Flashcards in Key Area 6-Social Behaviour Deck (27):
What is a social hierarchy?
A system where members of a social group are organised in rank order resulting from aggressive behaviour
What are the advantages of social hierarchy?
-aggression is minimised
-energy is conserved
-most successful individuals pass on their genes
What is cooperative hunting?
When mammals hunt working together using different strategies to maximise their success
What are the strategies of cooperative hunting?
Ambush-driving prey towards hidden members
Running down-exhausting prey (targets weak)
What are the advantages of cooperative hunting?
-More food is gathered than if they were hunting alone
-Larger prey can be tackled
What is the condition for cooperative hunting to continue?
Only continues if more food is gathered than if hunting alone
Who gets the most share of gathered food?
How do social groups benefit in defence?
-safety in numbers: staying together they are protected from predators
-more eyes to look out for predators and warn the group
-they can form defends formations for further protection
What is altruism?
Altruism is when an animal (the donor) behaves in a disadvantageous way towards itself that’s beneficial to another animal (the recipient)
What is reciprocal altruism?
When an individual helps another (altruistic behaviour) with the trust that the favour will be payed back at a later date
What is kin selection?
Altruistic behaviour towards closely related individuals
What is the advantage of kind selection?
Shared genes are passed on
What are the four types of social insect?
How are bees categorised?
Queen bee-produce eggs that drones fertilise
Workers-maintaining and defending the hive
Drones-fertilise the eggs
What are the advantages of bees and wasps for humans?
Bees pollinate plants to give us crops
Wasps are used as biological control
What is a keystone species?
A species that plays a critical role in the structure and working of an ecosystem
What is a primate?
A primate is an animal from the placental mammal group
Give examples of primates?
Why are long periods of parental care important in primates?
In order for the offspring to learn complex behaviour and social structures
Offspring are almost helpless initially
What are the ways to reduce conflict in primates?
What is ritualistic display?
Making the primate look fiercer and larger than normal so that eventually one will concede defeat
e.g. chest beating, arms open, eyes staring
What is appeasement behaviour?
Used to concede behaviour to a primate
e.g. small, flat, unthreatening
What is grooming?
When one animal picks fleas and plant material off the fur of another animal
Forms relationships between primates
What is facial expressions?
In a social group of monkeys
Open and closing lips rapidly is a friendly greeting
Wide mouth grin signals fear
What is sexual presentation?
Females display behaviours that signal they are ready to mate
Reducing male conflict
What is body posture?
Lowering body posture and bowing repeatedly emphasises the position in dominance hierarchy