Key Terms 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key Terms 5 Deck (34):
1

Puritan

English Protestants who believed in strict religious discipline and the simplification of worship; settlers of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

2

Separatist

Groups who wished to separate from the Anglican Church to begin their own churches

3

Pilgrim

English Puritans who sought religious freedom and founded Plymouth Colony in 1620

4

Mayflower Compact

Framework for self-government of the Plymouth Colony signed on the ship the Mayflower in 1620

5

Charter

Legal document giving certain rights to a person or company

6

House of Burgesses

Representative assembly of colonial Virginia formed in 1619

7

proprietary colonies

English colony granted to an individual or group by the Crown

8

Royal Colonies

English colony that was under direct control of the Crown

9

Indentured servants

Individual who agreed to work without wages for a period of time in exchange for transportation to the colonies

10

Triangular Trade

Three-way pattern of trade that involved England, English colonies in the Americas, and West Africa

11

Middle Passage

The forced transport of enslaved Africans from West Africa to the Americas

12

Magna Carta

English document from 1215 that limited the power of the king and provided basic rights for citizens

13

Parliament

Legislative body of a country

14

English Bill of Rights

Document signed in 1689 that guaranteed the rights of English citizens

15

Habeas Corpus

Constitutional guarantee that no one can be held in prison without charges being filed

16

Salutary Neglect

British policy in early 1700s which allowed the colonies virtual self-rule if Great Britain was gaining economically

17

Mercantilism

Economic policy under which a nation accumulates wealth by exporting more goods than it imports

18

Staple Crop

Crop/food that makes up the dominant part of a population’s diet

19

Cash Crop

Crop grown for sale

20

Intolerable Acts

American name for the Coercive Acts, which Parliament passed in 1774 to control the colonies

21

Second Continental Congress

Assembly of delegates representing every colony that met in 1775 in Philadelphia

22

First Continental Congress

Group of delegates that met in 1774 and represented all the American colonies, except Georgia

23

Declaration of Independence

Document drawn up by the Second Continental Congress that announced American independence and the reasons for it

24

Natural Rights

Universal rights, such as life and liberty that, according to philosophers, derive from nature rather than a government

25

Unicameral Rights

Lawmaking body made up of a single house

26

Bicameral Rights

Lawmaking body made up of two houses

27

Articles of Confederation

Original federal constitution drafted by the Continental Congress in 1777

28

Virginia Plan

James Madison’s proposal for a bicameral legislature with representation based upon population

29

New Jersey Plan

William Paterson’s proposal for a unicameral legislature with each state having one vote

30

Great Compromise

Compromise between the Virginia and New Jersey plans for a bicameral legislature; each state would have equal representation in the Senate and varied representation in the House of Representatives based on the state’s population

31

Three-Fifths Compromise

Compromise in which each enslaved person would be counted as three fifths of a person for the purposes of legislative representation

32

Separation of Powers

Principle that divides power among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government

33

Checks and Balances

System in which each branch of the government has the power to monitor and limit the actions of the other two

34

Electoral College

Group of people chosen from each state to indirectly elect the President and Vice President