Key Area 1.2 - Physical Landscapes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key Area 1.2 - Physical Landscapes Deck (19)
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1

How are limestone pavements formed

Glaciers passed over the top of upland limestone areas removing the top soil leaving an area of exposed rock, through abrasion
Water seeps through cracks in the limestone and the chemical weathering continues to widen the cracks forming grykes
The blocks left form blocks called clints and grykes

2

How are pot holes and swallow holes formed

Formed by the persistent weathering of a major joint such as a stream disappearing under ground.
Water seeps through joints and the stream will disappear and flow along underground channels

3

How are underground caverns formed

The process of dissolving the limestone continues underground and so sections of the rock can collapse creating underground caves
Where the surface water meets impermeable rock underground lakes and streams can be formed

4

How are stalagmites and stalactites formed

Water is loaded with dissolved limestone
When this drips from ceilings it deposits solid calcite which build down from the roof to form stalagtites
When the water splashes onto the floor it deposits solid calcite which build up from the ground to form stalagmites
If they meet they form a rock pillar

5

What is intermittent drainage

Occurs when streams carry onto a limestone area and disappear through the limestone. It then emerges at a lower level, this water is called a spring

6

What is limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary soft rock consisting of 80% calcium carbonate formed millions of years ago

7

What is a Tributary

A river which joins to a larger river

8

What is a Catchment

The area from which water drains into a particular drainage basin

9

What is a Confluence

The point at which 2 rivers join

10

What is a Watershed

The boundary dividing one drainage basin from another

11

What is a Mouth

Where the river flows into a sea or other large body of water

12

Name some of the features of a river in the upper course

V shaped Valleys
Waterfalls
Plunge Pools

13

Name some of the features of a river in the middle course

Meanders
Interlocking Spurs

14

Name some of the features of a river in the lower course

Oxbow lakes
Levees
Flood plains
Deltas

15

What are the processes of erosion

Hydraulic action
Corrasion
Corrosion
Attrition

16

What is hydraulic action

A process of erosion
Breaking away of the river bed and banks by the sheer force of the water getting into small cracks

17

What is Corrasion

Process of erosion
The wearing away if the river bed and banks by the weight of the load hitting against them

18

What is corrosion

Process of erosion
When the water dissolves mind earls from the rocks and washes them away

19

What is attrition

Process of erosion
The wearing away if the load as rocks and pebbles hit each other and the river bed breaking into smaller and more rounded pieces