Spideys Revision Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Spideys Revision Deck (141):
1

Not........????
Rather ......?????

When to use these two.

Not.....but
Rather ..... Than

Not...but is used without any preference.

Rather than has a preference

2

Targetted.......

Targetted at is correct
Targeted to is wrong

3

Estimated ??????

Estimated to be

4

Everyone is ?????

Everyone is singular

5

Using Due to

Due to means caused by and can be replaced by caused by

It does not mean because of

Example: the game was postponed due to rain - incorrect

Example the game was postponed because of the rain.

Example: the game,s postponement was due to rain.

6

Neither....????
Either.....

Neither...nor
Either.... Or

Always check if the verbs agree after or / nor

Neither the prosecutors argument nor the mountains of evidence were able to convince the jury

Verb has to agree with subject following nor

Not (a or b) nor c is also ok

7

So ......??????

So (adj) as to (verb)

So..as to structure is used as a comparative.
If you can replace so as to with in order to then the structure is wrong.

Correct: her debts are so extreme as to threaten the future of the company.

So as is never correct in GMAT

Incorrect: he exercises everyday so as to build his stamina.

Correct: he exercises everyday in an effort to build his stamina.

8

Compare to vs compare with

Compare to usually refers describing the resemblance between unlike things

He compared her to sa summer day
Scientists sometimes compare the human brain to a computer

Compare with refers to examining two like things

The police compared the forged signature with the original.

9

Whether vs. if

On the GMAT, whether will (almost) always beat if
Incorrect: Her client didn’t tell her if he had sent his payment yet.
Correct: Her client didn’t tell her whether he had sent his payment yet.

Whethervs.If

Whether”iscorrectwhenasentencedescribesalternatives

CORRECT: “Whethertovoteornot.”“If”iscorrectwhenasentencedescribesahypotheticalsituation. CORRECT: “Ifheweretoparticipate,hewould

10

Each

Each
From: http://www.testmagic.com/forums/showthread.php?t=5164
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This question tests one use of "each" which most of us ignore. The traditional rule still holds true i.e. "the
subject of a sentence beginning with each is grammatically singular".
But there is another rule which says that: When each follows a plural subject, the verb and subsequent
pronouns remain in the plural: e.g. the apartments each have their own private entrances (not has its own
private entrance)
1. Three cats each eat ...
2. Three cats, each of which eats ...,
In 1, each is postpositive Adj, whereas in 2, it is distributive determiner.
Television can be superficial, as when three major networks each broadcast exactly the same.
Adverb clause of manner with temporal adverb clause:
Television can be superficial, as [TV is superficial] when three networks each broad cast the
same
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
quote:

11

Although it claims to delve into political issues, television can be superficial such as when each of the three major
networks broadcast exactly the same statement from a political candidate.
(A) superficial such as when each of the three major networks
(B) superficial, as can sometimes occur if all of the three major networks
(C) superficial if the three major networks all
(D) superficial whenever each of the three major networks
(E) superficial, as when the three major networks each

oks wrote:
How can E be correct if each broadcasts, not broadcast??
IMO "E"...

Although it claims to delve into political issues, television can be superficial such as when each of the three major networks broadcast exactly the same statement from a political candidate.

(A) superficial such as when each of the three major networks
Each.....broadcast...S-V mismatch.
(B) superficial, as can sometimes occur if all of the three major networks
Although X, Y....Here X, Y should be complete clause....which is not the case.

(C) superficial if the three major networks all
Although X, Y....Here X, Y should be complete clause....which is not the case....because of if.


(D) superficial whenever each of the three major networks
Each.....broadcast...S-V mismatch.

(E) superficial, as when the three major networks each
Since subject is Networks....not each....so "each" following subject has no bearing on the verb...as opposed to A, and D where "each" is the subject.

12

X has half the chance........y has

X has half the chance that Y has.

13

So vs it

'So' is used to replace a Verb in a Sentence whereas 'It' is used to replace a Noun.

14

Curfew is ......

Second, "curfew" is a singular count noun and therefore requires a determiner (the).

15

Skill is.......

I agree with you that skill can be both a count noun as well as a non-count noun. it
all depends upon the context.
Have a look at the example below:
1. Harry knows quite a few driving skills.
Conversely, if were to ask Harry about his driving skills, I would ask.
2. How much skill do you have in driving a car, Harry?
So you see, the word "skill" remains the same but depending on the context, skill
can be a non-count or a count noun?

16

Concerned for vs concerned with

Concerned for = worried or anxious.
Concerned with = related to.
so the correct one should be "He is concerned for investor relations "
This is concerned with investor relations is probably the right usage.

17

As such

As Such

[often with negative] in the exact sense of the word:
it is possible to stay overnight here although there is no guest house as such

Usually used for speech rather than written.

18

Reduced vs reduction

Reduced Costs = Reduction IN costs (result of reduction)
"Reduction of" is used when reducing by a certain amount. e.g. reduction of 20%.

19


Schliemann determined at the age of seven to find the site of ancient Troy and (devoted his subsequent career to
do it).
a)...
b) has devoted his subsequent career to do that
c) devoted his subsequent career to such an end
d) has devoted his subsequent career for that
e) devoted his subsequent career to that end

E

Schliemann determined at the age of seven to find the site of ancient Troy and devoted his subsequent career to do it.



A. devoted his subsequent career to do it

Not idiomatic and it is used very ambiguously . TO DO SO is preferable


B. has devoted his subsequent career to do that

has means he is still devoting and not parallel with determined


C. devoted his subsequent career to such an end

Awkward


D. has devoted his subsequent career for that

wrong tense


E. devoted his subsequent career to that end[/quote]

correct tense and use of THAT END, which clearly refers to the first part of the sentence

20

The domesticated camel, which some scholars date around the twelfth century B.C., was the key to the
development of the spice trade in the ancient world.
a. The domesticated camel, which some scholars date
b. The domesticated camel, which some scholars have thought to occur
c. Domesticating the camel, dated by some scholars at
d. The domestication of the camel, thought by some scholars to have occurred
e. The camel's domestication, dated by some scholars to have been

IMO: D

(A) The domesticated camel, which some scholars date
Doesn't make sense. One cannot date a domesticated camel, unless they are into that sort of thing.

(B) The domesticated camel, which some scholars having thought to occur
Sounds weird

(C) Domesticating the camel, dated by some scholars at
"Domesticating" does not agree with tense

(D) The domestication of the camel, thought by some scholars to have occurred
Now this one looks pretty good. Tenses agree and it is clear that we are talking about the impact of the domestication of the camel.

(E) The camel’s domestication, dated by some scholars to have been
"Have been" is present perfect, but our sentence deals with the past.

_________________
I don't know what to say, really. Three minutes to the biggest battle of our professional lives. You find out life's this game of inches, so is football. Because in either game - life or football - the margin for error is so small. I mean, one half a step too late or too early and you don't quite make it. One half second too slow, too fast and you don't quite catch it. I'll tell you this, in any fight it's the guy whose willing to die whose gonna win that inch. That's football guys, that's all it is. Now, what are you gonna do?

21

The central issue before the court was how far the regulatory agencies should go in requiring better working conditions in factories.
a. in requiring better working conditions in factories
b. as far as requiring better working conditions in factories
c. in their requirement that factories should have better working conditions
d. as far as requiring that factories should have better working conditions
e. to require factories to have better working conditons

A

The sentence tricks you to believe that its a subjunctive case and hence you should pick the base form of the verb that is REQUIRE.

As require can be used with TO : We require you TO BE in the office.

Or with THAT : The boss requires THAT John be in the office.

But read the sentence carefully do we really need a subjunctive case here ? No

The central issue before the court was how far the regulatory agencies should go .

Should in the original sentence indicates that this is not a subjunctive case and we dont need to use the base form of the verb.

22

Prepositions

Prepositions
Any questions? Ask TestMagic!
Jump to:
• Rule
• Be careful!!
• List of prepositions
Rule
Back to top
the most important rule for prepositions is:
preposition + noun
This is the TestMagic list of most of the prepositions you will ever see on the TOEFL.
There are a few more prepositions in English that are not listed here, but you will
probably not see them on the TOEFL since they are fairly uncommon.
This list is very important-you should know at least 90% of this list. And don't forget,
after every preposition, we must have a noun, and only a noun; NEVER can we have
a verb after a preposition.
Be careful!!
Back to top
Six (6) of these prepositions can also be subordinating conjunctions . In other words,
they can be followed by a noun or by a sentence, depending on the meaning.
Huh? Can you show me some examples??
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Sure, no problem. Look:
• After lunch, I felt sleepy.
o In this sentence, After is a preposition and is therefore followed by
only one noun, lunch (no verb here!!).
• After I worked twelve hours, I felt tired.
o In this sentence, After is a subordinating conjunction and is followed
by a sentence, I worked twelve hours.
• I worked until midnight.
o Here, until is a preposition and is followed by a noun, midnight. No
verbs, please!!!
• I worked until I felt tired.
o In this sentence, until is a subordinating conjunction and is followed
by a sentence, I felt tired.
List
Back to top
1. aboard
2. about
3. above
4. absent
5. according to
6. across
7. after (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other
words, it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the
meaning).
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8. against
9. ahead of
10. all over
11. along
12. alongside
13. amid or amidst
14. among
15. around
16. as (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words,
it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the
meaning).
17. as of
18. as to
19. as + ADVERB OF TIME + as
20. as early as
21. as late as
22. as often as
23. as much as
24. as many as, etc.
25. aside
26. astride
27. at
28. away from
29. bar
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30. barring
31. because of
32. before (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other
words, it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the
meaning).
33. behind
34. below
35. beneath
36. beside
37. besides
38. between
39. beyond
40. but
41. by
42. by the time of
43. circa
44. close by
45. close to
46. concerning
47. considering
48. despite
49. down
50. due to
51. during
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52. except
53. except for
54. excepting
55. excluding
56. failing
57. for (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words, it can be
followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).
58. for all (this means despite)
59. from
60. given
61. in
62. in between
63. in front of
64. in keeping with
65. in place of
66. in spite of
67. in view of
68. including
69. inside
70. instead of
71. into
72. less
73. like
74. minus
75. near
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76. near to
77. next to
78. notwithstanding
79. of
80. off
81. on
82. on top of
83. onto
84. opposite
85. other than
86. out
87. out of
88. outside
89. over
90. past
91. pending
92. per
93. plus
94. regarding
95. respecting
96. round
97. save
98. saving
99. similar to
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100. since (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words, it can be
followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).
101. TestMagic List © 2002
102. than
103. thanks to (this means because of)
104. through
105. throughout
106. till
107. to
108. toward or towards (both forms are correct, but toward is considered
slightly more formal)
109. under
110. underneath
111. unlike
112. until (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words, it can be
followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).
113. unto
114. up
115. upon
116. up to
117. versus
118. via
119. wanting
120. with
121. within
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122. without

23


Although about 99 percent of the more than 50 million Turks are Muslims, the republic founded by Mustafa Kemal
Ataturk in 1923 is resolutely secular.
a...
b. Although about 99 percent of over 50 million of the
c. Although about 99 percent of more than 50 million
d. Despite the fact that about 99 percent of more than 50 million
e. Despite the fact that about 99 percent of over 50 million


A

Whew! This is one of the most commonly asked questions... I think it's going to take
a while to explain, and I don't think I can do it tonight since I've got class in the
morning.
Here's the short answer: if we use "the," we are saying that there are only 50 million
Turks in the whole world; if we don't use "the," we are saying that there are possibly
more than 50 million Turks in the world.
This one's similar to the one in the Official Guide, the one about the "Thomas
Jefferson... setting free the more than 500 slaves..."
All things being equal, I'd have to say that "invest in" is slightly preferable to "invest
into."
I think there's also a very slight difference in meaning--"invest in" would be the
better choice for such traditional investments as stocks and bonds, while "invest
into" could be used in more metaphorical investments, such as the time, energy, and
love you might shower upon your children.
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24

Like vs as

Just as vs "in the same way that"

1) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just like / as a lion stalking its prey.

2) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just as / like a lion stalking its prey moves

Like vs As

Use like when you want to focus on two nouns;
Use as when you want to focus on two nouns doing two actions.

Another little trick is that "just as" can replace "in the same way that..."

Let's compare two very similar sentences that could cause confusion:

1) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just like a lion stalking its prey.
here like is better because we are compareing cat with lion. we cannot compare move with stalking as both actions are different.

2) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just as a lion stalking its prey moves.
This one sounds very good to me; it explains how a my cat moved.

25

The majority of the talk was devoted to an account of the experimental methods used by investigators in the
field.
a. ...
b. The greater part of the talk was
c. The bulk of the talk has been
d. A large amount of the talk has been
e. A predominance of the talk was

B

Good one!! "majority" should be used with count nouns only.
Make sense? Hope so!!
Erin
The majority of the water is dirty.
Is "unidiomatic," because "water" is a non-count noun.
Just in case, count nouns can be counted (bottle, idea, person, brush, etc.);
noncount
nouns cannot be counted (water, furniture, information, soap, luggage, etc.).
There is, however, a lot of overlap between the two--beer, coke, coffee, material,
love, etc. can all be either count or non-count, depending on our meaning, context,
or level of formality.
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HTH!!

26

Do I say:

1) Most of the people is/are...?"
2)Most of the water is/are...?"
3) One of the people is/are...
4) Each of the students is/are.
5) 1% of the 100 people is/are...
6. The teacher together with the student is / are going to...?
7. The teacher and the student is / are going to?
8) the number of people has / have increased
9) A number of people has // have gone
10) People are leaving California in greater numbers (correct / wrong)
11) People are spending more money on the Internet in greater numbers.(correct / wrong)

Each / Every / one are (Singluar or plural)
10% / Half / all and most are (Singular or plural)

Here's the rule: quantifier + of + NOUN + verb
The NOUN determines whether the verb is singular or plural.

For example:
Most of the people is/are...
because the quantifier "most" refers to "people," (a plural noun) so "most" is plural Countable
in this sentence
.
Most of the water is/are...
because the quantifier "most" refers to "water," (a non-count noun) so "most" is
Plural Non- Countable in this sentence.

1) Most of the people are...
"Most" becomes a count noun because "people" is a count noun.

2) Most of the water is...
"Most" becomes a non-count noun because "water" is a non-count noun.

Of course, if the quantifier is always singular, then the verb must always be singular,
too.

3) One of the people is...
4) Each of the students is...
5) 1% of the 100 people is/are...

because, of course, 1% of 100 is one, and that's singular, right?
.

6. The teacher together with the student IS (or ARE) going to...?
7. The teacher and the student ARE (or IS)going to?

Generally speaking, we need a conjunction to create a plural subject from more than

"together with" is NOT a conjunction, and therefore cannot create a plural subject.
"and," on the other hand, IS a conjunction and CAN create a plural subject.

I'm concluding:

"a number of ..." always takes plural verbs.
"the number of ..." always takes singular verbs.
8) the number of people has increased
9) A number of people have gone
The important thing here is that the number in the first example (the
number of women employed outside the home) is an actual number--35,000,
for example. Even if you add more women to the original number, there will
still be one number, right?
The second usage of "numbers" is also correct, and means that there are
many people in that group. For example, it is correct to say:
10) People are leaving California in greater numbers.
11) People are spending more money on the Internet in greater numbers.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

27

Credit....

• credit SB with STH (verb): give responsibility for. Thomas Edison is credited with
inventing the light bulb.
• credit X to Y (verb): give money or credit to. The bank credited $1 million to
trebla's account.
• credit for (noun): money received for or in exchange for something. The
customer received a $20 credit for the interruption in service.

28

Thinking words

So there are a few things you need to know here for GMAT Sentence Correction.
First is this--you should know that GMAT likes to test you on "thinking words." These are
words that indicate some sort of mental process, such as believe, belief, idea, theory, notion,
concept, etc. Please note that both verbs and nouns can be considered "thinking words."
GMAT typically likes to follow these words with that and a sentence. For example, on the
GMAT it's better to say:
• Lucise's belief that the Earth is flat was easily accepted.
than to say:
• Lucise's belief of the Earth being flat was easily accepted.
It is okay to use of if we want to indicate only a noun. That's why, for example, we say theory
of relativity.
In this case, if we choose answer choices that use of instead of that, we seem to be talking
more about theories of land mammals; we are not identifying the action of those land
mammals. In other words, with the that, we are leaving out what it is that the theory purports
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the mammals did.

29

Crisis

Crises is the plural of crisis

30

Data

Data is plural of datum

31

Linking verbs

1) Megumi speaks Japanese better than i _______
2) Megumi has visited more countries than i _______
3) Megumi has more skirts than i ______

1) Megumi speaks Japanese better than I do.


2) Megumi has visited more countries than I have.

We can use have again because have is an auxiliary verb here.

Megumi has more skirts than I do.
Here, has is NOT an auxiliary verb, and in SAE, we cannot use the verb have in the

32

Modelled after

“Modeled After” is the correct idiom

33

Hopefully

Hopefully is always wrong in gmat


Usage Note: Writers who use hopefully as a sentence adverb, as in Hopefully the
measures will be adopted, should be aware that the usage is unacceptable to many critics,
including a large majority of the Usage Panel. It is not easy to explain why critics dislike
this use of hopefully. The use is justified by analogy to similar uses of many other
adverbs, as in Mercifully, the play was brief or Frankly, I have no use for your friend.
And though this use of hopefully may have been a vogue word when it first gained
currency back in the early 1960s, it has long since lost any hint of jargon or
pretentiousness for the general reader. The wide acceptance of the usage reflects popular
recognition of its usefulness; there is no precise substitute. Someone who says Hopefully,
the treaty will be ratified makes a hopeful prediction about the fate of the treaty, whereas
someone who says I hope (or We hope or It is hoped) the treaty will be ratified expresses
a bald statement about what is desired. Only the latter could be continued with a clause
such as but it isn't likely. ·It might have been expected, then, that the initial flurry of
objections to hopefully would have subsided once the usage became well established.
Instead, critics appear to have become more adamant in their opposition. In the 1969
Usage Panel survey, 44 percent of the Panel approved the usage, but this dropped to 27
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percent in our 1986 survey. (By contrast, 60 percent in the latter survey accepted the
comparable use of mercifully in the sentence Mercifully, the game ended before the
opponents could add another touchdown to the lopsided score.) It is not the use of
sentence adverbs per se that bothers the Panel; rather, the specific use of hopefully in this
way has become a shibboleth.

34

Being vs since vs because

(less preferred) being < since < because

35

1) One third of this article is / are taken up with statistical analysis.
2) All of the book seems / seem relevant to this study.
3) Half of what he writes is / are undocumented.
4) About fifty percent of the job is / are routine.
5) All the information is / are current.
6) One third of the students have / has graduate degrees.
7) Fifty percent of the computers have / has CD-ROM drives.
8) Many researchers depend / depends grants from industry.
9) Fifty percent of the computers have CD-ROM drives.
10) Half of my family lives/live in Canada.
11) All of the class is/are here.
12) Ten percent of the population is/are bilingual

Rule of Fractions: with fractions and singular noun use singular tense. And with plural nouns use plurals.

1) One third of this article is taken up with statistical analysis.
2) All of the book seems relevant to this study.
3) Half of what he writes is undocumented.
4) About fifty percent of the job is routine.
5) All the information is current.
6) One third of the students have graduate degrees.
7) Fifty percent of the computers have CD-ROM drives.
8) Many researchers depend on grants from industry.
9) Fifty percent of the computers have CD-ROM drives.
10) Half of my family lives/live in Canada.
11) All of the class is/are here.
12) Ten percent of the population is/are bilingual.

36

During

During
"during" + time period is WRONG. For example:
During two hours, I felt sleepy.
but
During the last two hours, I have felt sleepy.
To make our sentence correct with "during," we'd need to add some information that
would identify which two decade-period we are talking about. For example:
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Even though its per capita food supply hardly increased during the two decades between 1940
and 1960...

37

quote:
Originally posted by Linda
4. What does "that which" refer to in this sentence. (correct answer is D)
The inhabitants of Somalia greeted the measures outlawing polygamy with a similar defiance that welcomed the
prohibition of alcohol in the United States in the nineteen-twenties.
a...
b. a similar defiance which welcomed
c. a similar defiance to what welcomed
d. a defiance similar to that which welcomed
e. the same defiance welcoming

In English, instead of saying something like "that that" we say "that which." For
example:
The number we recorded this week is greater than that which we recorded last week.
is preferable to
The number we recorded this week is greater than that that we recorded last week.
In this sentence
The number we recorded this week is greater than that which we recorded last week.
that = number
and
which = number
Notice that this sentence equals
The number we recorded this week is greater than the number that we recorded last
week.
So in our sentence here, we want to say:
The inhabitants of Somalia greeted the measures outlawing polygamy with a defiance
that was similar to the defiance that welcomed the prohibition of alcohol in the United
States in the nineteen-twenties.
This is a great SC trick!
Adjectives modify nouns; adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Sometimes in SC we must choose which to use according to the meaning.
• supposed Mediterranean predecessors.
This sentence means that we are not sure whether these things are actually
predecessors.
• supposedly Mediterranean predecessors.
This sentence means that we are not sure whether these things are actually
Mediterranean.
The answer is B, not D.

38

Consider
Regard....
Think of....


Look for these common idiom tricks on GMAT questions:
o Consider, regard...as, think of...as: there is no as after consider, while both regard and think of need the as.
o To be/being: In general, avoid the construction to be/being because they are usually passive. To be/being are commonly used in junk answer choices. Idioms in Bold tend to be more common on the GMAT

39

Access
Act
Allows

A
access to
The company has access to large capital reserves.
act as
The poison pill in the contract acts as a preventative measure against hostile takeovers.
allows forThe design of the robot arm allows for great flexibility.

40

Based...
Begin...
Believe.....
Between...

B
based on
The results are based on a comprehensive ten year study.
begin to
He will begin to study twelve hours before the test.
believe X to be Y
After seeing the flying saucer, I believe UFOs to be a real phenomenon.
between
Used when discussing two things (if there are more than two, then use among instead). He could not decide between Corn Flakes and Raisin Bran.

41

Care....
Centers....
Choose...
Consistent....

C
care about
How much do business schools care about your score?
centers on + noun
The GMAT centers on the knowledge of basic math and writing/reading skills.
choose to
The number of students who choose to go to business school has increased in the last ten years.
consistent with
Your grades are not consistent with your abysmal GMAT scores.

42

Decide....
Decide....
Depend....
Different....

D
decide to
We decided to continue.
decide on
We decided on the new format.
depend on
The global economy depends on improving productivity.
different from
The CAT is very different from the paper and pencil GMAT.

43

Essential...
Except....

E
to be + essential to + noun
Speed is essential to success in the Internet marketplace.
except for
He did well on the GMAT, except for the sentence correction questions.

44

Flee....
Grow....
Grow....
Help....
Fate....

F
flee from
The convict fled from the country.
G
grow from
Dell Computer grew from a start- up to a Fortune 500 company in less than fifteen years.
grow out of
Needless to say, they quickly grew out of their first office.
H
help + noun + to
Their direct business model helped them to grow rapidly.

45

Leads...
Like...
Localized....
Mistake....

L
leads to
Rapid growth often leads to problems.
like
Usually only used for direct comparison: He walks like Joe walks.
localized in
Most Internet venture capital is localized in a few areas of the world.
M
mistake + noun + for
I mistook you for an old friend.

46

Save...
Save...
So...
Subscribe...

S
save for
Save for William, no one else passed the exam.
save from
Many people use business school to save them from dull jobs.
so that
So should not be used as an adjective: GMAT preparation is so... boring. Use it with "that." This guide is designed so that you may raise your score.
subscribe to
Business school students should subscribe to the Wall Street Journal.

47


Examples 1. When choosing a car you often have to choose (between/among) practicality and performance.

2. A small order of french fries has much (fewer/less) fries than the super-sized order.

3. I prefer Mozart (to/over) Beethoven.

4. Timothy talks (like/as) his friends do.

5. He was studying (in/at) a rate of two practice GMATs per day.

6. The joint-venture contract covers such questions (like/as) the division of profits and Costs

7. Dan Marino is regarded (as/to be) one of the greatest quarterbacks to ever play football.

GMAT CAT format.
o The most effective way to learn idioms is to practice them. Whenever you get an idiom question wrong, write down the idiom. Make a list and memorize. There are a finite number of idioms that could be tested on the GMAT, and with enough practice, you should be able to cover most of them.
Examples 1. When choosing a car you often have to choose (between/among) practicality and performance.
Between is correct. Use "between" to distinguish two things, such "practicality" and "performance." Use "among" for more than two things. The bank robbers divided the stolen money "among" the five of them."
2. A small order of french fries has much (fewer/less) fries than the super-sized order.
Fewer is correct. Fewer answers the question "How many?" relating to something that could be counted individually." Less "refers to things such as pudding, cake, or flour, which cannot be reasonably quantified
3. I prefer Mozart (to/over) Beethoven.
"Prefer to" is the proper expression.
4. Timothy talks (like/as) his friends do.
This is one of the few instances "like" should be used in English. "Like" is used here as a direct comparison.
5. He was studying (in/at) a rate of two practice GMATs per day.
It's "at a rate of," instead of "in a rate of."
6. The joint-venture contract covers such questions (like/as) the division of profits and costs.
"Covers… as" is better here. "Like" should be used very rarely, only for direct comparisons (Joe plays like his brother).
7. Dan Marino is regarded (as/to be) one of the greatest quarterbacks to ever play football.
The idiom is "regarded as."

48


a debate
a lot a responsibility
a result
a sequence
agree


a debate over
a lot a responsibility to
a result of
a sequence of
agree with

49

fascinated .....
forbid X ......Y
identical .....
in contrast .....
independent ......

fascinated by
forbid X to do Y
identical with
in contrast to
independent from

50

Speak to/with:
Whether vs. As to whether
Whether vs.

Speak to/with: To speak to someone is to tell them something: We spoke to Jennings about the alleged embezzlement. To speak with someone is to discuss something with them: Steve spoke with his friend Dave for hours yesterday. The reason is because: This structure is redundant. Equally common and doubly redundant is the structure the reason why is because. (Poor) The reason why I could not attend the party is because I had to work. (Better) I could not attend the party because I had to work.

Whether vs. As to whether The circumlocution as to whether should be replaced by whether. (Poor) The United Nations has not decided as to whether to authorize a trade embargo. (Better) The United Nations has not decided whether to authorize a trade embargo.

Whether vs. If Whether introduces a choice; if introduces a condition. A common mistake is to use if to present a choice. (Faulty) He inquired if we had decided to keep the gift. (Correct) He inquired whether we had decided to keep the gift.

51

1. ability
2. ability
3. able
4. absent
5. accept
6. accepted ...... COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY
7. accepted ....... GROUP
8. accepted ......COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY
9. access ......SOMETHING
10. accused .....SOMETHING BAD

1. ability in SOMETHING
2. ability TO DO SOMETHING
3. able TO DO SOMETHING
4. absent from SOMETHING
5. accept into + GROUP
6. accepted at + COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY
7. accepted into + GROUP
8. accepted to + COLLEGE/UNIVERSITY
9. access to SOMETHING
10. accused of SOMETHING BAD

52

Accept/Except:
Account for:
Adapted to/for/from
Affect/Effect:
All ready vs. Already

Accept/Except: Accept means "to agree to" or "to receive". Except means "to object to" or "to leave out". We will accept (receive) your manuscript for review. No parking is allowed, except (leave out) on holidays.

Account for: When explaining something, the correct idiom is account for: We had to account for all the missing money. When receiving blame or credit, the correct idiom is account to: You will have to account to the state for your crimes.

Adapted to/for/from Adapted to means "naturally suited for". Adapted for means "created to be suited for". Adapted from means "changed to be suited for". The polar bear is adapted to the subzero temperatures. For any "New Order" to be successful, it must be adapted for the continually changing world power structure. Lucas' latest release is adapted from the 1950 B-movie "Attack of the Amazons."

Affect/Effect: Effect is a noun meaning "a result". Increased fighting will be the effect of the failed peace conference. Affect is a verb meaning "to influence". The rain affected their plans for a picnic.

All ready vs. Already All ready means "everything is ready". Already means "earlier". Alot vs. A lot Alot is nonstandard; a lot is the correct form.

53

11. accustom ......SOMETHING
12. acquaint .......SOMETHING/SOMEBODY 13. act .....ROLE
14. adapt .....WORK
15. adapt .....SOMETHING
16. addicted ....SOMETHING
17. admit ..SOMETHING
18. advantage ....SOMETHING
19. afraid ....SOMETHING
20. X agree ....+ DOING SOMETHING X (change to agree to do something)

11. accustom to SOMETHING
12. acquaint with SOMETHING/SOMEBODY 13. act as ROLE
14. adapt from WORK
15. adapt to SOMETHING
16. addicted to SOMETHING
17. admit of SOMETHING
18. advantage of SOMETHING
19. afraid of SOMETHING
20. X agree on + DOING SOMETHING X (change to agree to do something)

54

21. agree ....+ SOMETHING
22. agree .....DO SOMETHING
23. agree .....SOMETHING
24. agree ....SOMEBODY
25. aid + SOMEBODY or SOMETHING
26. aid SOMETHING + in + DOING SOMETHING
27. *** aim ....DO SOMETHING ***
28. *** aimed ....DOING SOMETHING ***
29. allow ....SOMETHING
30. angry ....SOMEBODY (some grammarians consider this unidiomatic)

21. agree on + SOMETHING
22. agree to DO SOMETHING
23. agree to SOMETHING
24. agree with SOMEBODY
25. aid + SOMEBODY or SOMETHING
26. aid SOMETHING + in + DOING SOMETHING
27. *** aim to DO SOMETHING ***
28. *** aimed at DOING SOMETHING ***
29. allow for SOMETHING
30. angry at SOMEBODY (some grammarians consider this unidiomatic)

55

31. angry ....SOMETHING
32. apologize ....SOMETHING
33. appeal ....SOMEBODY, Erin Billy, for example
34. applied ...SOMETHING
35. apply .....SOMETHING
36. approach (the noun, not the verb) ....SOMETHING
37. approve ....SOMETHING
38. argue .....SOMETHING
39. argue ......SOMETHING
40. arrive ...SOMETHING

31. angry with SOMETHING
32. apologize for SOMETHING
33. appeal to SOMEBODY, Erin Billy, for example
34. applied to SOMETHING
35. apply to SOMETHING
36. approach (the noun, not the verb) to SOMETHING
37. approve of SOMETHING
38. argue about SOMETHING
39. argue for SOMETHING
40. arrive at SOMETHING

56

41. arrive .....SOMETHING
42. *** as... as... ***
43. ascribe ....BELIEF
44. ask + SOMEBODY + SOMETHING
45. ask + SOMEBODY + TO DO SOMETHING 46. ask + TO DO SOMETHING
47. associate ....SOMETHING
48. *** attribute SOMETHING .....SOMEBODY/SOMETHING ***
49. averse ....SOMETHING TestMagic.com
50. aversion ....SOMETHING (less common, but correct)
51. aversion .....SOMETHING (most common form)
52. aversion .....SOMETHING (less common, but correct)
53. aware .....SOMETHING

41. arrive in SOMETHING
42. *** as... as... ***
43. ascribe to BELIEF
44. ask + SOMEBODY + SOMETHING
45. ask + SOMEBODY + TO DO SOMETHING 46. ask + TO DO SOMETHING
47. associate with SOMETHING
48. *** attribute SOMETHING to SOMEBODY/SOMETHING ***
49. averse to SOMETHING TestMagic.com
50. aversion for SOMETHING (less common, but correct)
51. aversion to SOMETHING (most common form)
52. aversion toward SOMETHING (less common, but correct)
53. aware of SOMETHING

57

Example:
The studio's retrospective art exhibit refers back to a simpler time in American history.
A) The studio's retrospective art exhibit refers back to
b)The studio's retrospective art exhibit harkens back to
C) The studio's retrospective art exhibit refers to
d) The studio's retrospective art exhibit refers from
e) The studio's retrospective art exhibit looks back to

Choice (A) is incorrect. Retrospective means looking back on the past. Hence, in the phrase refers back, the word back is redundant. Choice (B) is incorrect because harkens back is also redundant. Choice (C) is correct. Dropping the word back eliminates the redundancy. Choice (D) is incorrect because the preposition from is non-idiomatic. Choice (E) is incorrect because looks back is also redundant. Note: One could argue that the phrase American history also makes the sentence redundant. However, it is not underlined in the sentence. It is not at all uncommon to find questionable structures in parts of the sentence that are not underlined. In fact, you may even find questionable structures in the underlined part of the sentence that are not corrected by any of the answer choices because the writers are testing a different mistake. Concern yourself with correcting only the underlined part of the sentence.

58

Among/Between:
Being that vs. Since:
Beside/Besides: .
Center on vs. Center around

Among/Between:
Between should be used when referring to two things, and among should be used when referring to more than two things. The young lady must choose between two suitors. The fault is spread evenly among the three defendants.

Being that vs. Since: Being that is nonstandard and should be replaced by since. (Faulty) Being that darkness was fast approaching, we had to abandon the search. (Better) Since darkness was fast approaching, we had to abandon the search.

Beside/Besides: Adding an s to beside completely changes its meaning: Beside means "next to". Besides means "in addition". We sat beside (next to) the host. Besides (in addition), money was not even an issue in the contract negotiations.

Center on vs. Center around Center around is colloquial. It should not be used in formal writing. (Faulty) The dispute centers around the effects of undocumented workers. (Correct) The dispute centers on the effects of undocumented workers.

59

Fewer/Less:
Identical with (not to):
In contrast to (not of):

Fewer/Less: Use fewer when referring to a number of items. Use less when referring to a continuous quantity. In the past, we had fewer options. The impact was less than what was expected.

Identical with (not to): This bid is identical with the one submitted by you.

In contrast to (not of): In contrast to the conservative attitudes of her time, Mae West was quite provocative.

60

Conform to (not with):
Consensus of opinion
Correspond to/with:
Different from/Different than: .

Conform to (not with): Stewart's writing does not conform to standard literary conventions.

Consensus of opinion Consensus of opinion is redundant: consensus means "general agreement".

Correspond to/with: Correspond to means "in agreement with": The penalty does not correspond to the severity of the crime. Correspond with means "to exchange letters": He corresponded with many of the top European leaders of his time.

Different from/Different than: The preferred form is different from. Only in rare cases is different than acceptable.
The new Cadillacs are very different from the imported luxury cars.

61

Double negatives:
Doubt that vs.
Farther/Further

Double negatives: (Faulty) Scarcely nothing was learned during the seminar. (Better) Scarcely anything was learned during the seminar.

Doubt that vs. Doubt whether Doubt whether is nonstandard. (Faulty) I doubt whether his new business will succeed. (Correct) I doubt that his new business will succeed.

Farther/Further: Use farther when referring to distance, and use further when referring to degree. They went no further (degree) than necking. He threw the discs farther (distance) than the top seated competitor.

62

Independent of (not from): .
Not only . . . but also:.
On account of vs. Because:
One another/Each other: .

Independent of (not from): The judiciary is independent of the other branches of government.

Not only . . . but also: In this construction, but cannot be replaced with and. (Faulty) Peterson is not only the top salesman in the department and also the most proficient.
(Correct) Peterson is not only the top salesman in the department but also the most proficient.

On account of vs. Because: Because is always better than the circumlocution on account of. (Poor) On account of his poor behavior, he was expelled. (Better) Because he behaved poorly, he was expelled.

One another/Each other: Each other should be used when referring to two things, and one another should be used when referring to more than two things. The members of the basketball team (more than two) congratulated one another on their victory. The business partners (two) congratulated each other on their successful first year.

63

Plus vs. And:.
Regard vs. Regards: .
Regardless vs. Irregardless
Retroactive to (not from):

Plus vs. And: Do not use plus as a conjunction meaning and. (Faulty) His contributions to this community are considerable, plus his character is beyond reproach. (Correct) His contributions to this community are considerable, and his character is beyond reproach. Note: Plus can be used to mean and so long as it is not being used as a conjunction. (Acceptable) His generous financial contribution plus his donated time has made this project a success. In this sentence, plus is being used as a preposition. Note, the verb has is singular because an intervening prepositional phrase (plus his donated time) does not affect subject verb agreement.

Regard vs. Regards: Unless you are giving best wishes to someone, you should use regard. (Faulty) In regards to your letter, we would be interested in distributing your product. (Correct) In regard to your letter, we would be interested in distributing your product.

Regardless vs. Irregardless
Regardless means "not withstanding". Hence, the "ir" in irregardless is redundant. Regardless is the correct form.

Retroactive to (not from): The correct idiom is retroactive to: The tax increase is retroactive to February.

64

Who vs whom

Rule
Use the he/him method to decide which word is correct.
he = who
him = whom

Examples:
Who/Whom wrote the letter?
He wrote the letter. Therefore, who is correct.
For who/whom should I vote?
Should I vote for him? Therefore, whom is correct.
We all know who/whom pulled that prank.
This sentence contains two clauses: We all know and who/whom pulled that prank. We are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom. He pulled that prank. Therefore, who is correct. (Are you starting to sound like a hooting owl yet?)
We want to know on who/whom the prank was pulled.
This sentence contains two clauses: We want to know and the prank was pulled on who/whom. Again, we are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom. The prank was pulled on him. Therefore, whom is correct.

65

Who vs that vs which

Rule 1
Who refers to people. That and which refer to groups or things.

Examples:
Anya is the one who rescued the bird.
Lokua is on the team that won first place.
She belongs to an organization that specializes in saving endangered species.

Rule 2
That introduces essential clauses while which introduces nonessential clauses.

Examples:
I do not trust products that claim "all natural ingredients" because this phrase can mean almost anything.
We would not know which products were being discussed without the that clause.
The product claiming "all natural ingredients," which appeared in the Sunday newspaper, is on sale.
The product is already identified. Therefore, which begins a nonessential clause.

NOTE: Essential clauses do not have commas surrounding them while nonessential clauses are surrounded by commas.

Rule 3
If this, that, these, or those has already introduced an essential clause, you may use which to introduce the next clause, whether it is essential or nonessential.

Examples:
That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.
Those ideas, which we've discussed thoroughly enough, do not need to be addressed again.

NOTE: Often, you can streamline your sentence by leaving out which.

Example:
That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.

Better:
That is a decision you must live with for the rest of your life.

66

Whoever vs whomever

Whoever vs. Whomever
Rule 1
To determine whether to use whoever or whomever, here is the rule:
him + he = whoever
him + him = whomever

Examples:
Give it to whoever/whomever asks for it first.
Give it to him. He asks for it first.
Therefore, Give it to whoever asks for it first.
We will hire whoever/whomever you recommend.
We will hire him. You recommend him.
him + him = whomever
We will hire whoever/whomever is most qualified.
We will hire him. He is most qualified.
him + he = whoever

Rule 2
When the entire whoever/whomever clause is the subject of the verb that follows the clause, look inside the clause to determine whether to use whoever or whomever.

Examples:
Whoever is elected will serve a four-year term.
Whoever is elected is the subject of will serve.
Whoever is the subject of is.
Whomever you elect will serve a four-year term.
Whomever you elect is the subject of will serve. Whomever is the object of you elect.

ARE YOU READY FOR THE QUIZ?



67

The number of vs A number of

When u use the number of use singular.

When u use A number of use plural

Ex: the number of excuses grows every time he tells a story.

Ex: a number of survivors of the plane crash swim to the shore.

68

Use of one in the

???

69

1. He lit the fire, which was bright.
2. He lit the fire, working at the same time.
3. The computers are fast, so too are modems, the devices, that connect.....

What does which, working and the devices refer to.

Which refers to fire ( immediately preceding the comma)

Working refers to him ( subject of the sentence)

The devices refer to modems ( immediately preceding the comma)

70

During...
For.....
After....
Beginning......

All of theses should be followed by time duration

71

Which is correct

A) ....majority of talk....
B) ......greater part of talk....

Majority is wrong because it is used for countable nouns

72

On the basis of..... , ......
On the grounds......
Restitution....
Chance....
Assume.....

On the basis of "argument", " conclusion"
On the grounds for
Restitution for
Chance for
Assume that

73

From X ..... Y
Attribute.....
Reaction between.......
, there......

From X to Y
Attribute to
Reaction between.....and.....
, there is wrong

74

Recur over and over
.....which....
Not so much.......
Regard......
Think of.......
After when

Recur over and over is redundant
Which without a comma in the beginning is wrong
Not so much ...... As
Regard....as
Think of.....as
After when is wrong

75

Can for be used as because
For that.....

For can sometimes be used as because
Ex: crisis donor result from malice; for nations like in.....

For that is usually not liked by Gmat

76

Despite vs Although

Despite and although are both used to express contrasts. In GMAT although is preferable to despite.

Despite his efforts, he failed
Although he tried, he failed.

77

During......
And which
Method....
Distinction...

During.....past simple...
And which can be replaced by " to"
Method for not of or to
Distinction of

78

Each of vs each
Express...

Each of is singular whereas each is p,
Express that

79

Each other vs one another

Each other: used when two persons are involved.
Ex: Ross and Rachel love each other.

One another
One another- used when three or more than two people
Ex: the three brothers love one another

80

As long as vs So long As

As long As-deals with physical comparison
Ex: the baseball bat was as long as the club

So long as-deals with a condition
Ex: so long as you maintain your cool, the meeting should be fine

81

Equal vs equivalent

Equal-should be used only in its strict sense.
Ex: 4+3 is equal to 5+2

Equivalent-is preferable when we are saying that two things are not entirely identical, but are almost equal
Ex: country x spent $xx on something, equivalent to the GDP of country Y

82

Gotten

"Gotten" is often used as the past participle of "get" instead of "got" in American English. "Gotten" is used to express a status/possession.

Examples:

I haven't yet gotten myself an ipod

Have you gotten your homepage updated?

83

Collective nouns

"Collective Nouns" such as a group (of things), a crowd (of people), a herd (of cattle), a flock (of sheep), a regiment (of soldiers) etc. are usually SINGULAR and they take a SINGULAR VERB.

Examples:

A crowd of people has gathered.
A flock of sheep was grazing.


EXCEPTIONS:

If the members of the group are taken individually, then a PLURAL VERB may be used.

Example:

The audience are requested to leave by the nearest exit -- Groups of people take the nearest exit. They are not considered as a single group. So, we use a plural verb.

84

Class nouns

"Class Nouns" such as Clothing, Food, Furniture, Apparel, Hardware, Equipment, Software etc. are always SINGULAR and must therefore take a SINGULAR verb.

_________________
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85

Pair of

"A pair of" when applied to things where two components are always thought of together (such as Scissors, Shoes, Gloves etc.) is SINGULAR.

Examples:

That pair of scissors belongs to me.
Not a single pair of socks was clean.


If you omit "pair of" and merely use the plural word, then it must take a PLURAL verb.

Examples:

Those scissors belong to me.
His trousers were well-tailored.

86

Much

"Much" in the beginning of the sentence implies SINGULARITY. Because Much is an expression of quantity. Much is used with uncountable nouns.

Example:

Much of the news published today is exaggerated.

87

Following pronouns always implies SINGULARITY,

Following pronouns always implies SINGULARITY,

1. Each
2. Everybody
3. Everyone
4. Nobody
5. Someone
6. Somebody

88

Togather with
Alongwith

The phrases "together with", "Alongwith", "As well as" have a similar meaning to the conjunction "AND", but they do not work the same as "AND".

Examples:

John, alongwith Lina, was walking.
The teacher, alongwith the students, was having a meal.

89

Quantity words - Singular OR Plural?

Quantity words - Singular OR Plural?

1. For pronouns such as "All", "Some", "Any", "Most", "None" (SANAM), determine whether the pronoun referring to something is COUNTABLE or not.
If it is COUNTABLE, the sentence takes PLURAL verb. If it is NOT COUNTABLE, the sentence takes SINGULAR verb.

Examples:
Some of the students in the class have taken exam. -- Students are COUNTABLE. Hence, it takes plural verb "have"
Some of the grain was ruined in floods. -- Grain is NOT COUNTABLE. Hence, it takes singular verb "was".


2. With fractional expressions, determine verb by what is being measured: COUNTABLE or NOT.

Examples:
Three-fifths of the students in the class have taken their exams. -- Students are COUNTABLE. Hence, it takes plural verb "have"
Half of the grain was lost -- Grain is NOT COUNTABLE. Hence, it takes singular verb "was".

90

Either or
Neither nor

Either-Or and Neither-Nor:

The subject that is closer to the verb determines the number (singular or plural form) of the verb.

Examples:
Neither the President nor his ministers were in favor of the war. -- verb is closer to the subject "ministers" (plural). Hence, verb is also PLURAL.
Neither the ministersnor the President was in favor of the war. -- verb is closer to the subject "President" (singular). Hence, verb is also SINGULAR.


Either and Neither: (Without Or and Nor)

ALWAYS SINGULAR.

91

Quantity Words:

Quantity Words:

Two Items More than two items
------------- --------------------------
Between Among
More Most
Better Best
Less Least


Used with Used with
Countable Items Uncountable items
--------------------- -----------------------
Fewer Less
Number Amount, Quantity
Many Much

92

How far.....go...

How far they should go in

93

Agree

Agree”Agreewithanotherperson. CORRECT: “IagreewithJoeyonthisissue.”Agreetooruponsomethinginanimate. CORRECT: “Iagreetoyourproposal.” CORRECT: “Acourseofactionwasagreedupon

94

Just as

Just as”“Justas”canreplace“inthesamewaythat”. CORRECT: “JustasElvischangedthefaceofrockn’roll,Hawkingchangedthefaceofastrophysics

95

Rather than

rather than” Use“ratherthan”toexpressapreference. VERBAL SENTENCE CORRECTION “Due to” T hebestmeaningfor“dueto”is“causedby.” CORRECT: “Iwouldprefernonfatmilkratherthan creaminmycoffee

96

Pronoun errors

Pronoun Errors Ambiguouspronounreference-eachpronounmust agreeinnumberwiththenounitreplaces INCORRECT: “FredandVijaywenttothesoccer match,buthesaidthathelikedcricketbetter.” Singular/Pluralnounagreement-eachpronounmust referdirectlyandunambiguouslytothenounitreplaces INCORRECT: “Theaveragedentistexpectspatientsto beontime,andtheyareusuallymistaken

97

Ambiguous Gerundial Clauses

Ambiguous Gerundial Clauses, 1 of 2 INCORRECT: “Drivingtoaholidaydinner,Fred’swallet waslost.” T hissentenceimpliesFred’swalletdrovetoaholidaydinner. Onewaytofixexampleabove:Rearrangesentenceorderand altersecondhalfofsentencesothatinanimateobjectdoes notrefertoactionverbinfirsthalfofsentence. VERBAL SENTENCE CORRECTION Ambiguous Gerundial Clauses, 2 of 2 INCORRECT: “Drivingtoaholidaydinner,Fred’swallet waslost.” Anotherwaytofixexampleabove:Changefirsthalfof sentenceintoadverbialclause,whichclarifiesthesubjectof thesentencethatisinthesecondphrase. CORRECT: “Fredlosthiswalletashedrovetoa holidaydinner

98

Parallel construction

Parallel Construction Asignalthatyoumayhaveaparallelconstructionerroris agroupofphrasessetoffbycommas. Spotthisproblemby: •Findingaseriesofactions,lists,orsentences dividedintoparts. •Makesurethateachlistitemhassimilarstructure (i.e.,noonepartofthelistisdistinctfromtheothers intermsofgrammaticalconstructionorlength

99

Verb tense

Verb Tense Asentencethatbeginsinonetenseshouldgenerallystay inthattense. •Oftenrelatedtoparallelconstructionquestions. EXCEPTION: Pastperfect(ex:“had/have+verb”).An actionsetinthepastperfectmusthaveanotheraction thatcomesafteritsetinthesimplepast. CORRECT: “Bobwasfiredafterhehadworkedatthe companyforonlytwoweeks

100

Common word trap

Common Word TrapPolitics–Singularword CORRECT: “Politicsisnotforthefaintofheart.”People–Pluralword CORRECT: “PeopleareoftenconfusedaboutgrammaticalissuesthatariseontheGMAT

101

Avoid apples to oranges

Avoid Apples to Oranges ComparisonsComparenounstolikenouns: CORRECT: “TherosesatSarah’sweddingwereprettierthantheorchidsatJane’swedding.” INCORRECT: “IenjoyreadingthepoemsofKennethKochmorethanEmilyDickinson.”Compareactionstolikeactions: CORRECT: “Beeswaxcandlesburnmorecleanlythansyntheticcandles

102

Quantity words and idioms

Quantity Words and Idioms CORRECT: “OntheflighttoChicago,Bettyhadtochoosebetweentwodrinkoptions.” CORRECT: “OntheflightbacktoNewYork,Bettyhadtochooseamongthreedinneroptions.”CountableItems:Non-CountableItems:•Fewer•Less•Number•Amount,quantity•Many•Much

103

Misplaced or Dangling Modifiers

Modifiersshouldbeascloseaspossibletothewordor clausetheymodify. INCORRECT: “SarahJanerarelysparkedinterestin men,thoughnotaplaingirl.” CORRECT: “SarahJane,thoughnotaplaingirl,rarely sparkedinterestinmen

104

Like vs such as

like, such as

like”=“similar to” CORRECT: “Hergracefulcomportmentmadeherseemlikeadancer,althoughshehadneversetfootonastage.

such as”=“for example” CORRECT: “Ienjoyactivitiessuchasskydiving,heliskiingandscubadiving

105

Idioms involving“as

Memorize:•
regard as”(don’tuse“tobe”)
as long as”
Such activities as
Play as

Idioms involving “as”Memorize:•“regardedas”(don’tuse“tobe”)•“aslongas”•“suchquestionsas”•“playsas

106

None
No one

None, No one”“None”shouldbesingular,evenwhentoyourearitseemsasthoughitshouldbeplural. CORRECT: “Noneoftheboysenjoyscampingashedoes.”“Noone”isalwayssingular. CORRECT: “Nooneenjoyscampingasmuchashedoes

107

Passive vs active tense

Passive vs. Active Verb Tense Avoidpassiveverbtenses!Theseareusuallypresentor pastperfectformsofverbs. •“Have/Had+VERB+-ing”israrelythecorrectchoice. VERBAL SENTENCE CORRECTION “Compare” “Compareto”comparesUNLIKEthings,whereas “comparewith”comparesLIKEthings.“Compareto”is usedtostressresemblance. •Activetenseispreferredinsentencecorrectionquestions. •“By”isoftenanindicationofthepassivevoice

108

Greater vs more

Passive vs. Active Verb Tense Avoidpassiveverbtenses!Theseareusuallypresentor pastperfectformsofverbs. •“Have/Had+VERB+-ing”israrelythecorrectchoice. VERBAL SENTENCE CORRECTION “Compare” “Compareto”comparesUNLIKEthings,whereas “comparewith”comparesLIKEthings.“Compareto”is usedtostressresemblance. •Activetenseispreferredinsentencecorrectionquestions. •“By”isoftenanindicationofthepassivevoice

109

One of the....

One of the…” “Oneofthe[PLURALNOUN]that/who[PLURALVERB]” CORRECT: “Heisoneofthepersonswhobake spectacularcakes.” VERBAL SENTENCE CORRECTION “Consider” When“consider”means“regardas,”“as”shouldnotbe presentwith“consider”inthesentence.“Consider”isalso notfollowedbyaninfinitivelike“tobe”. “Onlyoneofthe[PLURALNOUN]that/who[SINGULAR VERB]” CORRECT: “Heistheonlyoneoftheemployeeswho waspromoted

110

Consider

Consider” When“consider”means“regardas,”“as”shouldnotbe presentwith“consider”inthesentence.“Consider”isalso notfollowedbyaninfinitivelike“

INCORRECT: “Scientistsconsidercontrolfactorstobe anintegralelement…” CORRECT: “Scientistsconsidercontrolfactorsan integralelement

111

Just as....

Idiom: “just as…so” Makesureelementsareparellel. CORRECT: “Justasgillsaretofish,solungsare tohumans

112

Having

Having”“Having[PASTPARTICIPLE]”isusedtoexpressactionsthatarefinishedandtoconveyorderofoccurrence. CORRECT: “HavingeatenahugeThanksgivingdinner,Elliotloosenedhisbeltonemorenotch

113

Credit...

Idiom: “Credit” “CreditAwithB”:giveresponsibilityfor CORRECT: “Belliscreditedwithinventingthetelephone.” “CreditXtoY”:givemoneyorcreditto CORRECT: “Thebankcredited$4milliontohisaccount.” “Creditfor[NOUN]”:moneyreceivedfororinexchange forsomething CORRECT: “Thepowercustomerreceiveda$20credit foraninterruptionofservice

114

Thinking words

T hinking Words T hinkingwordssuchas“theory,belief”or“believe”are oftenfollowedby“that”. CORRECT: “Lucy’sbeliefthattheHolocaustdidnot occurismisguided.” INCORRECT: “Lucy’sbeliefof

115

Hopefully

Hopefully” “Hopefully”isnearlyalwayswrongontheGMAT. •Avoidsentencechoiceswiththisword

116

Numbers Greater than 1

Numbers Greater than 1 Numbersgreaterthan1arepluralunlessyouarereferringtothenumberitself. CORRECT: “Twooutofeverythreedogownersinthe U.S.alsoownacat.” CORRECT: “Twoismyfavoriteprimenumberbecause itisalsoeven

117

Comparison of actions

Comparison of Actions Watchoutforcomparisonofactions/inanimateobjects performingcomparedactions: INCORRECT: “FrenchwinestastebetterthanAustralian wines.”(Implieswinesaretasting.) CORRECT: “FrenchwinestastebetterthanAustralianwinesdo.” “FrenchwinestastebetterthanAustralianwinestaste.” “FrenchwinestastebetterthandoAustralianwines

118

1) Having + Past Participle

2) Having eaten already, I turned down Megumi's invitation to dinner. (Correct or Wrong)

3) Having been sick and having felt tired, Alan did not want to go to work.(Correct or Wrong)

4) Having set, the Sun rose some hours later.(Correct or Wrong)

1) having + past participle is used to express actions that are finished and to show that one thing comes afteranother. Furthermore, there is usually a "because relationship between the two. For


2) Having eaten already, I turned down Megumi's invitation to dinner.

This sentence is okay

3) Having been sick and having felt tired, Alan did not want to go to work.

This sentence is NOT okay, because the two things should be happening at
the same time All the things in this sentence are happening at the same time, so we should NOT
use the "having + past participle" construction here. And this sentence is incorrect because there's no "because relationship" between the
two parts of the sentence:

4) Having set, the Sun rose some hours later.

The Sun will set and rise no matter what; setting doesn't cause rising, so we
shouldn't use the "having + past participle" construction here.

119

As....
Associate...
Attribute....

as....as
Chocolate tastes as good as ice cream.
associate with
He associates beer with potato chips.
attribute to
The poor first quarter results are attributed to the restructuring.

120

A responsibility .....
A result.....
A sequence .....

a responsibility to
The CEO has a fiduciary responsibility to all shareholders.
a result of
The recent Nasdaq decline is a result of higher interest rates.
a sequence of
The Sumerian text was a sequence of incomprehensible symbols.

121

Agree....
Among
As or

agree with
The Teamsters do not agree with the Republicans on many issues.
among
Used when discussing more than two items. He was the finest policeman among the hundreds of rookies.
as good as/or better than
The new software is as good as or better than anything on the market

122

As great....
Attend....
Attribute...
Attributed.....

as great as
The new house looks as great as I had hoped.
attend to (someone)
The emergency room doctor attended to the injured victim.
attribute X to Y/X
We attribute the results to the new management.
attributed to Y
The extinction of the dinosaurs has been attributed to an asteroid collision.

123

Contend....
Consider....
Continue....
Contrast....

contend that
He contends that the GMAT has a cultural bias.
consider + noun
How important do you consider the test?
continue + to
If you continue to study, you will succeed.
contrast A with B
If you contrast A with B, you can see the difference.

124

Convert....
Compare... To vs with
Count....
Concerned...

convert to
You may convert muscle to fat if you study too much.
compare A to B
(compare to stresses similarities). The music critic favorably compared him to Bob Dylan.
compare A with B
(compare with stresses differences). Broccoli is good for you compared with ice cream.
count on + noun
He counts on management support.
concerned with
They are concerned with investor relations more than actual profitability.

125

Conform.....

conform to
When you work at a new company, you should try to conform to its corporate culture.

126

Difficult....
Distinguish.....
Distinguish....
Depends....

difficult to
Many students find the CAT difficult to take.
distinguish between X and Y
Distinguish between domestic and international production.
distinguish X from Y
Juries must attempt to distinguish truth from falsehood.
depends on whether
Our place in the playoffs depends on whether we win tonight.

127

Indicate.....
Invest ....
Identical....
In contrast ....
Independant....
Indifferent....

I
indicate that
Dell's recent stock trouble may indicate that their growth will not continue to be as rapid.
invest in
He is too risk-averse to invest in the stock market
identical with
His DNA is identical with his twin's.
in contrast to
The candidate claims to support tax cuts, in contrast to his prior statements.
independent from
The Federal Reserve Board is supposed to be independent from political considerations.
indifferent towards
Some countries are indifferent towards human rights.

128

Modeled...
More....
Native....
Native....

modeled after
The judicial building is modeled after the Parthenon.
more than ever
Companies demand MBA graduates now more than ever.
N
native to
There is a unique business culture native to the U.S.
a native of
It infects those who are not even a native of America.

129

Need...
Necessary....
Neither...
Not only....

need to
Living in New York City is an experience everyone needs to try.
to be + necessary + to
It is necessary to get a high GMAT score to get into Stanford.
neither...nor
Neither Tom nor Sam has the necessary skills to finish the job.
not only...but also
Stanford not only has the highest GMAT average, but also the highest GPA.

130

Prohibit....
Potential....
Range....
Refer....

P
prohibit from + gerund
You are prohibited from using a calculator on test day.
potential to
A graduate of a top business school has the potential to make over $100,000.
R
range from X to Y
The GMAT scores at top business schools will range from 650 to 750.
refer to
If you have any more questions, you should refer to a grammar book.
regard as
Wharton's finance program is regarded as the finest in the world.
require + noun + to
You require a GMAT score to go to most U.S. business schools.
rivalry between X and Y
The rivalry between the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees is one of the most celebrated in professional sports.
responsible for
The manager is responsible for seven entry level employees.
retroactive to
The tax policy change is retroactive to last year.

131

Regard....
Require....
Revelry....
Responsible....
retroactive....

G

132

Tie...
Transmit...
Used...
To be used...

T
tie to
The contract should be tied to concessions.
transmit to
The communications system will transmit to anyone within range.
U
used + infinitive
Japan used to be the model industrial economy.
to be + used to + gerund
After five practice tests, he was used to the

133

as an instance
as good ....better than
as great
as good
as...or better

as an instance of
as good as/or better than
as great as as good
as...or better than

134

as much
attend
attribute X ....Y/X
attributed ....Y
based ....

as much as
attend to (someone)
attribute X to Y/X is
attributed to Y
based on

135

believe X ...Y
both X .... Y
centers ....
concerned....
conform ....

believe X to be Y
both X and Y
centers on
concerned with
conform to

136

created .....
defined .....
depends .....whether
depicted .....
different ....../differ .....

created with
defined as
depends on whether
depicted as
different from/differ from

137

distinguishes .....X .....Y
distinguish .....
doubt ....l
either...or
enable .....

distinguishes between X and Y
distinguish from
doubt that
either...or
enable to

138

indifferent ......
modeled .....l
more... ...../(no) less... ......
more .....ever
neither...nor

indifferent towards
modeled after (no)
more...than/(no) less...than
more than ever
neither...nor

139

not only.........l
not so much.......
prohibits X .......Y
potential to range ......X ....Y
regard ....regardless

not only...but also
not so much...as
prohibits X from doing Y
potential to range from X to Y
regard as regardless

140

responsible ....
resulting ....
retroactive .....
so X ......Y
so (adjective) ....

responsible for
resulting in
retroactive to so X as to be Y
so (adjective) that

141

subscribe ......
such...as
the same to X ......Y
to contrast X ......Y
to mistake X ......Y
to result ....
to sacrifice X .....Y

subscribe to
such...as
the same to X as to Y
to contrast X with Y
to mistake X for Y
to result in
to sacrifice X for Y