Kaplan Ch. 6 - Identity and Personality Flashcards Preview

MCAT Behavioral Sciences > Kaplan Ch. 6 - Identity and Personality > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kaplan Ch. 6 - Identity and Personality Deck (72):

What is the id?

Consists of all basic, primal, inborn urges to survive and reproduce


Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development:
1) What did he base his theory on?
2) What did his theory emphasize?
3) How did he view successful resolution of a stage?

1) Series of crises that derive from conflicts between needs and social demands
2) Emphasizes emotional development and interactions w/ social environment
3) Answering an essential existential question


Describe the humanistic approach to discovery of identity and personality.

Humanists focus on the value of individuals and help people see the ways in which healthy people strive toward self-realization. They see each person as a whole and do not break them down into phases / drives or try to classify them as archetypes.


Androgen (as relates to gender identity)

State of being simultaneously very masculine and very feminine


Anal Stage:
1) At what ages does this stage occur?
2) How is gratification obtained?
3) What often occurs during this stage?
4) How would an anally fixated adult present?

1) 1 year to 3 years
2) Elimination and retention of waste
3) Potty training
4) Excessive orderliness or sloppiness



Deliberate, conscious form of forgetting


How does Jung's interpretation of the libido differ from Freud's?

Freud: libido is psychic energy rooted in sexuality
Jung: libido is psychic energy in general


Kohlberg: Conventional morality
1) When does this phase occur?
2) What is emphasized in this phase?
3) What are the 2 stages of this phase?

1) early adolescence - adulthood
2) Understanding and accepting social rules
3) Stage 3 - Conformity (seeks approval of others) stage 4 - law and order (seeks to maintain social order)


Genital Stage:
1) When does this stage begin and end?
2) How is this stage characterized if the child has progressed through the other stages correctly?
3) What can sexual trauma in a prior stage lead to?

1) begins at puberty, carries on into adulthood ending at death
2) Person enters into healthy heterosexual relationships
3) Homosexuality, asexuality, fetishism


Inferiority complex: who proposed it and what is it?

Proposed by pshychoanalyst alfred adler, it is an individual's sense of incompleteness and imperfection


Erikson: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully...

1) 1 to 3 years
2) I.e. Autonomy - child feels able to exert control over his world
3) I.e. Shame and doubt - child feels doubt and external locus of control



Attribute undesired feelings to others



Reversion to an earlier developmental state


Self - Schema? (what is it? What are some examples? What sort of appraisal does it include?)

Self given label that carries with it a set of qualities (ex: athlete, dancer, doctor). It includes our appraisal of who we used to be and who we will become.


What are the 4 archetypes that are central to Jung's theory of personality?

Persona, anima, animus, shadow


Into what 3 groups did freud subdivide access to one's thoughts?

Conscious access
Preconscious access (thoughts currently aware of)
Unconscious access (repressed thoughts)


What is self esteem and when is it highest?

Self - esteem is our assessment of our own self worth, it is highest wen the actual, ideal and ought selves are close in definition to one another


What are Kohlberg's three stages of moral reasoning?

Preconventional, conventional and post conventional


What is a locus of control and what are the two types?

It refers to the way we characterize the influences in our lives, locus may be internal = individual believes that they control their own fate, or external = individual believes their life is controlled by luck or outside influences


What 2 parts did Jung use to define unconscious thought?

Personal unconscious = analogous to Freud's unconscious mind (repressed thoughts)

Collective unconscious = shared among all humans by virtue of common/shared experiences


What concept is Lev Vygotsky known for proposing?

The zone of proximal development = skills and abilities that have not yet fully developed but are in the process of development, gaining these skills requires the help of a more knowledgeable other


What is self efficacy? How can it vary?

Our belief in our ability to succeed, it can vary by activity


When does the latency stage begin and end?

Begins when libido is sublimated, ends when puberty is reached


Erikson: Intimacy vs. Isolation
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully...

1) 20 to 40 years
2) I.e. Intimacy - love, ability to have intimate relationships with others, ability to commit
3) I.e. isolation - avoidance of commitment, alienation, and distancing oneself from others



Individual components of our self-concept related to the groups to winch we belong


By what principle does the ego function?

Reality principle = guides and inhibits id and id's pleasure principle in accordance with reality, aim is to postpone the pleasure principle until satisfaction can actually be obtained



Ego's way of forcing undesired thoughts and urges to the unconscious, not deliberate


Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully...

1) 6 to 12 years
2) I.e. industry - child will feel competent, able to exercise abilities and intelligence
3) I.e. inferiority - child will feel inadequate and unable to act competently, will exhibit low self esteem


Ideal self

The person we would like to be


Kohlberg: Preconventional morality
1) When does this phase occur?
2) What is emphasized in this phase?
3) What are the 2 stages of this phase?

1) Preadolescents (0 - puberty)
2) The consequences of a moral choice
3) Stage 1 - Obedience (desire to avoid punishment) and stage 2 - self - interest (desire to gain rewards)


What is the superego?

Part of personality that focuses on perfection, on judging own actions positively or negatively


Actual self

The way we see ourselves as we currently are


Oral Stage:
1) At what ages does this stage occur?
2) How is gratification obtained?
3) How would an orally fixated adult present?

1) 0 yrs to 1 yr old
2) Putting objects in mouth, biting, sucking
3) Exhibit excessive dependency


Phallic Stage:
1) At what ages does this stage occur?
2) What is the Oedipal conflict?
3) How is the oedipal conflict resolved?

1) 3 to 5 years
2) Oedipal conflict: male envies father's relationship with mother and fears castration, wants to eliminate his father and possess his mother, but feels guilty
3) Child identifies with his father and develops moral values, he also sublimates his libidinal energy


How are our identities organized?

By a hierarchy of salience - we let the situation dictate which identity holds the most importance for us, the more salient the identity the more we conform to the role expectations of the identity


Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully ...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully ...

1) 0 to 1 years
2) I.e. Trust - child will come to trust environment and himself
3) I.e. Mistrust - child will be suspicious of the world


Fictional finalism: who proposed it and what is it?

Proposed by psychoanalyst Alfred Adler, suggests that we are more motivated by what we expect to happen than what has happened in the past


What is the psychoanalytic perspective of personality? Who were it's chief theorists?

Assumes unconscious internal states that motivate the overt actions of individuals and determine personality

Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney


Learned helplessness

When self-efficacy is depressed past the point of recovery


What is a defense mechanism?

The ego's way of relieving anxiety by clashing the id and the superego


What are the 8 kinds of defense mechanisms?

Displacement, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Regression, Repression, Sublimation, Suppression


Erikson: Generativity vs. Stagnation
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully...

1) 40 to 65 years
2) I.e. generativity - Individual capable of being productive, caring member of society
3) I.e. stagnation - Sense of stagnation, may become self-indulgent, bored and self centered


What is the function of the ego?

Regulates the mind - moderates the desires of the id and superego


Neurosis (Freud)

In adults, neurosis is the result of fixation, it is a personality pattern based on the stage of psychosexual development when the fixation occurred


Ought self

The representation of the way others think we should be


Jung's archetype: Animus

Suppressed masculine behavior in a female


What are the three "selves" described by the self-discrepancy theory?

The actual self, the ideal self, and the ought self


Fixation (Freud)

Fixation occurs wen a child is overindulged or overly frustrated during a stage of development



Justification of behaviors in a manner that is acceptable to the self and society


By what principle does the id function?

According to the pleasure principle, aim is to achieve immediate gratification and relive pent up tension


What is the id's response to frustration?

Primary process: obtain satisfaction immediately


Kohlberg: Postconventional morality
1) What is unique about this phase?
2) What 2 stages characterize this phase?

1) Not everyone is capable of achieving this phase of moral reasoning
2) Stage 5 - social contract (views moral rules as vehicles to ensure greater good, focus on individual rights) and Stage 6 - universal human ethics (decisions should be made in consideration of abstract principles)


Reaction Formation

When individuals suppress urges by unconsciously converting them into their exact opposites


Jung's archetype: Anima

Suppressed feminine behavior in a male


Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully...

1) 3 to 6 years
2) I.e. initiative - child has sense of purpose, enjoy accomplishments
3) I.e. guilt - child overcome by fear of punishment that they may unduly restrict themselves


Erikson: Integrity vs. Despair
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully...

1) 65 + years
2) I.e. integrity - child will display wisdom
3) I.e. despair - bitterness about one's life, feel that it has been worthless, fear over death


What 3 factors did Freud believe make up one's personality?

Id, ego, superego


Into what 2 groups is the superego subdivided?

Conscience = collection of improper actions for which a child is punished
Ego - ideal = proper actions for which a child is rewarded



Transformation of unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviors


Undifferentiated (as relates to gender identity)

Those who score low on both male and female identity scales


How did Jung define conscious thought?

He identified the ego as conscious mind


Jung's archetype: Shadow

Unpleasant and socially unacceptable thoughts, feelings and actions in consciousness


What are the 5 stages of psychosexual development as described by Freud, in order from earliest to latest stages?

Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital


What did Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning focus on?

He reasoned people develop through their response to moral dilemmas and that as our cognitive abilities develop we are able to see the world in different ways which affects how we approach these moral dilemmas


Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion
1) When does this stage occur?
2) If resolved successfully...
3) If resolved unsuccessfully...

1) 12 to 20 years
2) I.e. Identity - ability to see oneself as a unique and integrated person with sustained loyalties
3) I.e. role confusion - confusion about one's identity and and an amorphous personality that shifts frequently



Transference of an undesired urge from one person or object to another


Describe Kurt Lewin's force field theory of personality development.

NOTE: ** This is really cool - think of free body diagrams**

Lewin focused on the present and defined the "force field" as one's present state of mind as the sum of the forces acting on that mind at a given time. He emphasized identifying forces as either assisting in reaching our goals or inhibiting us from doing so.


What 2 categories did Freud divide instincts into?

Eros (life instincts) and Thanatos (death instincts)


What did Freud believe was the underlying force for human behavior?

The drive to reduce libidinal tension


Self Concept

Our own internal answers to the question: "Who am I?"



Describes the set of thoughts, feelings, traits and behaviors that are characteristic of an individual across time and different locations


Jung's archetype: Persona

The persona is the part of our personality that we present to the world, it is adaptive to our situation and tends to emphasize qualities that improve our social perception by others and suppress those that do not