Key Area 5-Symbiosis Flashcards Preview

Biology: Unit 3 > Key Area 5-Symbiosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Key Area 5-Symbiosis Deck (10):

What is a symbiotic relationship?

A coevolved intimate relationship between members of different species


What is a parasite?

An organism that depends on another organism in order to gain nutrition


How is parasites’ metabolism?

Parasites have limited metabolism which results in them being unable to process food on their own


What are the three ways a parasite can be transmitted?

-direst contact (headlice)
-release of resistant stages that are able to survive adverse conditions
-use of a vector


What is a secondary host and what is it’s advantage?

Plays a role in a parasites indirect lifecycle
-increases the chance of the parasite being spread


How is the host effected by the parasite?

Host is negatively impacted by parasitism


What is mutualism?

Mutualism refers to the symbiotic relationship between species which is beneficial to both species


Describe cellulose-digesting bacteria in herbivore gut

Herbivores lack cellulose digesting enzyme but have chambers in the but that contain cellulose digesting microorganisms. The microbes provide the enzyme for digesting cellulose and the microbes gain protection, warmth and a constant food supply (mutualistic relationship)


Describe photosynthetic algae in coral polyps

Coral polyps can’t move and feed on microorganisms in sea water. They formed a mutualistic relationship with algae zooxanthella which lives between its cells where polyp gains as much as 80% of carbs made by the algae and algae gin a secure habitat and supply of the polyps waste which they convert into protein


What are the arguments to support the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts had a symbiotic origin?

-mitochondria and chloroplast have circular dna and prokaryotes
-inner membrane of chloroplast and mitochondria has similar enzymes and transport mechanisms
-both have ribosomes like prokaryotes