Key Area 6-Social Behaviour Flashcards Preview

Biology: Unit 3 > Key Area 6-Social Behaviour > Flashcards

Flashcards in Key Area 6-Social Behaviour Deck (27):
1

What is a social hierarchy?

A system where members of a social group are organised in rank order resulting from aggressive behaviour

2

What are the advantages of social hierarchy?

-aggression is minimised
-energy is conserved
-most successful individuals pass on their genes

3

What is cooperative hunting?

When mammals hunt working together using different strategies to maximise their success

4

What are the strategies of cooperative hunting?

Ambush-driving prey towards hidden members
Running down-exhausting prey (targets weak)

5

What are the advantages of cooperative hunting?

-More food is gathered than if they were hunting alone
-Larger prey can be tackled

6

What is the condition for cooperative hunting to continue?

Only continues if more food is gathered than if hunting alone

7

Who gets the most share of gathered food?

Dominant members

8

How do social groups benefit in defence?

-safety in numbers: staying together they are protected from predators
-more eyes to look out for predators and warn the group
-they can form defends formations for further protection

9

What is altruism?

Altruism is when an animal (the donor) behaves in a disadvantageous way towards itself that’s beneficial to another animal (the recipient)

10

What is reciprocal altruism?

When an individual helps another (altruistic behaviour) with the trust that the favour will be payed back at a later date

11

What is kin selection?

Altruistic behaviour towards closely related individuals

12

What is the advantage of kind selection?

Shared genes are passed on

13

What are the four types of social insect?

Ants
Termites
Bees
Wasps

14

How are bees categorised?

Queen bee-produce eggs that drones fertilise
Workers-maintaining and defending the hive
Drones-fertilise the eggs

15

What are the advantages of bees and wasps for humans?

Bees pollinate plants to give us crops
Wasps are used as biological control

16

What is a keystone species?

A species that plays a critical role in the structure and working of an ecosystem

17

What is a primate?

A primate is an animal from the placental mammal group

18

Give examples of primates?

Monkeys
Apes
Humans
Lemurs

19

Why are long periods of parental care important in primates?

In order for the offspring to learn complex behaviour and social structures
Offspring are almost helpless initially

20

What are the ways to reduce conflict in primates?

-ritualistic display
-appeasement behaviour
-grooming
-facial expressions
-sexual presentation
-body posture

21

What is ritualistic display?

Making the primate look fiercer and larger than normal so that eventually one will concede defeat
e.g. chest beating, arms open, eyes staring

22

What is appeasement behaviour?

Used to concede behaviour to a primate
e.g. small, flat, unthreatening

23

What is grooming?

When one animal picks fleas and plant material off the fur of another animal
Forms relationships between primates

24

What is facial expressions?

In a social group of monkeys
Open and closing lips rapidly is a friendly greeting
Wide mouth grin signals fear

25

What is sexual presentation?

Females display behaviours that signal they are ready to mate
Reducing male conflict

26

What is body posture?

Lowering body posture and bowing repeatedly emphasises the position in dominance hierarchy

27

What are the factors that effect the complexity of social structure?

-Ecological niche: roles played
-Distribution of resources: more resources the bigger the group
-Taxonomic group: type of species