Kaplan OG 12 Sentence Correction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Kaplan OG 12 Sentence Correction Deck (490):
1

9. Like the idolization accorded the Brontës and Brownings, James Joyce and Virginia Woolf are often subjected to the kind of veneration that blurs the distinction between the artist and the human being. (A) Like the idolization accorded the Brontës and Brownings, (B) As the Brontës’ and Brownings’ idolization, (C) Like that accorded to the Brontës and Brownings, (D) As it is of the Brontës and Brownings, (E) Like the Brontës and Brownings,

E

2

132

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D

3

integers

An integer is any number in the set {. . . –3, –2, –1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.

3

1. The Glass House Mountains in Queensland, Australia, were sighted in 1770 by the English navigator Captain James Cook, by whom they were named supposedly because its sheer wet rocks glistened like glass. (A) by whom they were named supposedly because its (B) by whom they were named supposedly and their (C) naming them supposedly since their (D) who so named them supposedly because their (E) who so named it since supposedly their

D

3

2. Although a surge in retail sales have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally under way, many economists say that without a large amount of spending the recovery might not last. (A) have raised hopes that there is a recovery finally (B) raised hopes for there being a recovery finally (C) had raised hopes for a recovery finally being (D) has raised hopes that a recovery is finally (E) raised hopes for a recovery finally

D

3

3. Although various eighteenth- and nineteenth-century American poets had professed an interest in Native American poetry and had pretended to imitate Native American forms in their own works, until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study traditional Native American poetry in native languages. (A) until almost 1900, scholars and critics did not begin seriously to study (B) until almost 1900 scholars and critics had not begun seriously studying (C) not until almost 1900 were scholars and critics to begin seriously to study (D) it was not almost until 1900 when scholars and critics began to seriously study (E) it was not until almost 1900 that scholars and critics seriously began studying

E

3

4. Of all the vast tides of migration that have swept through history, maybe none is more concentrated as the wave that brought 12 million immigrants onto American shores in little more than three decades. (A) maybe none is more concentrated as (B) it may be that none is more concentrated as (C) perhaps it is none that is more concentrated than (D) maybe it is none that was more concentrated than (E) perhaps none was more concentrated than

E

3

5. Diabetes, together with its serious complications, ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only by heart disease and cancer. (A) ranks as the nation’s third leading cause of death, surpassed only (B) rank as the nation’s third leading cause of death, only surpassed (C) has the rank of the nation’s third leading cause of death, only surpassed (D) are the nation’s third leading causes of death, surpassed only (E) have been ranked as the nation’s third leading causes of death, only surpassed

A

3

6. In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repair due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing on the walls. (A) due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing (B) due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize (C) because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize (D) because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize (E) because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

E

Difference between due to and because of...Due to would always modify a noun for exampls john's loss was due to ----- whereas because of would modify a verb for example john lost because of... here lost is the verb modified by because whereas john's loss is a noun modified by due to

3

7. As those of measuring instruments, the company has become increasingly willing to compete for the mass market sales they would in the past have conceded to rivals. (A) they would in the past have conceded to rivals (B) they would have conceded previously to their rivals (C) that in the past would have been conceded previously to rivals (D) it previously would have conceded to rivals in the past (E) it would in the past have conceded to rivals

E

3

8. The widely accepted big bang theory holds that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding ever since. (A) that the universe began in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding (B) that the universe had begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and had been expanding (C) that the beginning of the universe was an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that has expanded (D) the beginning of the universe to have been an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago that is expanding (E) the universe to have begun in an explosive instant ten to twenty billion years ago and has been expanding

A

3

10. Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot. (A) which kept (B) that keeps (C) which has kept (D) that has been keeping (E) having kept

B

3

11. There are several ways to build solid walls using just mud or clay, but the most extensively used method has been the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid in the wall in mud mortar. (A) the forming of bricks out of mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they are laid (B) forming the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them (C) having bricks formed from mud or clay, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, they were laid (D) to form the mud or clay into bricks, and, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, to lay them (E) that bricks were formed from mud or clay, which, after some preliminary air drying or sun drying, were laid

D

3

Relationship between integer, divisor, remainder What is the remainder if y is divisible by y What is the quotient when a smaller number is divided by a smaller number

y = xq + r and 0 ≤ r < x. For example, when 28 is divided by 8, the quotient is 3 and the remainder is 4 since 28 = (8)(3) + 4. Note that y is divisible by x if and only if the remainder is 0 Also, note that when a smaller integer is divided by a larger integer, the quotient is 0 and the remainder is the smaller integer. For example, 5 divided by 7 has the quotient 0 and the remainder 5 since 5 = (7)(0) + 5.

3

131

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E

4

134

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B

 

As per the problem, Let l and w be the length and width respectively. Therefore l = 2w. 

 

The formula for calculating perimeter is 2l + 2w = Perimeter.

Hence 2l + 2w = 10

replace 2w with l

2l+l = 10

hence l = 10/3

and w = l/2

w = (10/3)/2 = 5/2

Hence answer is B.

5

12. Rising inventories, when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead to production cutbacks that would hamper economic growth. (A) when unaccompanied correspondingly by increases in sales, can lead (B) when not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, possibly leads (C) when they were unaccompanied by corresponding sales increases, can lead (D) if not accompanied by correspondingly increased sales, possibly leads (E) if not accompanied by corresponding increases in sales, can lead

E

5

14. Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator. (A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on (B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun (C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at (D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at (E) appear as dark spots on the Sun’s surface, which have never been sighted on

A

5

133

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E

5

135

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C

6

13. A surge in new home sales and a drop in weekly unemployment claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought. (A) claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as some analysts previously thought (B) claims suggests that the economy might not be so weak as some analysts have previously thought (C) claims suggest that the economy might not be as weak as have been previously thought by some analysts (D) claims, suggesting about the economy that it might not be so weak as previously thought by some analysts (E) claims, suggesting the economy might not be as weak as previously thought to be by some analysts

A

7

137

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E

8

15. Warning that computers in the United States are not secure, the National Academy of Sciences has urged the nation to revamp computer security procedures, institute new emergency response teams, creating a special nongovernment organization to take charge of computer security planning. (A) creating a special nongovernment organization to take (B) creating a special nongovernment organization that takes (C) creating a special nongovernment organization for taking (D) and create a special nongovernment organization for taking (E) and create a special nongovernment organization to take

E

8

17. The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word “natural” to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized. (A) or nothing that has been (B) or that has been (C) and nothing that is (D) or anything that has been (E) and anything

D

8

136

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A

8

138

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E

9

139

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B

10

16. Retail sales rose 0.8 of 1 percent in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of the 1.4 percent growth rate in personal spending for the previous quarter. (A) that personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubled that of (B) that personal spending in the July–September quarter would more than double (C) of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it more than doubled (D) of personal spending in the July–September quarter more than doubling that of (E) of personal spending in the July–September quarter, that it would more than double that of

B

10

18. Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than are fungi, in the form of carbon dioxide, and converting it to energy-rich sugars. (A) Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than are fungi, (B) Plants are more efficient at acquiring carbon than fungi, (C) Plants are more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon, (D) Plants, more efficient than fungi at acquiring carbon, (E) Plants acquire carbon more efficiently than f

C

10

140

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D

11

23. In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is lined with lead around the perimeter, thereby improving stability in flight and resulting in longer throws. (A) In a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition is concentrated in a metal center, but now it is (B) According to a previous design, the weight of the discus used in track competition was concentrated in a metal center, but now it is (C) Once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, the discus used in track competition is now (D) The discus used in track competition, once designed with its weight concentrated in a metal center, but now (E) The discus used in track competition was once designed having its weight concentrated in a metal center and now

C

 

A is wrong because it suggests that the weight of the discuss was used in the track competition

B is wrong because "According to a previous design....". suggests that previous design said something.

C is correct.

D is wrong because once design modifies track competition

E is wrong because use of having is wrong. Having is to be used to show possession.

12

26. Emily Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else. (A) Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering (B) Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber (C) Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington D) Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, and outnumbering (E) Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber

E

13

21. Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language. (A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are (B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are  (C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are (D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, (E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,

A

14

29. The end of the eighteenth century saw the emergence of prize-stock breeding, with individual bulls and cows receiving awards, fetching unprecedented prices, and excited enormous interest whenever they were put on show. (A) excited (B) it excited (C) exciting (D) would excite (E) it had excited

C

15

27. Paleontologists believe that fragments of a primate jawbone unearthed in Burma and estimated at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of a crucial step along the evolutionary path that led to human beings. (A) at 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of (B) as being 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of (C) that it is 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was (D) to be 40 to 44 million years old provide evidence of (E) as 40 to 44 million years old provides evidence of what was

D

16

35. Along with the drop in producer prices announced yesterday, the strong retail sales figures released today seem like it is indicative that the economy, although growing slowly, is not nearing a recession. (A) like it is indicative that (B) as if to indicate (C) to indicate that (D) indicative of (E) like an indication of

C

17

28. Building on civilizations that preceded them in coastal Peru, the Mochica developed their own elaborate society, based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting other wild and domestic resources. (A) based on cultivating such crops like corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and shellfish, and exploiting (B) based on the cultivation of such crops as corn and beans, the harvesting of fish and seafood, and the exploitation of (C) and basing it on the cultivation of crops like corn and beans, harvesting fish and seafood, and the exploiting of (D) and they based it on their cultivation of crops such as corn and beans, the harvest of fish and seafood, and exploiting (E) and they based it on their cultivating such crops like corn and beans, their harvest of fish and shellfish, and they exploited

B

18

19. The Iroquois were primarily planters, but supplementing their cultivation of maize, squash, and beans with fishing and hunting. (A) but supplementing (B) and had supplemented (C) and even though they supplemented (D) although they supplemented (E) but with supplementing

D

18

20. As contrasted with the honeybee, the yellow jacket can sting repeatedly without dying and carries a potent venom that can cause intense pain. (A) As contrasted with the honeybee, (B) In contrast to the honeybee’s, (C) Unlike the sting of the honeybee, (D) Unlike that of the honeybee, (E) Unlike the honeybee,

E

18

22. None explains why most of the people exposed to the alleged causes do not commit crimes and, conversely, why so many of those not so exposed have. (A) have (B) has (C) shall (D) do (E) could

D

18

24. In virtually all types of tissue in every animal species, dioxin induces the production of enzymes that are the organism’s trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it. (A) trying to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical that is irritating it (B) trying that it metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant (C) attempt to try to metabolize, or render harmless, such a chemical irritant (D) attempt to try and metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritating it (E) attempt to metabolize, or render harmless, the chemical irritant

E

18

25. Based on accounts of various ancient writers, scholars have painted a sketchy picture of the activities of an all-female cult that, perhaps as early as the sixth century B.C., worshipped a goddess known in Latin as Bona Dea, “the good goddess.” (A) Based on accounts of various ancient writers, (B) Basing it on various ancient writers’ accounts, (C) With accounts of various ancient writers used for a basis, (D) By the accounts of various ancient writers they used, (E) Using accounts of various ancient writers,

E

18

30. For members of the seventeenth-century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, a method to protect warriors against enemy arrows and spears. (A) a method to protect (B) as a method protecting (C) protecting (D) as a protection of (E) to protect

C

18

31. Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were relatively simple and static, Barbara McClintock adhered to her own more complicated ideas about how genes might operate, and in 1983, at the age of 81, was awarded a Nobel Prize for her discovery that the genes in corn are capable of moving from one chromosomal site to another. (A) Unlike the conviction held by many of her colleagues that genes were (B) Although many of her colleagues were of the conviction of genes being (C) Contrary to many of her colleagues being convinced that genes were (D) Even though many of her colleagues were convinced that genes were (E) Even with many of her colleagues convinced of genes being

D

18

32. Galileo was convinced that natural phenomena, as manifestations of the laws of physics, would appear the same to someone on the deck of a ship moving smoothly and uniformly through the water as a person standing on land. (A) water as a (B) water as to a (C) water; just as it would to a (D) water, as it would to the (E) water; just as to the

B

18

33. Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, the manufacturer has announced that it will cut production by closing its factories for two days a month. (A) Because an oversupply of computer chips has sent prices plunging, (B) Because of plunging prices for computer chips, which is due to an oversupply, (C) Because computer chip prices have been sent plunging, which resulted from an oversupply, (D) Due to plunging computer chip prices from an oversupply, (E) Due to an oversupply, with the result that computer chip prices have been sent plunging,

A

18

38. In 1850, Lucretia Mott published her Discourse on Women, arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights and for changes in the married women’s property laws. (A) arguing in a treatise for women to have equal political and legal rights (B) arguing in a treatise for equal political and legal rights for women (C) a treatise that advocates women’s equal political and legal rights (D) a treatise advocating women’s equal political and legal rights (E) a treatise that argued for equal political and legal rights for women

E

18

150

A

18

151

B

18

152

E

19

36. Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier’s pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve. (A) 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become (B) 22, was injured three times, while being discharged in 1783 because she had become (C) 22 and was injured three times, and discharged in 1783, being (D) 22, injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she was (E) 22, having been injured three times and discharged in 1783, being

A

20

34. Beyond the immediate cash flow crisis that the museum faces, its survival depends on if it can broaden its membership and leave its cramped quarters for a site where it can store and exhibit its more than 12,000 artifacts. (A) if it can broaden its membership and leave (B) whether it can broaden its membership and leave (C) whether or not it has the capability to broaden its membership and can leave (D) its ability for broadening its membership and leaving (E) the ability for it to broaden its membership and leave

B

21

41. To demographers have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic determinants of fertility. (A) have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic (B) have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economical (C) would have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economical (D) would have to know a great deal more than they do now about the social and economic (E) would have to know a great deal more than now about the social and economic develop more accurate population forecasts,

D

21

153

D

21

154

B

21

155

D

22

159

D

23

46. In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them. (A) much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them (B) much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined (C) much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined (D) creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them (E) the creation of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them (D) comparable to the size of Great Britain, but four million in population, and many (E) comparable to that of Great Britain but a population of only four million people, many whom only of

B

24

39. In 1527 King Henry VIII sought to have his marriage to Queen Catherine annulled so as to marry Anne Boleyn. (A) so as to marry (B) and so could be married to (C) to be married to (D) so that he could marry (E) in order that he would marry

D

25

37. Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, it is so debilitating that it has become an economic drain on many developing countries. (A) it is so debilitating that it has become an economic (B) it is of such debilitation, it has become an economical (C) so debilitating is it as to become an economic (D) such is its debilitation, it becomes an economical (E) there is so much debilitation that it has become an economical

A

25

156

D

25

157

B

25

158

E

25

160

D

25

161

E

25

164

D

26

163

E

27

168

E

28

173

E

29

162

B

30

48. In 1713, Alexander Pope began his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until completion, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced the greatest translation in any language. (A) his translation of the Iliad, a work that, taking him seven years until completion, and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced (B) his translation of the Iliad, a work that took him seven years to complete and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced (C) his translation of the Iliad, a work that had taken seven years to complete and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced it as (D) translating the Iliad, a work that took seven years until completion and that literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced it as (E) translating the Iliad, a work that had taken seven years to complete and literary critic Samuel Johnson, Pope’s contemporary, pronounced it

B

31

40. Dr. Tonegawa won the Nobel Prize for discovering how the body can constantly change its genes to fashion a seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each specifically targeted at an invading microbe or foreign substance. (A) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each specifically targeted at (B) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically to (C) seeming unlimited number of antibodies, all specifically targeted at (D) seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, all of them targeted specifically to (E) seemingly unlimited number of antibodies, each targeted specifically at

E

31

42. Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. (A) extending (B) extends (C) extended (D) it extended (E) is extending

A

31

43. Laos has a land area about the same as Great Britain
but only four million in population, where many are
members of hill tribes ensconced in the virtually
inaccessible mountain valleys of the north.
(A) about the same as Great Britain but only four
million in population, where many
(B) of about the same size as Great Britain is, but in
Laos there is a population of only four million,
and many
(C) that is about the same size as Great Britain’s
land area, but in Laos with a population of only
four million people, many of them
(D) comparable to the size of Great Britain, but only
four million in population, and many
(E) comparable to that of Great Britain but a
population of only four million people, many of
whom

E

 

(A) about the same as Great Britain but only four
million in population, where many (cant compare land area of laos to Great Britain...comparing apples to oranges issue)


(B) of about the same size as Great Britain is, but in
Laos there is a population of only four million,
and many (again comparing size to great britain. also the use of Laos is unnecessary)


(C) that is about the same size as Great Britain’s
land area, but in Laos with a population of only
four million people, many of them (use of Laos is unnecssary and redundant)


(D) comparable to the size of Great Britain, but only
four million in population, and many (incorrect comparision of land area to the size...you need to compare land area to land area.)


(E) comparable to that of Great Britain but a
population of only four million people, many of
whom (Correct Answer. We use whom when dealing with the object whereas who is used when we are dealing with the subject. the sentance here is Laos has four million people. Laos is subject whereas people is the object. hence use of whom is correct)

31

51. A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech. (A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make (B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make (C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make (D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making (E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

B

 

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make (Correct idiom is hampers the ability to..hence hampers the ability from is incorrect)

 

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make(Correct Answer)

 

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make  (here ..the result of this... what does this refer to)

 

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making (and results in not making...who is not making seems to suggest that pace is not making sence of speech)

 

(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make (as to hamper the ability for.. incorrect idiom and as to is not correct)

32

45. Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development. (A) believed to be (B) are believed to be (C) some believe them to be (D) some believe they are (E) it is believed that they are

B

33

44. The plot of The Bostonians centers on the rivalry
between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, with her
charming and cynical cousin, Basil Ransom, when they
find themselves drawn to the same radiant young
woman whose talent for public speaking has won her
an ardent following.
(A) rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an active
feminist, with her charming and cynical cousin,
Basil Ransom,
(B) rivals Olive Chancellor, an active feminist,
against her charming and cynical cousin,
Basil Ransom,
(C) rivalry that develops between Olive Chancellor,
an active feminist, and Basil Ransom, her
charming and cynical cousin,
(D) developing rivalry between Olive Chancellor, an
active feminist, with Basil Ransom, her charming
and cynical cousin,
(E) active feminist, Olive Chancellor, and the
rivalry with her charming

C

34

171

E

35

169

C

36

49. The automotive conveyor-belt system, which Henry Ford modeled after an assembly-line technique introduced by Ransom Olds, reduced from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assembling a Model T. (A) from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assembling a Model T (B) the time being required to assemble a Model T, from a day and a half down to 93 minutes (C) the time being required to assemble a Model T, a day and a half to 93 minutes (D) the time required to assemble a Model T from a day and a half to 93 minutes (E) from a day and a half to 93 minutes, the time required for the assembling of a Model T

D

37

47. Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975. (A) bringing (B) and brings (C) and it brings (D) and it brought (E) and brought

A

37

52. To Josephine Baker, Paris was her home long before it
was fashionable to be an expatriate, and she remained
in France during the Second World War as a performer
and an intelligence agent for the Resistance.
(A) To Josephine Baker, Paris was her home long
before it was fashionable to be an expatriate,
(B) For Josephine Baker, long before it was
fashionable to be an expatriate, Paris was
her home,
(C) Josephine Baker made Paris her home long
before to be an expatriate was fashionable,
(D) Long before it was fashionable to be an
expatriate, Josephine Baker made Paris
her home,
(E) Long before it was fashionable being an
expatriate, Paris was home to Josephine Baker,

D

37

165

A

37

166

D

37

167

E

37

170

A

37

175

D

37

178

C

38

54. The report recommended that the hospital should
eliminate unneeded beds, expensive services
should be consolidated, and use space in other
hospitals.
(A) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive
services should be consolidated, and use space
in other hospitals
(B) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive
services should be consolidated, and other
hospitals’ space be used
(C) should eliminate unneeded beds, expensive
services should be consolidated, and to use
space in other hospitals
(D) eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive
services, and other hospitals’ space used
(E) eliminate unneeded beds, consolidate expensive
services, and use space in other hospitals

E

39

50. According to some analysts, the gains in the stock market reflect growing confidence that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come in for a “soft landing,” followed by a gradual increase in business activity. (A) that the economy will avoid the recession that many had feared earlier in the year and instead come (B) in the economy to avoid the recession, what many feared earlier in the year, rather to come (C) in the economy’s ability to avoid the recession, something earlier in the year many had feared, and instead to come (D) in the economy to avoid the recession many were fearing earlier in the year, and rather to come (E) that the economy will avoid the recession that was feared earlier this year by many, with it instead coming

A

40

53. The nineteenth-century chemist Humphry Davy presented the results of his early experiments in his “Essay on Heat and Light,” a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a new chemistry that Davy hoped to found. (A) a critique of all chemistry since Robert Boyle as well as a vision of a (B) a critique of all chemistry following Robert Boyle and also his envisioning of a (C) a critique of all chemistry after Robert Boyle and envisioning as well (D) critiquing all chemistry from Robert Boyle forward and also a vision of (E) critiquing all the chemistry done since Robert Boyle as well as his own envisioning of

A

41

59. The Olympic Games helped to keep peace among the pugnacious states of the Greek world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month. (A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month (B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month (C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month (D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival (E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival

D

(A) world in that a sacred truce was proclaimed during the festival’s month (in that is correct usage. but A is passive hence wrong)

(B) world, proclaiming a sacred truce during the festival’s month (Suggests that olympic games is proclaming) 

(C) world when they proclaimed a sacred truce for the festival month (Who is they)

(D) world, for a sacred truce was proclaimed during the month of the festival  (Correct answer.We can use for and is usually preferred over in that)

(E) world by proclamation of a sacred truce that was for the month of the festival (Suggests that olympic games is proclaming) 

42

58. A leading figure in the Scottish Enlightenment, Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism what Marx’s Das Kapital is to socialism. (A) Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism what (B) Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism like (C) Adam Smith’s two major books are to democratic capitalism just as (D) Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism similar to (E) Adam Smith wrote two major books that are to democratic capitalism what

E

43

57. That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault: Alvin Toffler, one of the most prominent students of the future, did not even mention microcomputers in Future Shock, published in 1970. (A) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said that it is their fault (B) That educators have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said to be at fault (C) It can hardly be said that it is the fault of educators who have not anticipated the impact of microcomputer technology (D) It can hardly be said that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology (E) The fact that educators are at fault for not anticipating the impact of microcomputer technology can hardly be said

D

44

63. The yield of natural gas from Norway’s Troll gas field is expected to increase annually until the year 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate at least for 50 years’ production. (A) 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate at least for (B) 2005 and then to stabilize at six billion cubic feet a day, an extraction rate that will allow at least (C) 2005 and then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, with such an extraction rate at the least allowing (D) 2005, then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, allowing such an extraction rate for at least (E) 2005, then stabilizing at six billion cubic feet a day, which will allow such an extraction rate for at least

B

45

61. Rivaling the pyramids of Egypt or even the ancient cities of the Maya as an achievement, the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete. (A) the army of terra-cotta warriors created to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife is more than 2,000 years old and took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to complete (B) Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, was protected in his afterlife by an army of terra- cotta warriors that was created more than 2,000 years ago by 700,000 artisans who took more than 36 years to complete it (C) it took 700,000 artisans more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors more than 2,000 years ago that would protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife (D) more than 2,000 years ago, 700,000 artisans worked more than 36 years to create an army of terra-cotta warriors to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife (E) more than 36 years were needed to complete the army of terra-cotta warriors that 700,000 artisans created 2,000 years ago to protect Qin Shi Huang, China’s first emperor, in his afterlife

A

46

67. Affording strategic proximity to the Strait of Gibraltar, Morocco was also of interest to the French throughout the first half of the twentieth century because they assumed that if they did not hold it, their grip on Algeria was always insecure. (A) if they did not hold it, their grip on Algeria was always insecure (B) without it their grip on Algeria would never be secure (C) their grip on Algeria was not ever secure if they did not hold it (D) without that, they could never be secure about their grip on Algeria (E) never would their grip on Algeria be secure if they did not hold it

B

47

66. The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods. (A) include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is (B) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and (C) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being (D) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is (E) includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

A

48

70. His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas. (A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas (B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas (C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate (D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas (E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

B

49

73. Combining enormous physical strength with higher intelligence, the Neanderthals appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, but their relatively sudden disappearance during the Paleolithic era indicates that an inability to adapt to some environmental change led to their extinction. (A) appear as equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path, (B) appear to have been equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their path, (C) appear as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, (D) appeared as equipped to face any obstacle the environment could put in their paths, (E) appeared to have been equipped for facing any obstacle the environment could put in their path,

B

50

75. A proposal has been made to trim the horns from rhinoceroses to discourage poachers; the question is whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are trimmed. (A) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses after their horns are (B) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one once their horns are (C) whether tourists will continue to visit game parks to see rhinoceroses once the animals’ horns have been (D) if tourists will continue to visit game parks and see rhinoceroses once the animals’ horns are (E) if tourists will continue to visit game parks to see one after the animals’ horns have been

C

51

76. Retailers reported moderate gains in their November sales, as much because of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that shoppers were getting a head start on buying their holiday gifts. (A) of their sales of a year earlier being so bad as that (B) of their sales a year earlier having been as bad as because (C) of their sales a year earlier being as bad as because (D) their sales a year earlier had been so bad as because (E) their sales of a year earlier were as bad as that

D

52

Odd and even integers If two integers are both even or both odd what is their difference and sum What is a prime number Is 1 a prime number

Any integer that is divisible by 2 is an even integer; the set of even integers is {. . . –4, –2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, . . .}. Integers that are not divisible by 2 are odd integers; {. . . –3, –1, 1, 3, 5, . . .} is the set of odd integers. If two integers are both even or both odd, then their sum and their diff erence are even. Otherwise, their sum and their diff erence are odd. prime number is a positive integer that has exactly two diff erent positive divisors, 1 and itself. For example, 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, and 13 are prime numbers, but 15 is not, since 15 has four diff erent positive divisors, 1, 3, 5, and 15. The number 1 is not a prime number since it has only one positive divisor.

53

78. Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles Islands. (A) sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, and dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of (B) sloth, that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991, has been dated at 34 million years old, thus making it the earliest mammal known on (C) sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, making this the earliest known mammal of (D) sloth, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, making the sloth the earliest known mammal on (E) sloth which, found in Puerto Rico in 1991, was dated at 34 million years old, made the sloth the earliest known mammal of

D

54

79. Defense attorneys have occasionally argued that their clients’ misconduct stemmed from a reaction to something ingested, but in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to some food allergy, the perpetrators are in effect told that they are not responsible for their actions. (A) in attributing criminal or delinquent behavior to some food allergy, (B) if criminal or delinquent behavior is attributed to an allergy to some food, (C) in attributing behavior that is criminal or delinquent to an allergy to some food, (D) if some food allergy is attributed as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior, (E) in attributing a food allergy as the cause of criminal or delinquent behavior,

B

55

80. A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes from the incineration of wastes. (A) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed comes (B) much of the currently uncontrolled dioxins that North Americans are exposed to come (C) much of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and that North Americans are exposed to comes (D) many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come (E) many of the currently uncontrolled dioxins to which North Americans are exposed come

E

 

Two notes:

first, dioxins are countable (the fact that it's pluralized means that it's a countable noun). The sentence is referring to different dioxins, not the overall level of dioxin (which would be uncountable).

Second, "to which North Americans are exposed" not only uses the right idiom, it also avoids the issue of dangling participles (although the GMAT doesn't usually test on that issue, it's technically incorrect to end a sentence or clause with a preposition).

56

81. Recently physicians have determined that stomach ulcers are not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but a bacterium that dwells in the mucous lining of the stomach. (A) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but (B) not caused by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but are by (C) caused not by stress, alcohol, or rich foods, but by (D) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but (E) caused not by stress, alcohol, and rich foods, but are by

C

57

82. According to a recent poll, owning and living in a freestanding house on its own land is still a goal of a majority of young adults, like that of earlier generations. (A) like that of earlier generations (B) as that for earlier generations (C) just as earlier generations did (D) as have earlier generations (E) as it was of earlier generations

E

58

83. In 2000, a mere two dozen products accounted for half the increase in spending on prescription drugs, a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing many more prescriptions for higher-cost drugs. (A) a phenomenon that is explained not just because of more expensive drugs but by the fact that doctors are writing (B) a phenomenon that is explained not just by the fact that drugs are becoming more expensive but also by the fact that doctors are writing (C) a phenomenon occurring not just because of drugs that are becoming more expensive but because of doctors having also written (D) which occurred not just because drugs are becoming more expensive but doctors are also writing (E) which occurred not just because of more expensive drugs but because doctors have also written

B

59

84. Often visible as smog, ozone is formed in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, two major pollutants emitted by automobiles, react with sunlight. (A) ozone is formed in the atmosphere from (B) ozone is formed in the atmosphere when (C) ozone is formed in the atmosphere, and when (D) ozone, formed in the atmosphere when (E) ozone, formed in the atmosphere from

B

60

85. Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile Delta and the river valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates. (A) that flourished at the same time as the civilizations (B) that had flourished at the same time as had the civilizations (C) that flourished at the same time those had (D) flourishing at the same time as those did (E) flourishing at the same time as those were

A

61

86. The results of the company’s cost-cutting measures are evident in its profits, which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell over the last two years. (A) which increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it fell (B) which had increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after it had fallen (C) which have increased 5 percent during the first 3 months of this year after falling (D) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after falling (E) with a 5 percent increase during the first 3 months of this year after having fallen

C

62

87. In an effort to reduce their inventories, Italian vintners have cut prices; their wines have been priced to sell, and they are. (A) have been priced to sell, and they are (B) are priced to sell, and they have (C) are priced to sell, and they do (D) are being priced to sell, and have (E) had been priced to sell, and they have

C

63

88. Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted in the stride-piano tradition of Willie (The Lion) Smith and Duke Ellington, yet in many ways he stood apart from the mainstream jazz repertory. (A) Thelonious Monk, who was a jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work both rooted (B) Thelonious Monk, the jazz pianist and composer, produced a body of work that was rooted both (C) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk, who produced a body of work rooted (D) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work that was rooted (E) Jazz pianist and composer Thelonious Monk produced a body of work rooted both

D

64

89. Dirt roads may evoke the bucolic simplicity of another century, but financially strained townships point out that dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads. (A) dirt roads cost twice as much as maintaining paved roads (B) dirt roads cost twice as much to maintain as paved roads do (C) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as paved roads do (D) maintaining dirt roads costs twice as much as it does for paved roads (E) to maintain dirt roads costs twice as much as for paved roads

B

65

90. Although early soap operas were first aired on evening radio in the 1920s, they had moved to the daytime hours of the 1930s when the evening schedule became crowded with comedians and variety shows. (A) were first aired on evening radio in the 1920s, they had moved to the daytime hours of the 1930s (B) were first aired on evening radio in the 1920s, they were moved to the daytime hours in the 1930s (C) were aired first on evening radio in the 1920s, moving to the daytime hours in the 1930s (D) were aired first in the evening on 1920s radio, they moved to the daytime hours of the 1930s (E) aired on evening radio first in the 1920s, they were moved to the 1930s in the daytime hours

B

66

91. Nobody knows exactly how many languages there are in the world, partly because of the difficulty of distinguishing between a language and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried to count typically have found about five thousand. (A) and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried to count typically have found (B) and the sublanguages or dialects within them, with those who have tried counting typically finding (C) and the sublanguages or dialects within it, but those who have tried counting it typically find (D) or the sublanguages or dialects within them, but those who tried to count them typically found (E) or the sublanguages or dialects within them, with those who have tried to count typically finding

A

67

92. The energy source on Voyager 2 is not a nuclear reactor, in which atoms are actively broken apart; rather a kind of nuclear battery that uses natural radioactive decay to produce power. (A) apart; rather (B) apart, but rather (C) apart, but rather that of (D) apart, but that of (E) apart; it is that of

B

68

93. Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year. (A) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were (B) Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (C) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year’s because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (D) It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were (E) It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year’s because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

A

69

94. The recent surge in the number of airplane flights has clogged the nation’s air-traffic control system, to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts fears among some officials that safety is being compromised. (A) to lead to 55 percent more delays at airports, and prompts (B) leading to 55 percent more delay at airports and prompting (C) to lead to a 55 percent increase in delay at airports and prompt (D) to lead to an increase of 55 percent in delays at airports, and prompted (E) leading to a 55 percent increase in delays at airports and prompting

E

70

95. The peaks of a mountain range, acting like rocks in a streambed, produce ripples in the air flowing over them; the resulting flow pattern, with crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are known as “standing waves.” (A) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are (B) crests and troughs that remain stationary although they are formed by rapidly moving air, are (C) crests and troughs that remain stationary although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, is (D) stationary crests and troughs although the air that forms them is moving rapidly, are (E) stationary crests and troughs although they are formed by rapidly moving air, is

C

71

96. One of the primary distinctions between our intelligence with that of other primates may lay not so much in any specific skill but in our ability to extend knowledge gained in one context to new and different ones. (A) between our intelligence with that of other primates may lay not so much in any specific skill but (B) between our intelligence with that of other primates may lie not so much in any specific skill but instead (C) between our intelligence and that of other primates may lie not so much in any specific skill as (D) our intelligence has from that of other primates may lie not in any specific skill as (E) of our intelligence to that of other primates may lay not in any specific skill but

C

72

97. Unlike Schoenberg’s 12-tone system that dominated the music of the postwar period, Bartók founded no school and left behind only a handful of disciples. (A) Schoenberg’s 12-tone system that dominated (B) Schoenberg and his 12-tone system which dominated (C) Schoenberg, whose 12-tone system dominated (D) the 12-tone system of Schoenberg that has dominated (E) Schoenberg and the 12-tone system, dominating

C

73

98. Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932. (A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932. (B) Although named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, Clovis points are spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces and have been found all over North America. (C) Named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932, Clovis points, spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto the faces, have been found all over North America. (D) Spear points with longitudinal grooves that are chipped onto the faces, Clovis points, even though named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, but were found all over North America. (E) While Clovis points are spear points whose faces have longitudinal grooves chipped into them, they have been found all over North America, and named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932.

A

74

99. Ranked as one of the most important of Europe’s young playwrights, Franz Xaver Kroetz has written 40 plays; his works—translated into more than 30 languages—are produced more often than any contemporary German dramatist. (A) than any (B) than any other (C) than are any (D) than those of any other (E) as are those of any

D

75

100. The stars, some of them at tremendous speeds, are in motion just as the planets are, yet being so far away from Earth that their apparent positions in the sky do not change enough for their movement to be observed during a single human lifetime. (A) The stars, some of them at tremendous speeds, are in motion just as the planets are, yet being (B) Like the planets, the stars are in motion, some of them at tremendous speeds, but they are (C) Although like the planets the stars are in motion, some of them at tremendous speeds, yet (D) As the planets, the stars are in motion, some of them at tremendous speeds, but they are (E) The stars are in motion like the planets, some of which at tremendous speeds are in motion but

B

76

101. Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of (A) action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. (A) Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear. (B) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear. (C) An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past. (D) Executives’ being heavily committed to a course of action, especially if it has worked well in the past, makes them likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting them when they do appear. (E) Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

E

 

This is a very good advanced level question. It tests your understanding of modifiers and pronouns. It also tests your understanding of the intended meaning of the sentence.

Since most of you were able to eliminate choices A and D, I will concentrate on Choices B, C, and E.

Lets begin the solution:
Step 1 - Read the original sentence and understand the meaning.

Heavy commitment by an executive to a course of action, especially if it has worried well in the past, makes it likely to miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.

(Note that even though you were all able to eliminate choice A, we still need to review this choice to understand the meaning that the correct choice is intended to communicate).

1. Sentence talks about an executive who is heavily committed to a course of action
2. This course of action has worked well in the past
3. Because of this heavy commitment, the executive is likely to miss the signs of trouble when they appear.
Step 2 - We will understand the errors in this sentence:

Pronoun Error - ..makes it likely to…- “IT” has no clear antecedent. The sentence must specify clearly that executive is likely to miss the signs…
Thus, choice A is eliminated

Step 3 - Process of Elimination or Choice Analysis

Choice B
An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that worked well in the past, makes missing signs of incipient trouble or misinterpreting ones likely when they do appear.

This choice changes the intended meaning of the sentence. Here is what this sentence communicates:
1. Executive is heavily committed to a course of action - Same as Intended Meaning
2. Executive makes missing signs of trouble likely - Different from Intended Meaning
Thus, choice B states that executives makes the missing of signs likely, whereas, the intended meaning is that the heavy commitment to the course of action makes missing signs likely.

Choice C

An executive who is heavily committed to a course of action is likely to miss or misinterpret signs of incipient trouble when they do appear, especially if it has worked well in the past.
This choice does not distort the original meaning of the sentence. However, from this sentence it is not clear as to what has worked well in the past. Thus, this sentence has pronoun reference error for “it”

Choice E

Being heavily committed to a course of action, especially one that has worked well in the past, is likely to make an executive miss signs of incipient trouble or misinterpret them when they do appear.
This choice maintains the intended meaning:
1. Action of being heavily committed to a course of action causes the effect.
2. The effect is that the executive misses signs of trouble
Note here that the phrase “being heavily committed to a course of action” is the subject for the verb “is”.

Let me know if this makes sense to you.

Also, I would like to say that please do not reject a choice just because it has the word “being”. You must do a careful analysis of each choice and pick the choice that communicates the intended meaning without any grammatical errors.

77

102. AsrainfallbegantodecreaseintheSouthwest about the middle of the twelfth century, most of the Monument Valley Anasazi abandoned their homes to join other clans whose access to water was less limited. (A) whose access to water was less limited (B) where there was access to water that was less limited (C) where they had less limited water access (D) with less limitations on water access (E) having less limitations to water access

A

78

103. Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highlycooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females-the queen and her sterile female workers.

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all 

B

 

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of (Here wasps living is incorrect tense.. since a fact is being mentioned therefore it must state that wasps live i.e present tense)


B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of (correct answer)

C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all (which means is redudant)


D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely (Which means is redundant)


E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all (The question to ask is that who is higly cooperative.. the yellow jacket bees of social wasps.. E suggests that yellow jacket bees whereas the correct meaning should be that social wasps are cooperative)

79

104. El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east. (A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated (B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating (C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated (D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated (E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating (B) wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of (C) which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all (D) which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely (E) living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all

D

80

105. ,inherbookillustrations,carefully coordinating them with her narratives, capitalized on her keen observation and love of the natural world. (A) Beatrix Potter, in her book illustrations, carefully coordinating them with her narratives, (B) In her book illustrations, carefully coordinating them with her narratives, Beatrix Potter (C) In her book illustrations, which she carefully coordinated with her narratives, Beatrix Potter (D) Carefully coordinated with her narratives, Beatrix Potter, in her book illustrations (E) Beatrix Potter, in her book illustrations, carefully coordinated them with her narratives and

C

81

106. Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is precisely the opposite, a tool for communicating with a large, public audience. (A) Marconi’s conception of the radio was as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation; instead, it is (B) Marconi conceived of the radio as a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, but which is (C) Marconi conceived of the radio as a tool for private conversation that could substitute for the telephone; instead, it has become (D) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a tool for private conversation, a substitute for the telephone, which has become (E) Marconi conceived of the radio to be a substitute for the telephone, a tool for private conversation, other than what it is,

C

82

107. Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology. (A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, (B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission (C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, (D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it, (E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced X-ray emission,

A

83

108. Authoritative parents are more likely than permissive parents to have children who as adolescents are self- confident, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent. (A) Authoritative parents are more likely than permissive parents to have children who as adolescents are self-confident, high in self- esteem, and responsibly independent. (B) Authoritative parents who are more likely than permissive parents to have adolescent children that are self-confident, high in self-esteem, and responsibly independent. (C) Children of authoritative parents, rather than permissive parents, are the more likely to be self-confident, have a high self-esteem, and to be responsibly independent as adolescents. (D) Children whose parents are authoritative rather than being permissive, are more likely to have self-confidence, a high self-esteem, and be responsibly independent when they are an adolescent. (E) Rather than permissive parents, the children of authoritative parents are the more likely to have self-confidence, a high self-esteem, and to be responsibly independent as an adolescent.

A

84

109. Amongtheobjectsfoundintheexcavatedtemplewere small terra-cotta effigies left by supplicants who were either asking the goddess Bona Dea’s aid in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help. (A) in healing physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help (B) in healing physical and mental ills and to thank her for helping (C) in healing physical and mental ills, and thanking her for helping (D) to heal physical and mental ills or to thank her for such help (E) to heal physical and mental ills or thanking her for such help

A

85

110. PublishedinHarlem,theownerandeditorofThe Messenger were two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader. (A) Published in Harlem, the owner and editor of The Messenger were two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader. (B) Published in Harlem, two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, were the owner and editor of The Messenger. (C) Published in Harlem, The Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists, A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and Chandler Owen. (D) The Messenger was owned and edited by two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation as a labor leader, and published in Harlem. (E) The owner and editor being two young journalists, Chandler Owen and A. Philip Randolph, who would later make his reputation asalaborleader,TheMessengerwaspublished in Harlem.

C

86

111. Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles. (A) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, (B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and (C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and (D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it (E) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

C

87

112. Asababyemergesfromthedarknessofthewomb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. (A) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision, it would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind if it were an adult with such vision. (B) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500, or legally blind as an adult. (C) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision would be rated about 20/500; qualifying it to be legally blind if an adult. (D) A baby emerges from the darkness of the womb with a rudimentary sense of vision that would be rated about 20/500; an adult with such vision would be deemed legally blind. (E) As a baby emerges from the darkness of the womb, its rudimentary sense of vision, which would deemed legally blind for an adult, would be rated about 20/500.

D

88

113. Becausethereareprovisionsofthenewmaritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands. (A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated (B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated (C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating (D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated (E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

B

89

114. The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions, then taking turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages. (A) subscriptions, then taking turns drawing (B) subscriptions, and then taking turns drawing (C) subscriptions and then took turns drawing (D) subscriptions and then took turns, they drew (E) subscriptions and then drew, taking turns

C

90

115. Gall’shypothesisoftherebeingdifferentmental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today. (A) of there being different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (B) of different mental functions that are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (C) that different mental functions are localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (D) which is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain is widely accepted today (E) which is widely accepted today is that there are different mental functions localized in different parts of the brain

C

91

116. Mauritius was a British colony for almost 200 years, excepting for the domains of administration and teaching,theEnglishlanguagewasneverreally spoken on the island. (A) excepting for (B) except in (C) but except in (D) but excepting for (E) with the exception of

C

92

117. George Sand (Aurore Lucile Dupin) was one of the first European writers to consider the rural poor to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these with sympathy and respect in her novels. (A) to be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these (B) should be legitimate subjects for literature and portray these (C) as being legitimate subjects for literature and portraying them (D) as if they were legitimate subjects for literature and portray them (E) legitimate subjects for literature and to portray them

E

93

118. TheWorldWildlifeFundhasdeclaredthatglobal warming, a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, will create havoc among migratory birds by altering the environment in ways harmful to their habitats. (A) a phenomenon most scientists agree to be caused by human beings in burning fossil fuels, (B) a phenomenon most scientists agree that is caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings, (C) a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings’ burning of fossil fuels, (D) which most scientists agree on as a phenomenon caused by human beings who burn fossil fuels, (E) which most scientists agree to be a phenomenon caused by fossil fuels burned by human beings,

C

94

119. Newtheoriesproposethatcatastrophicimpactsof asteroids and comets may have caused reversals in the Earth’s magnetic field, the onset of ice ages, splitting apart continents 80 million years ago, and great volcanic eruptions. (A) splitting apart continents (B) the splitting apart of continents (C) split apart continents (D) continents split apart (E) continents that were split apart

B

95

120. A firm that specializes in the analysis of handwriting claims from a one-page writing sample that it can assess more than 300 personality traits, including enthusiasm, imagination, and ambition. (A) from a one-page writing sample that it can assess (B) from a one-page writing sample it has the ability of assessing (C) the ability, from a one-page writing sample, of assessing (D) to be able, from a one-page writing sample, to assess (E) being able to assess, from a one-page writing sample

D

96

121. Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they
began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked
moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of
red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.
(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report
that linked moderate consumption of alcohol,
and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk
of heart disease
(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced
risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol
consumption, particularly red wine, they began
growing again
(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption,
and particularly of red wine, which was linked
with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused
them to begin to grow again
(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in
a 1991 report with moderate alcohol
consumption, in particular red wine, they
began growing again
(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to
moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991
report, and in particular red wine, started them
growing again

A

97

122. A wildlife expert predicts that the reintroduction of the
caribou into northern Minnesota would fail if the density
of the timber wolf population in that region is more
numerous than one wolf for every 39 square miles.
(A) would fail if the density of the timber wolf
population in that region is more numerous
(B) would fail provided the density of the timber wolf
population in that region is more
(C) should fail if the timber wolf density in that
region was greater
(D) will fail if the density of the timber wolf
population in that region is greater
(E) will fail if the timber wolf density in that region
were more numerous122.

D

98

123. She was less successful after she had emigrated
to New York compared to her native Germany,
photographer Lotte Jacobi nevertheless earned a small
group of discerning admirers, and her photographs
were eventually exhibited in prestigious galleries
across the United States.
(A) She was less successful after she had
emigrated to New York compared to
(B) Being less successful after she had emigrated
to New York as compared to
(C) Less successful after she emigrated to New
York than she had been in
(D) Although she was less successful after
emigrating to New York when compared to
(E) She had been less successful after emigrating
to New York than in

C

99

124. Found throughout Central and South America,
sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and
sleep 15 hours a day, moving infrequently enough
that two species of algae grow on its coat and
between its toes.
(A) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs and
sleep 15 hours a day, moving infrequently enough
(B) sloths hang from trees by long rubbery limbs,
they sleep 15 hours a day, and with such
infrequent movements
(C) sloths use their long rubbery limbs to hang from
trees, sleep 15 hours a day, and move so
infrequently
(D) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery
limbs, sleeping 15 hours a day and moving so
infrequently
(E) the sloth hangs from trees by its long rubbery
limbs, sleeps 15 hours

D

100

125. Today, because of improvements in agricultural technology, the same amount of acreage produces double the apples that it has in 1910. (A) double the apples that it has (B) twice as many apples as it did (C) as much as twice the apples it has (D) two times as many apples as there were (E) a doubling of the apples that it did

B

101

126. The use of lie detectors is based on the assumption that lying produces emotional reactions in an individual that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses. (A) that, in turn, create unconscious physiological responses (B) that creates unconscious physiological responses in turn (C) creating, in turn, unconscious physiological responses (D) to create, in turn, physiological responses that are unconscious (E) who creates unconscious physiological responses in turn

A

102

127. Joan of Arc, a young Frenchwoman who claimed to be divinely inspired, turned the tide of English victories in her country by liberating the city of Orléans and she persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne. (A) she persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne (B) persuaded Charles VII of France in claiming his throne (C) persuading that the throne be claimed by Charles VII of France (D) persuaded Charles VII of France to claim his throne (E) persuading that Charles VII of France should claim the throne

D

103

128. Australian embryologists have found evidence that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving as a kind of snorkel. (A) that suggests that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal, and its trunk originally evolving (B) that has suggested the elephant descended from an aquatic animal, its trunk originally evolving (C) suggesting that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal with its trunk originally evolved (D) to suggest that the elephant had descended from an aquatic animal and its trunk originally evolved (E) to suggest that the elephant is descended from an aquatic animal and that its trunk originally evolved

E

104

129. Cajuns speak a dialect brought to southern Louisiana by the 4,000 Acadians who migrated there in 1755; their language is basically seventeenth-century French to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words. (A) to which has been added English, Spanish, and Italian words (B) added to which is English, Spanish, and Italian words (C) to which English, Spanish, and Italian words have been added (D) with English, Spanish, and Italian words having been added to it (E) and, in addition, English, Spanish, and Italian words are added

C

105

130. One view of the economy contends that a large drop in oil prices should eventually lead to lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation, a rally in stocks and bonds, and a weakening of the dollar. (A) lowering interest rates, as well as lowering fears about inflation, (B) a lowering of interest rates and of fears about inflation, (C) a lowering of interest rates, along with fears about inflation, (D) interest rates being lowered, along with fears about inflation, (E) interest rates and fears about inflation being lowered, with

B

106

131. Over 75 percent of the energy produced in France derives from nuclear power, while in Germany it is just over 33 percent. (A) while in Germany it is just over 33 percent (B) compared to Germany, which uses just over 33 percent (C) whereas nuclear power accounts for just over 33 percent of the energy produced in Germany (D) whereas just over 33 percent of the energy comes from nuclear power in Germany (E) compared with the energy from nuclear power in Germany, where it is just over 33 percent

C

107

132. Although the term “psychopath” is popularly applied to an especially brutal criminal, in psychology it is someone who is apparently incapable of feeling compassion or the pangs of conscience. (A) it is someone who is (B) it is a person (C) they are people who are (D) it refers to someone who is (E) it is in reference to people

D

108

133. Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp’s ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect adult sea turtles. (A) requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect (B) requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting (C) that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets protect (D) to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets are protecting (E) to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting

B

109

134. Recently implemented “shift-work equations” based on studies of the human sleep cycle have reduced sickness, sleeping on the job, fatigue among shift workers, and have raised production efficiency in various industries. (A) fatigue among shift workers, and have raised (B) fatigue among shift workers, and raised (C) and fatigue among shift workers while raising (D) lowered fatigue among shift workers, and raised (E) and fatigue among shift workers was lowered while raising

C

110

135. Spanning more than 50 years, Friedrich Müller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as a Sanskrit scholar and culminated in virtually every honor that European governments and learned societies could bestow. (A) Müller began his career in an unpromising apprenticeship as (B) Müller’s career began in an unpromising apprenticeship as (C) Müller’s career began with the unpromising apprenticeship of being (D) Müller had begun his career with the unpromising apprenticeship of being (E) the career of Müller has begun with an unpromising apprenticeship of

B

111

136. Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes form a random pattern. (A) Whereas in mammals the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes (B) Whereas the tiny tubes for the conveying of nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in mammals in parallel lines, birds have tubes that (C) Unlike mammals, where the tiny tubes for conveying nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, birds’ tubes (D) Unlike mammals, in whom the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells are arrayed in parallel lines, the tubes in birds (E) Unlike the tiny tubes that convey nutrients to bone cells, which in mammals are arrayed in parallel lines, in birds the tubes

A

112

137. Joachim Raff and Giacomo Meyerbeer are examples of the kind of composer who receives popular acclaim while living, often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again. (A) often goes into decline after death, and never regains popularity again (B) whose reputation declines after death and never regains its status again (C) but whose reputation declines after death and never regains its former status (D) who declines in reputation after death and who never regained popularity again (E) then has declined in reputation after death and never regained popularity

C

113

138. In no other historical sighting did Halley’s Comet cause such a worldwide sensation as did its return in 1910–1911. (A) did its return in 1910–1911 (B) had its 1910–1911 return (C) in its return of 1910–1911 (D) its return of 1910–1911 did (E) its return in 1910–1911

C

114

139. Thecompanyannouncedthatitsprofitsdeclined much less in the second quarter than analysts had expected it to and its business will improve in the second half of the year. (A) had expected it to and its business will improve (B) had expected and that its business would improve (C) expected it would and that it will improve its business (D) expected them to and its business would improve (E) expected and that it will have improved its business

B

115

140. Rock samples taken from the remains of an asteroid about twice the size of the 6-mile-wide asteroid that eradicated the dinosaurs has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is evidence of the earliest known asteroid impact on Earth. (A) has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is (B) has been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus (C) have been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus are (D) have been dated as being 3.47 billion years old and thus (E) have been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus are

E

116

1. What is the value of |x| ? (1) x = –|x| (2) x2 = 4

G

117

2. What percent of a group of people are women with red hair? (1) Of the women in the group, 5 percent have red hair. (2) Of the men in the group, 10 percent have red hair.

G

118

3. In a certain class, one student is to be selected at random to read. What is the probability that a boy will read? (1) Two-thirds of the students in the class are boys. (2) Ten of the students in the class are girls.

G

119

4. In College X the number of students enrolled in both a chemistry course and a biology course is how much less than the number of students enrolled in neither? (1) In College X there are 60 students enrolled in a chemistry course. (2) In College X there are 85 students enrolled in a biology course.

G

120

5. A certain expressway has Exits J, K, L, and M, in that order. What is the road distance from Exit K to Exit L ? (1) The road distance from Exit J to Exit L is 21 kilometers. (2) The road distance from Exit K to Exit M is 26 kilometers.

G

121

6. Ifnis an integer, is n + 1 odd? (1) n + 2 is an even integer. (2) n – 1 is an odd integer.

G

122

7. For which type of investment, J or K, is the annual rate of return greater? (1) Type J returns $115 per $1,000 invested for any one-year period and type K returns $300 per $2,500 invested for any one-year period. (2) The annual rate of return for an investment of type K is 12 percent.

G

123

8. A citrus fruit grower receives $15 for each crate of oranges shipped and $18 for each crate of grapefruit shipped. How many crates of oranges did the grower ship last week? (1) Last week the number of crates of oranges that the grower shipped was 20 more than twice the number of crates of grapefruit shipped. (2) Last week the grower received a total of $38,700 from the crates of oranges and grapefruit shipped.

G

124

9. If Pat saved $600 of his earnings last month, how much did Pat earn last month? (1) Pat spent of his earnings last month for living expenses and saved of the remainder. (2) Of his earnings last month, Pat paid twice as much in taxes as he saved.

G

125

10. Water is pumped into a partially filled tank at a constant rate through an inlet pipe. At the same time, water is pumped out of the tank at a constant rate through an outlet pipe. At what rate, in gallons per minute, is the amount of water in the tank increasing? (1) The amount of water initially in the tank is 200 gallons. (2) Water is pumped into the tank at a rate of 10 gallons per minute and out of the tank at a 1 rate of 10 gallons every 2 2 minutes.

G

126

11. Is x a negative number? (1) 9x > 10x (2) x + 3 is positive.

G

127

12. If i and j are integers, is i + j an even integer? (1) i < 10 (2) i=j

G

128

13. The charge for a telephone call between City R and City S is $0.42 for each of the first 3 minutes and $0.18 for each additional minute. A certain call between these two cities lasted for x minutes, where x is an integer. How many minutes long was the call? (1) The charge for the first 3 minutes of the call was $0.36 less than the charge for the remainder of the call. (2) The total charge for the call was $2.8

G

129

14. If Car X followed Car Y across a certain bridge that is 1 2 mile long, how many seconds did it take Car X to travel across the bridge? (1) Car X drove onto the bridge exactly 3 seconds after Car Y drove onto the bridge and drove off the bridge exactly 2 seconds after Car Y drove off the bridge. (2) Car Y traveled across the bridge at a constant speed of 30 miles per hour.

G

130

15. Ifn+k=m,whatisthevalueofk? (1) n = 10 (2) m + 10 = n

G

131

16. Is x an integer? x

G

132

17.

G

133

18. What is the maximum number of rectangular blocks, each with dimensions 12 centimeters by 6 centimeters by 4 centimeters, that will fit inside rectangular Box X ? (1) When Box X is filled with the blocks and rests on a certain side, there are 25 blocks in the bottom layer. (2) The inside dimensions of Box X are 60 centimeters by 30 centimeters by 20 centimeters.

G

134

19. If sequence S has 200 terms, what is the 192nd term of S ? (1) The first term of S is –40. (2) Each term of S after the first term is 3 less than the preceding term.

G

135

20. InΔPQR,ifPQ=x,QR=x+2,andPR=y,whichof the three angles of ΔPQR has the greatest degree measure? (1) y=x+3 (2) x=2 is an integer. 2x is an integer. 2 (2)

G

136

21. What percent of the drama club members enrolled at a certain school are female students? (1) Of the female students enrolled at the school, 40 percent are members of the drama club. (2) Of the male students enrolled at the school, 25 percent are members of the drama club.

G

137

22. A family-size box of cereal contains more cereal and costs more than the regular-size box of cereal. What is the cost per ounce of the family-size box of cereal? (1) The family-size box of cereal contains 10 ounces more than the regular-size box of cereal. (2) The family-size box of cereal costs $5.40.

G

138

23. The profit from the sale of a certain appliance increases, though not proportionally, with the number of units sold. Did the profit exceed $4 million on sales of 380,000 units? (1) The profit exceeded $2 million on sales of 200,000 units. (2) The profit exceeded $5 million on sales of 350,000 units.

G

139

24. Ifnis an integer, is n even? (1) n2 – 1 is an odd integer. (2) 3n + 4 is an even integer.

G

140

25. Carmen currently works 30 hours per week at her part-time job. If her gross hourly wage were to increase by $1.50, how many fewer hours could she work per week and still earn the same gross weekly pay as before the increase? (1) Her gross weekly pay is currently $225.00. (2) An increase of $1.50 would represent an increase of 20 percent of her current gross hourly wage.

G

141

1 volume of oil in the tank was of the tank’s capacity. 2 (2) After the 200 gallons were removed, the volume of the oil left in the tank was 1,600 gallons less than the tank’s capacity.

G

142

28. Division R of Company Q has 1,000 employees. What is the average (arithmetic mean) annual salary of the employees at Company Q ? (1) The average annual salary of the employees in Division R is $30,000. (2) The average annual salary of the employees at Company Q who are not in Division R is $35,000. }x meters

G

143

29. A circular tub has a band painted around its circumference, as shown above. What is the surface area of this painted band? (1) x = 0.5 (2) The height of the tub is 1 meter.

G

144

30. What is the value of integer n ? (1) n(n + 1) = 6

G

145

32. Jerry bought 7 clothing items, including a coat, and the sum of the prices of these items was $365. If there was no sales tax on any clothing item with a price of less than $100 and a 7 percent sales tax on all other clothing items, what was the total sales tax on the 7 items that Jerry bought? (1) The price of the coat was $125. (2) The average (arithmetic mean) price for the 6 items other than the coat was $40.

G

146

33. What was the price at which a merchant sold a certain appliance? (1) The merchant’s gross profit on the appliance was 20 percent of the price at which the merchant sold the appliance. (2) The price at which the merchant sold the appliance was $50 more than the merchant’s cost of the appliance.

G

147

34. The inside of a rectangular carton is 48 centimeters long, 32 centimeters wide, and 15 centimeters high. The carton is filled to capacity with k identical cylindrical cans of fruit that stand upright in rows and columns, as indicated in the figure above. If the cans are 15 centimeters high, what is the value of k ? (1) Each of the cans has a radius of 4 centimeters. (2) Six of the cans fit exactly along the length of the carton.

G

148

36. For all integers n, the function f is defined by f(n) = an, where a is a constant. What is the value of f(1) ? (1) f(2) = 100 (2) f(3) = –1,000

G

149

37. The selling price of an article is equal to the cost of the article plus the markup. The markup on a certain television set is what percent of the selling price? (1) The markup on the television set is 25 percent of the cost. (2) The selling price of the television set is $250.

G

150

38. If p1 and p2 are the populations and r1 and r2 are the numbers of representatives of District 1 and District 2, respectively, the ratio of the population to the number of representatives is greater for which of the two districts? (1) p1 > p2 (2) r2 > r1

G

151

39. In a random sample of 80 adults, how many are college graduates? (1) In the sample, the number of adults who are not college graduates is 3 times the number who are college graduates. (2) In the sample, the number of adults who are not college graduates is 40 more than the number who are college graduates. RSTU R0yx62 S y 0 56 75 T x 56 0 69 U 62 75 69 0

G

152

40. The table above shows the distance, in kilometers, by the most direct route, between any two of the four cities, R, S, T, and U. For example, the distance between City R and City U is 62 kilometers. What is the value of x ? (1) By the most direct route, the distance between S and T is twice the distance between S and R. (2) By the most direct route, the distance between T and U is 1.5 times the distance between R and T.

G

153

41. What is the value of the two-digit integer x ? (1) The sum of the two digits is 3. (2) x is divisible by 3. r t

G

154

42. The figure above shows the circular cross section of a concrete water pipe. If the inside radius of the pipe is r feet and the outside radius of the pipe is t feet, what is the value of r ? (1) Theratiooft–rtoris0.15andt–risequalto 0.3 foot. (2) The area of the concrete in the cross section is 1.29π square feet.

G

155

43. What is the tenths digit in the decimal representation of a certain number? 1 (1) The number is less than 3. 1 (2) The number is greater than 4.

G

156

44. Robots X, Y, and Z each assemble components at their respective constant rates. If rx is the ratio of Robot X’s constant rate to Robot Z’s constant rate and ry is the ratio of Robot Y’s constant rate to Robot Z’s constant rate, is Robot Z’s constant rate the greatest of the three? (1) rx < ry (2) ry < 1

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45. If r is a constant and an = rn for all positive integers n, for how many values of n is an < 100 ? (1) a50 = 500 (2) a100 + a105 = 2,050 276

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46. Ifrisrepresentedbythedecimal0.t5,whatisthe digit t ? (1) r< (2) r<

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47. If the two floors in a certain building are 9 feet apart, how many steps are there in a set of stairs that extends from the first floor to the second floor of the building? 3 foot high. (2) Each step is 1 foot wide.

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48. In June 1989, what was the ratio of the number of sales transactions made by Salesperson X to the number of sales transactions made by Salesperson Y ? (1) In June 1989, Salesperson X made 50 percent more sales transactions than Salesperson Y did in May 1989. (2) In June 1989, Salesperson Y made 25 percent more sales transactions than in May 1989.

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49. Ifa

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50. How many people are directors of both Company K and Company R ? (1) There were 17 directors present at a joint meeting of the directors of Company K and Company R, and no directors were absent. (2) Company K has 12 directors and Company R has 8 directors. x y

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51. If x and y are positive, is (1) xy > 1 (2) x–y>0 greater than 1?

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52. A clothing store acquired an item at a cost of x dollars and sold the item for y dollars. The store’s gross profit from the item was what percent of its cost for the item? (1) y – x = 20 (2) (n–x)+(n–y)+(n–z)+(n–k)

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53. What is the value of the expression above? (1) The average (arithmetic mean) of x, y, z, and k is n. (2) x, y, z, and k are consecutive integers.

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54. A taxi company charges f cents for the first mile of the taxi ride and m cents for each additional mile. How much does the company charge for a 10-mile taxi ride? (1) The company charges $0.90 for a 2-mile ride. (2) The company charges $1.20 for a 4-mile ride.

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55. Guy’s net income equals his gross income minus his deductions. By what percent did Guy’s net income change on January 1, 1989, when both his gross income and his deductions increased? (1) Guy’s gross income increased by 4 percent on January 1, 1989. (2) Guy’s deductions increased by 15 percent on January 1, 1989. y° x° z°

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56. What is the value of z in the triangle above? (1) x + y = 139 (2) y + z = 108

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57. Max has $125 consisting of bills each worth either $5 or $20. How many bills worth $5 does Max have? (1) Max has fewer than 5 bills worth $5 each. (2) Max has more than 5 bills worth $20 each.

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58. If the ratio of the number of teachers to the number of students is the same in School District M and School District P, what is the ratio of the number of students in School District M to the number of students in School District P ? (1) There are 10,000 more students in School District M than there are in School District P. (2) The ratio of the number of teachers to the number of students in School District M is 1 to 20. (1) Each step is 4

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69. Once they had seen the report from the medical examiner, the investigators did not doubt whether the body recovered from the river was the man who had attempted to escape from the state prison. (A) did not doubt whether the body recovered from the river was (B) have no doubt whether the body recovered from the river was (C) had not doubted that the body recovered from the river was (D) have no doubt whether the body recovered from the river was that of (E) had no doubt that the body recovered from the river was that of

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68. The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq. (A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but (B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also (C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but (D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also (E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

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56. Many of the earliest known images of Hindu deities in India date from the time of the Kushan Empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or Gandharan grey schist. (A) Empire, fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or (B) Empire, fashioned from either the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from (C) Empire, either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or (D) Empire and either fashioned from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from (E) Empire and were fashioned either from the spotted sandstone of Mathura or from

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60. While all states face similar industrial waste problems, the predominating industries and the regulatory environment of the states obviously determines the types and amounts of waste produced, as well as the cost of disposal. (A) all states face similar industrial waste problems, the predominating industries and the regulatory environment of the states obviously determines (B) each state faces a similar industrial waste problem, their predominant industries and regulatory environment obviously determine (C) all states face a similar industrial waste problem; their predominating industries and regulatory environment obviously determines (D) each state faces similar industrial waste problems, the predominant industries and the regulatory environment of each state obviously determines (E) all states face similar industrial waste problems, the predominant industries and the regulatory environment of each state obviously determine

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65. In a plan to stop the erosion of East Coast beaches, the Army Corps of Engineers proposed building parallel to shore a breakwater of rocks that would rise six feet above the waterline and act as a buffer, so that it absorbs the energy of crashing waves and protecting the beaches. (A) act as a buffer, so that it absorbs (B) act like a buffer so as to absorb (C) act as a buffer, absorbing (D) acting as a buffer, absorbing (E) acting like a buffer, absorb

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72. More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support. (A) to greater economic development and investing (B) to greater development economically and investing (C) of greater economic development and invest (D) of greater development economically and invest (E) for greater economic development and the investment of

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71. Unlike the original National Museum of Science and Technology in Italy, where the models are encased in glass or operated only by staff members, the Virtual Leonardo Project, an online version of the museum, encourages visitors to “touch” each exhibit, which thereby activates the animated functions of the piece. (A) exhibit, which thereby activates (B) exhibit, in turn an activation of (C) exhibit, and it will activate (D) exhibit and thereby activate (E) exhibit which, as a result, activates

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74. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes. (A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump (B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping (C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump (D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump (E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

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77. The only way for growers to salvage frozen citrus is to process them quickly into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns. (A) to process them quickly into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns (B) if they are quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns to rot them (C) for them to be processed quickly into juice concentrate before the fruit rots when warmer weather returns (D) if the fruit is quickly processed into juice concentrate before they rot when warmer weather returns (E) to have it quickly processed into juice concentrate before warmer weather returns and rots the fruit

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76. Ifm,p,andtarepositiveintegersandm

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78. A total of $60,000 was invested for one year. Part of this amount earned simple annual interest at the rate of x percent per year, and the rest earned simple annual interest at the rate of y percent per year. If the total interest earned by the $60,000 for that year was $4,080, what is the value of x ? 1 of the total (2) The total amount donated was $120,000. (1) The first n people donated amount donated. 16

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The Official Guide for GMAT® Review 12th Edition 82. If positive integer x is a multiple of 6 and positive integer y is a multiple of 14, is xy a multiple of 105 ? (1) x is a multiple of 9. (2) y is a multiple of 25.

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83. Whatisthevalueofb+c? (1) ab+cd+ac+bd=6 (2) a+d=4

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84. What is the average (arithmetic mean) of j and k ? (1) The average (arithmetic mean) of j + 2 and k + 4 is11. (2) The average (arithmetic mean) of j, k, and 14 is 10.

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89. (1) Last year, the total amount that Arturo spent on his real estate taxes and home insurance was 33 percent of the amount that he spent on his mortgage payments. (2) Last year, the amount that Arturo spent on his real estate taxes was 20 percent of the total amount he spent on his mortgage payments and home insurance. Is the number of members of Club X greater than the number of members of Club Y ? (1) Of the members of Club X, 20 percent are also members of Club Y. (2) Of the members of Club Y, 30 percent are also members of Club X. Ifk,m,andtarepositiveintegersand k +m = t , 6 4 12 do t and 12 have a common factor greater than 1 ?

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85. Paula and Sandy were among those people who sold 90. raffle tickets to raise money for Club X. If Paula and Sandy sold a total of 100 of the tickets, how many of the tickets did Paula sell? (1) (2) k is a multiple of 3. m is a multiple of 3. BCD 2 3 as Paula did. (1) Sandy sold as many of the raffle tickets (2) Sandy sold 8 percent of all the raffle tickets sold for Club X.

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86. A number of people each wrote down one of the first 30 positive integers. Were any of the integers written down by more than one of the people? (1) The number of people who wrote down an integer was greater than 40. (2) The number of people who wrote down an integer was less than 70.

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87. Is the number of seconds required to travel d1 feet at r1 feet per second greater than the number of seconds required to travel d2 feet at r2 feet per second? A

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91.

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92. Inthefigureabove,isCD>BC? (1) AD = 20 (2) AB = CD In a certain office, 50 percent of the employees are college graduates and 60 percent of the employees are over 40 years old. If 30 percent of those over 40 have master’s degrees, how many of the employees over 40 have master’s degrees? (1) Exactly 100 of the employees are college graduates. (2) Of the employees 40 years old or less, 25 percent have master’s degrees.

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94. If line k in the xy-plane has equation y = mx + b, where m and b are constants, what is the slope of k ? (1) k is parallel to the line with equation y = (1 – m)x + b + 1. (2) k intersects the line with equation y = 2x + 3 at the point (2,7).

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95. Isrst=1?

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99. Each of the letters in the table above represents one of the numbers 1, 2, or 3, and each of these numbers occurs exactly once in each row and exactly once in each column. What is the value of r ? (1) v+z=6 (2) s+t+u+x=6

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100. If [x] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x, is [x] = 0 ? (1) 5x + 1 = 3 + 2x (2) 0

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101. MaterialAcosts$3perkilogram,andMaterialB costs $5 per kilogram. If 10 kilograms of Material K consists of x kilograms of Material A and y kilograms of Material B, is x > y ? (1) y>4 (2) The cost of the 10 kilograms of Material K is less than $40.

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102. While on a straight road, Car X and Car Y are traveling at different constant rates. If Car X is now 1 mile ahead of Car Y, how many minutes from now will Car X be 2 miles ahead of Car Y ? (1) Car X is traveling at 50 miles per hour and Car Y is traveling at 40 miles per hour. r s t u v w x y z (1) (2) rs = 1 st = 1 TOTAL EXPENSES FOR THE FIVE DIVISIONS OF COMPANY H R x° Q OS T

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96. The figure above represents a circle graph of Company H’s total expenses broken down by the expenses for each of its five divisions. If O is the center of the circle and if Company H’s total expenses are $5,400,000, what are the expenses for Division R ? (1) x=94 (2) The total expenses for Divisions S and T are twice as much as the expenses for Division R.

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97. Ifxisnegative,isx 9 (2) x3 < –9

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98. Seven different numbers are selected from the integers 1 to 100, and each number is divided by 7. What is the sum of the remainders? (1) The range of the seven remainders is 6. (2) The seven numbers selected are consecutive integers. P (2) Three minutes ago Car X was Car Y. 1 2 mile ahead of

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103. If a certain animated cartoon consists of a total of 17,280 frames on film, how many minutes will it take to run the cartoon? (1) The cartoon runs without interruption at the rate of 24 frames per second. (2) It takes 6 times as long to run the cartoon as it takes to rewind the film, and it takes a total of 14 minutes to do both.

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104. At what speed was a train traveling on a trip when it had completed half of the total distance of the trip? (1) The trip was 460 miles long and took 4 hours to complete. (2) The train traveled at an average rate of 115 miles per hour on the trip.

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105. Tom, Jane, and Sue each purchased a new house. The average (arithmetic mean) price of the three houses was $120,000. What was the median price of the three houses? (1) The price of Tom’s house was $110,000. (2) The price of Jane’s house was $120,000.

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107. A box contains only red chips, white chips, and blue chips. If a chip is randomly selected from the box, what is the probability that the chip will be either white or blue?

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109. IntriangleABC,pointXisthemidpointofsideACand point Y is the midpoint of side BC. If point R is the midpoint of line segment XC and if point S is the midpoint of line segment YC, what is the area of triangular region RCS ? (1) The area of triangular region ABX is 32. (2) The length of one of the altitudes of triangle ABC is 8. Theproductoftheunitsdigit,thetensdigit,andthe hundreds digit of the positive integer m is 96. What is the units digit of m ? (1) m is odd. (2) The hundreds digit of m is 8. A department manager distributed a number of pens, pencils, and pads among the staff in the department, with each staff member receiving x pens, y pencils, and z pads. How many staff members were in the department? (1) The numbers of pens, pencils, and pads that each staff member received were in the ratio 2:3:4, respectively. (2) The manager distributed a total of 18 pens, 27 pencils, and 36 pads. MachinesXandYproducedidenticalbottlesat different constant rates. Machine X, operating alone for 4 hours, filled part of a production lot; then Machine Y, operating alone for 3 hours, filled the rest of this lot. How many hours would it have taken Machine X operating alone to fill the entire production lot? (1) Machine X produced 30 bottles per minute. (2) Machine X produced twice as many bottles in 4 hours as Machine Y produced in 3 hours. 2 1 5 1 3 The probability that the chip will be blue is . 110. 111. The probability that the chip will be red is . 112. 108. If the successive tick marks shown on the number line above are equally spaced and if x and y are the numbers designating the end points of intervals as shown, what is the value of y ? 113. On a company-sponsored cruise, passengers were company employees and the remaining passengers were their guests. If 34 of the company-employee passengers were managers, what was the number of company-employee passengers who were NOT managers? (1) There were 690 passengers on the cruise. (2) There were 230 passengers who were guests of the company employees. 3 of the

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(1) For the 4 days with the greatest number of people registered, the average (arithmetic mean) number registered per day was

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100. (2) For the 3 days with the smallest number of people registered, the average (arithmetic mean) number registered per day was 85. AE BCD

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117. In the figure above, points A, B, C, D, and E lie on a line. A is on both circles, B is the center of the smaller circle, C is the center of the larger circle, D is on the smaller circle, and E is on the larger circle. What is the area of the region inside the larger circle and outside the smaller circle? (1) AB = 3 and BC = 2 (2) CD = 1 and DE = 4

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120. The annual rent collected by a corporation from a certain building was x percent more in 1998 than in 1997 and y percent less in 1999 than in 1998. Was the annual rent collected by the corporation from the building more in 1999 than in 1997 ? (1) x>y (2) xy

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121. In the xy-plane, region R consists of all the points (x,y) such that 2x + 3y ≤ 6. Is the point (r,s) in region R ? (1) 3r + 2s = 6 (2) r ≤ 3 and s ≤ 2

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122. What is the volume of a certain rectangular solid? (1) Two adjacent faces of the solid have areas 15 and 24, respectively. (2) Each of two opposite faces of the solid has area 40.

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123. Joanna bought only $0.15 stamps and $0.29 stamps. How many $0.15 stamps did she buy? (1) She bought $4.40 worth of stamps. (2) She bought an equal number of $0.15 stamps and $0.29 stamps. 100

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When is correct to use being

I have seen that BEING is correct in the following case:

Being + Adverb + Past participle form of verb.

Example:

Being genetically engineered,,,,,,,,

Being heavily committed....................

--> I have found these two in GMATPREP sentence.

We can memorize this at least.

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70.

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69. Of the four numbers represented on the number line above, is r closest to zero? (1) q = –s (2) –t < q (2) The daily cost per person for 2 people sharing the cost of a room equally is $25 more than the corresponding cost for 4 people.

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70. Mary persuaded n friends to donate $500 each to her election campaign, and then each of these n friends persuaded n more people to donate $500 each to Mary’s campaign. If no one donated more than once and if there were no other donations, what was the value of n ?

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77. Each week a certain salesman is paid a fixed amount equal to $300, plus a commission equal to 5 percent of the amount of his sales that week over $1,000. What is the total amount the salesman was paid last week? (1) The total amount the salesman was paid last week is equal to 10 percent of the amount of his sales last week. (2) The salesman’s sales last week totaled $5,000.

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71. Carlotta can drive from her home to her office by one of two possible routes. If she must also return by one of these routes, what is the distance of the shorter route? (1) When she drives from her home to her office by the shorter route and returns by the longer route, she drives a total of 42 kilometers. (2) When she drives both ways, from her home to her office and back, by the longer route, she drives a total of 46 kilometers.

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