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Flashcards in Kaplan Physio Deck (37):
1

Extracellular Volume: When there is a net gain of fluid by the body, this compartment always _____

enlarges

2

ICF = what % of TBW

2/3

3

Concentration of solutes is the equivalent to

body osmolality

4

At steady-state, the intracellular concentration of water equals the _________concentration of water (remember the cell membrane is not a barrier for water).

extracellular

5

ECF = what % of TBW

1/3

6

what controls volume regulation?

Aldosterone and ADH

7

Intracellular fluid volume is determined by Extracellular fluid osmolality. We change the _______ first then this changes the _______

We change the extracellular volume first then this changes the intracellular volume

8

ECF is made up of

- 3/4 = interstitial fluid (ISF)
- 1/4 = plasma volume (PV)

9

Intracellular volume is only altered if ________

extracellular osmolality changes

10

if ECF osmolality increases, cells ______ water and _____

if ECF osmolality increases, cells lose water and shrink

11

the greater the [solute] the ___ the [water] will be

the greater the [solute] the LOWER the [water] will be

12

- If the overall osmolarity doesn't change then you had an _____ fluid loss
- ex)
- causes

- If the overall osmolarity doesn't change then you had an ISOTONIC fluid loss
- ex) hemorrhage, diarrhea, vomiting
- causes decrease in BP, increase in RAAS and increase in ADH

13

A net loss of body fluid ______ extracellular volume

decreases

14

- ex) of a hypotonic fluid loss
- a consequence of a hypotonic fluid loss

- ex) sweating/respiration
- ex) hypotonic urine in DI (decrease in ADH could be cause)
- decrease BP
- increase RAAS and ADH

15

the intracellular and ____________ osmolalities are the same at steady-state

extracellular

16

effect of giving a hypertonic saline

- increase BP
- decrease RAAS, ADH

17

Loss of isotonic fluid, what happens to:
- ECF Vol
- ICF Vol
- Body osmolarity
- ex)

- decrease ECF
- no change ICF
- no change osmolarity
- hemorrhage, diarrhea, vomiting

18

intracellular volume varies with the effective osmolality of the _______ first. EX)

extracellular compartment first. i.e. sweating, diarrhea, fluid resuscitation, etc

19

Loss of hypotonic fluid, what happens to:
- ECF Vol
- ICF Vol
- Body osmolarity
- ex)

- decrease ECF
- decrease ICF
- Increase osmolarity
- dehydration, DI, Alcoholism

20

Gain of isotonic fluid, what happens to:
- ECF Vol
- ICF Vol
- Body osmolarity
- ex)

- increase ECF
- no change in ICF
- no change in osmolarity
- isotonic saline given

21

Gain of hypotonic fluid, what happens to:
- ECF Vol
- ICF Vol
- Body osmolarity
- ex)

- increase ECF
- decrease ICF
- decrease osmolarity
- hypotonic saline, water intoxication

22

if ECF osmolality decreases, cells _____ water and ____

if ECF osmolality decreases, cells gain water and swell

23

RAAS stands for

renin angiotensin aldosterone system

24

Gain of hypertonic fluid, what happens to:
- ECF Vol
- ICF Vol
- Body osmolarity
- ex)

- increase ECF
- decrease ICF
- increase osmolarity

25

On a D-Y diagram what do the compartments represent?

- right of the center black line (Y-axis) = ECF
- left of the center black line (Y-axis) = ICF
- top of diagram (horizontal line intersecting Y-axis) = osmolarity.

26

What are 2 primary factors that stimulate aldosterone

1. Plasma angiotensin II (stimulates aldosterone release)
2. Plasma K+ (stimulates aldosterone release)

27

Aldosterone

- increases Na+ reabsorption in principal cells of kidney
- Na+ reabsorption plays a key role in regulating ECV
- regulates plasma K+ and increases the secretion of K+ in principal cells

28

angiotensinogen is converted to ___ by___

angiotensinogen is converted to ATI by renin

29

ATI is converted to ___ by ___

ATI is converted to ATII by ACE

30

ADH stimulates water reabsorption in principal cells of the kidney via

via the V2 receptor
- by regulating water ADH plays a pivotal role in regulating EC osmolality
- ADH also vasoconstrictor arterioles (V1 receptor)
- thus can serve as a hormonal regulator of vascular tone

31

primary regulators of ADH are

1. plasma osmolality (directly related): increase stimulates, decrease inhibits
2. BP/Vol (inversely related): increase inhibits; decrease stimulates
3. (CRH) Corticotropin releasing hormone (directly related)
4. Angiotensin II (directly related)

32

3 primary regulators of renin

1. perfusion pressure to kidneys, reflex sympathetic stimulation (inversely related): increase inhibits; decrease stimualtes
2. sympathetic stimulation to the kidney (direct effect via beta-1 receptors)
3. Na+ delivery to the macula densa (inversely related): increase inhibits, decrease stimulates

33

ADH

- stimulates water reabsorption in principal cells of the kidney
- via the V2 receptor
- by regulating water ADH plays a pivotal role in regulating:
- EC osmolality
- ADH also vasoconstricts arterioles (V1 receptor)
- thus can serve as a hormonal regulator of vascular tone

34

if ECF [sodium] increases, what happens to the ICF

if ECF [sodium] increases, ICF volume decreases
- if if ECF [sodium] decreases, ICF volume increases

35

normal extracellular osmolality

approx 290 mOsm/kg (Osmolarity of 290 mOsm/L)

36

the main factor promoting filtration

capillary hydrostatic pressure

37

the main factor promoting absorption

plasma protein osmotic force