
- Delusions of grandeur: individual believes they are remarkable in some way
- Thought broadcasting: individual believes that their thoughts are being broadcast to the external world
- Thought Insertion: individual believes that thoughts are being placed in their head


What is catatonia?

Inability to move or reduced ability to move


Biomedical approach to treating psychological disorders

Assumes that any disorder has roots in biomedical disturbances and thus believe the solution should also be biomedical in nature


Obsessive compulsive disorder

Individual displays obsessions (intrusive thoughts / impulses) that produce tension and the individual then seeks to relieve that tension by exercising compulsions (repetitive tasks). These compulsions usually cause significant impairment on person's life


Although proven to be oversimplified, what is the monoamine theory of depression?

Too much norepinephrine or serotonin in the synapse leads to mania, too little leads to depression


What 3 conditions must be met for an individual to be given a diagnosis of schizophrenia?

- They must suffer from one or more symptoms of a psychotic disorder
- They must show signs of the disturbance for at least 6 months
- Within that 6 month period, they must display "active symptoms" for at least 1 month


What is a positive symptom?

Behaviors, thoughts, or feelings added to normal behavior


Persistent depressive disorder

Individuals who display depressed mood that isn't severe enough to be diagnosed as a MDE are diagnosed with PDD instead


When does PTSD occur?

After experiencing / witnessing a traumatic event


What are the symptoms of PTSD?

- Intrusion symptoms = Recurrent reliving of event
- Avoidance symptoms = avoid things associated with trauma
- Negative cognitive symptoms = inability to recall event details, negative mood/emotions/view
Arousal symptoms = startle easily, irritable, anxious, trouble sleeping


What conditions must be met to diagnose PTSD? What if conditions are not met?

A particular number of symptoms must be present for at least 1 month, if less than 1 month then patient diagnosed with acute stress disorder


What is the general definition for dissociative disorders?

Person attempts to avoid stress by escaping their identity


What are the 3 kinds of dissociative disorders?

Dissociative amnesia
Dissociative identity disorder (multi. Personalities)


Dissociative amnesia

Person is unable to recall past experiences, may experience fugue state (leave one's home unexpectedly and wander), may also assume entirely new identity


Dissociative identity disorder

2+ personalities recurrently take control of person's behavior and the disorder arises when these identities fail to integrate


What is believed to be a key cause of DID?

Early childhood trauma or sexual abuse



Individual feels detached from their own mind / body



Individual feels disconnected from surroundings, feels automated


Somatic symptom disorder

Individual has at least 1 actual physical symptom, which causes them disproportionate anxiety and which may or may not be linked to an actual medical condition


Illness Anxiety Disorder

Individual experiences excessive anxiety over the potential for having or developing a serious medical condition


Conversion Disorder

Unexplained symptoms affecting voluntary motor or sensory function


1) What is a personality disorder?
2) How does it differ from a major psychological disorder?

1) Pattern of behavior that causes an individual distress and impairs interpersonal skills / cognition / emotion
2) Personality disorders = ego syntonic (person believes the behavior is helping them achieve their goals)
Psychological disorders = ego dystonic (illness is seen as intrusive/bothersome)


What are the 3 clusters of personality disorders? What is the mnemonic to remember them?

Cluster A = weird
Cluster B = wild
Cluster C = worried


What personality disorders are in cluster A (3) ?

- Paranoid = Distrust of others
- Schizotypal = pattern of odd / eccentric thinking
- Schizoid = Detachment from social relationships


What personality disorders are in cluster B (4) ?

- Antisocial = more common in men, disregard for / violation of rights of others
- Borderline = more common in women, instability in interpersonal behavior / mood / self-image
- Histrionic = constant attention seeking behavior
- Narcissistic = grandiose sense of self importance but often w/ fragile self esteem


What personality disorders are in cluster C (3) ?

- Avoidant = Extreme shyness and fear of rejection
- Dependent = Continuous need for reassurance
- Obsessive - compulsive = NOT same as OCD, but rather describes someone who is a perfectionist and inflexible and likes rules + order


What biological factors may contribute to development of schizophrenia (4) ?

- Genetics
- Trauma @ birth (hypoxemia = low blood [oxygen])
- Excessive marijuana use in adolescence
- Excess dopamine in brain


What biological factors mark depression (4)?

- High [glucose] in amygdala
- Atrophy of cells of hippocampus
- High [cortisol]
- Decreased [NE], [serotonin], and [dopamine]


What biological factors mark bipolar disorder (3)?

- Increased [NE] and [serotonin]
- Genetics (increased risk if parent has disorder)
- Increased risk for patients with MS


What genetic factors contribute to the development of Alzheimer's disease?

What social factor contributes to the decrease in likelihood of Alzheimer's?

- Age (65+)
- Gender (more common in females)
- Family history
- Mutations in various genes (particularly Beta Amyloid precursor protein gene)

- Increased education = decreased risk


What changes in brain physiology are characteristic of Alzheimer's (6) ?

What changes in brain NT levels are characteristic of Alzheimer's (2) ?

- Diffuse brain atrophy
- Enlarged cerebral ventricles
- Flattened sulci on cortex
- Decreased blood flow to parietal lobes
- Beta-amyloid plaques
- Tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins

- Decreased [acetylcholine]
- Reduced concentration enzyme that makes acetylcholine


What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (5) ?

- Bradykinesia (slow movements)
- Resting Tremor
- Masklike facies
- Rigidity
- Shuffling gait


What is the biological cause of Parkinson's?

- Decreased dopamine production in substantia nigra (cells that line basal ganglia and allow proper function, which is to coordinate motion and smooth motor function)