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Flashcards in Key Terms Deck (50):
0

Christian Humanism

-humanism + religion

1

Humanism

-study classics

2

Vernacular

-common everyday language of the people

3

New Monarchs

-create armies, hinder nobles, negotiate w church

4

Taille

-tax on french peasants

5

Reconquista

-centuries long Christian conquest of Spain from the Muslims

6

Indulgence

-$ -> lessen time in purgatory or cancel it

7

Anabaptist

-only adults should be baptized
-church =/= state

8

Predestination

-God already chose who'll be saved and who'll be dammed

9

Huguenots

-French Calvinist Protestants

10

Politiques

-rulers who put political necessities before personal beliefs

11

Colombian Exchange

-interchange of plants animals diseases & human populations between old & new world

12

Mercantilism

-less imports
-boost exports to make more independent economy

13

Putting- Out System

-entrepreneur beings materials to rural people who work on them from home

14

Joint-Stock Company

-multi investors raise $ for venture too lg for any to take on own, share profits

15

Absolutism

-ruler has sole power

16

Divine Right Of Kings

-rulers get authority from God & are only answerable to God

17

Intendants

-Kings reps in a territory

18

Fronde

-nobles & peasants rebel against royal authority in France

19

Robot

-forced labor of presents

20

Junkers

-landowning nobles in Prussia

21

Scientific Method

-use logic and experiments to find reg patterns in nature and describe them w natl laws & math forms

22

Philosophes

-intellectuals/writers who stressed reason, freedom of expression, religious toleration, reformed legal syst

23

Deism

-God made universe then left it alone

24

General Will

-desire of all people

25

Enlightened Despotism

-ruler uses power for good of the people

26

Enclosure Movement

-landowners had to consolidate & enclose lands
-made the poor move to city for work in factories

27

Agricultural Revolution

-advances in agriculture, scientific and organized syst of agriculture

28

Physiocrats

-French economists led by François Quesnay
-critics of merchantalism, called for free trade

29

Invisible Hand

-coined by Adam Smith
-self-regulating nature of a free marketplace

30

Parlements

-French regional courts
-hereditary nobles dominated
-right to register royal decrees before they became laws

31

Girondins

-moderate republican faction in French Revolution 1791-1793

32

Jacobins

-leader: Maximilien Robespierre
others: Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, Comte de Mirabeau
-Reign of Terror

33

Sans-Culottes

-working people of Paris
-supported radical politics

34

Levee en Mass

-conscripting males into army (French)
-new type of military force = mass participation, fully mobilized economy

35

Thermidiran Reaction

-antiradicalism reaction of French Revolution

36

Legitimacy

-rulers who were driven from their thrones should get their power back

37

Balance of Power

-weak countries join together & match the power of a stronger country

38

Liberalism

-rep gov
-min gov interference
-religious toleration
-civil liberties

39

Conservatism

-legit monarchies
-aristocracies
-established churches
-gradual change
-maintain status quo

40

Nationalism

-nations = group of people who share traditions, language, history
Chief Ideas:
-sense of belonging/duty to a nation
-enhanced by common culture, history, language, and political beliefs

41

Romanticism

Major Characteristics:
-about rebellion, risks, & powerful emotions
-a reaction to the Enlightenment
-inspired by the French Revolution & the Industrial Revolution
-gothic and medicinal motion
-love = driving force
-emotions over reason
-live recklessly, die young
-escape

42

Chartism

-demands by British workers late 1830s
-demands:
universal manhood suffrage
secret ballots
equal electoral districts
salaries for House of Commons members

43

Zollverein

-created in 1834 -> industrial growth
-#1 source of Prussia/Austria tension
-excluded Austria
-1852: all German states except Austria were in the Zollverein
-basis for a German state without Austria
-foundation for upcoming political union

44

Carbonari

-secret revolutionary society in 1820s that wanted to unite Italy

45

Luddites

-social movement against Industrial Revolution's changes
-British textile artisans
-thought new industrial machinery would cost them their jobs
-tried to destroy some machinery

46

Utilitarianism

-"the greatest happiness for the greatest number"
-should be applied to each nation's gov, econmy, and judicial syst

47

Utopian Socialists

-early 1800s socialists who wanted to replace capitalist structure w/ planned communities, cooperation
-leading: Charles Fourier, Luis Blanc, both belived property should be communally owned

48

Marxism

-focuses on social conflict and the relationship between classes
-h

49

Marxism

-focuses on social conflict and the relationship between classes
-history = result of class conflict, will end in triumph of industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie, new classless society w/o private property