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1
Q

Angle’s Classification of Occlusion

A

class 1 - 3

2
Q

Class I

A

the ideal relationship of posterior teeth when the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar is centered on the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar.

3
Q

Class II

A

malocclusion in which the mandibular dental arch is posterior to the maxillary dental arch in one or both lateral segments; mandibular first molar is distal to the maxillary first molar compared to the ideal class I relationship.

4
Q

Class III

A

malocclusion in which the mandibular dental arch is anterior to the maxillary dental arch in one or both lateral segments; mandibular first molar is mesial to the maxillary first molar compared to the ideal class I relationship.

5
Q

Anterior Guidance

A

the influence of the contacting surfaces of anterior teeth on tooth-limiting mandibular movements.

6
Q

Anterior Protected Articulation

A

(anterior guidance, cuspid guidance, cuspid rise) -
a form of mutually-protected articulation in which the vertical and horizontal overlap of the anterior teeth disengage the posterior teeth in all mandibular excursive movements.

7
Q

Arch Alignment

A

(tooth alignment) - the relative position of teeth to form a curved or “U”- shaped configuration when viewed from the occlusal aspect.

8
Q

Axial Inclination

A

the orientation of the long axis of a crown (natural or artificial) relative to the sagittal and frontal planes. It may be given generally, in terms of buccal or lingual, and mesial or distal; or specifically in degrees (some portion of 360°).

9
Q

Bennett Angle

A

the angle formed between the sagittal plane and the average path of the non- working condyle, as viewed in the transverse plane, during lateral movements.

10
Q

Balanced Articulation - (balanced occlusion)

A

the bilateral, simultaneous anterior and posterior occlusal contact of teeth in centric and eccentric positions. This occlusion is characteristic of heavily worn natural teeth and complete denture design.

11
Q

Border Movement

A

mandibular movement at the limits dictated by anatomic structures, as viewed in a given plane.

12
Q

Canine Protected Articulation

A

(canine guidance, cuspid guidance, cuspid rise)
a form of mutually-protected articulation in which the vertical and horizontal overlap of the canine teeth disengage the posterior teeth in the excursive movements of the mandible.

13
Q

Centric Cusps

A

(supporting cusps, functional cusps, stamp cusps) -
the lingual cusps of the maxillary posterior teeth and the buccal cusps of the mandibular posterior teeth. (Assumes proper interarch alignment.) Those cusps or incisal edges of teeth that contact in and support centric occlusion, usually facial cusps of the mandibular posterior teeth, the maxillary palatal cusps, and the incisal edges of the mandibular anterior teeth.

14
Q

Centric Occlusion (CO)

A

the occlusion of opposing teeth when the mandible is in centric relation. This may or may not coincide with the maximal intercuspation postion (see Maximal Intercuspation).
Important Note: CO used to be synonymous with maximal intercuspal position (MI), but this is now improper according to the prosthodontic glossary. Other disciplines and other dental institutions may still consider it synonymous with MI. You must be aware of this significant discrepancy in terminology when taking the Dental National Board Exams. Its intended meaning will require clarification.

15
Q

Centric Relation (CR)

A
  1. the maxillomandibular relationship in which the condyles articulate with the thinnest avascular portion of their respective disks with the complex in the anterior-superior position against the shapes of the articular eminences.This position is independent of tooth contact. This position is clinically discernible when the mandible is directed superiorly and anteriorly. It is restricted to a purely rotary movement about the transverse horizontal axis. ( GPT – 8 )
  2. a clinically determined position of the mandible placing both condyles into their anterior uppermost postion. This can be determined in patients without pain or derangement in the TMJ (Ramsfjord).
16
Q

Condylar Path -

A

the path traveled by the mandibular condyle in the temporomandibular joint during any movements of the mandible.

17
Q

Condylar Guidance

A

the mechanical form located on the upper-posterior region of an articulator that controls movement of its mobile member. (This movement is intended to simulate that produced by the condyles in the temporomandibular joints.)

18
Q

Curve, Anteroposterior - (curve of Spee) -

A

the concave (superiorly) line formed by the cusp tip of the mandibular canine and the buccal cusps of the mandibular posterior teeth (usually shown projected onto the median plane).

19
Q

Curve, Mediolateral - (curve of Wilson)

A

viewed from the frontal plane, it is the concave (superiorly) curve which contacts the buccal and lingual cusps of the mandibular molars bilaterally.

20
Q

Cusp-Fossa Contact -

A

the relationship that exists when a centric cusp occludes with an opposing fossa, resulting in three points of contact, with no contact on the cusp tip. Occurs in both cusp-marginal ridge and cusp-fossa occlusal schemes.

21
Q

Cusp-Fossa Occlusal Scheme

A

( tooth-to-tooth occlusion) -
the entire arrangement of posterior teeth in which centric cusps occlude exclusively in specified fossae of the opposing maxillary or mandibular counterpart crown. This articulation is usually associated with gnathologic-based oral rehabilitation (see therapeutic occlusion).

22
Q

Cusp-Marginal Ridge Occlusal Scheme

A

(tooth-to-two tooth occlusion) -
the entire arrangement of posterior teeth in which centric cusps occlude in specified fossae or on adjacent marginal ridges of the opposing maxillary or mandibular crown or crowns. This is the most common type of naturally occurring occlusion.

23
Q

Cusp-Marginal Ridge Contact

A

the relationship when a centric cusp occludes with opposing adjacent marginal ridges resulting in two contact areas. Occurs in the cusp-marginal ridge scheme of occlusion but not in the cusp-fossa scheme.

24
Q

Deflective Occlusal Contact

A

(occlusal prematurity, occlusal interference, occlusal disharmony) -
any surface which diverts the mandible from its intended movement.

25
Q

Determinants of Mandibular Movement

A

(determinants of occlusion) -
those anatomic structures that dictate or limit the movements of the mandible when the teeth are in contact. The anterior determinant of mandibular movement is the dental articulation. The posterior determinants of mandibular movement are the temporomandibular articulations and their associated structures.

26
Q

Embrasure

A

the spaces formed about the proximal contact areas of adjacent teeth. The embrasures may be divided into four regions: Occlusal (incisal), mesial, distal, and gingival (cervical).

27
Q

Excursive Movement

A

movement occurring when the mandible moves away from maximal intercuspation. - excursion

28
Q

Functional Mandibular Movements

A

all normal, proper, or characteristic movements of the mandible made during mastication, swallowing, speech, and other associated movements. (occurs within the range from centric relation to all facial-edge-to-edge-maxillary-to- mandibular-tooth excursive positions)

29
Q

Guidance

A

the influence on mandibular movements by the contacting surfaces of the maxillary and mandibular anterior.

30
Q

Height of Contour

A

a line encircling a tooth and designating its greatest circumference at a selected axial position determined by a dental surveyor; a line encircling a body designating its greatest circumference in a specified plane.

31
Q

Horizontal Overlap - (overjet)

A

the amount by which the incisal edges of the maxillary anterior teeth are labial to the incisal edges of the mandibular teeth at maximal intercuspation. The projection of teeth beyond their antagonists in the horizontal plane.

32
Q

Interference

A

any tooth contacts that interfere with or hinder harmonious mandibular movement.

33
Q

Interarch Tooth Alignment

A

the position of the mandibular teeth (or tooth) relative to the maxillary teeth (or tooth) when the teeth are maximally occluded.

34
Q

Mandibular Translation

A

(sideshift, Bennett movement) -

the mediolateral movement of the mandible when viewed in the frontal plane.

35
Q

Mandibular Translation, Early

A

the translatory portion of lateral movement in which the greatest portion occurs early in the first 4 mm of forward movement of the non-working condyle as it leaves centric relation.

36
Q

Mandibular Translation, Immediate

A

(immediate sideshift) -
the translatory portion of lateral movement in which the non-working condyle moves essentially straight and medially as it leaves the centric relation position.

37
Q

Mandibular Translation, Progressive

A

(progressive sideshift, distributed mandibular translation) -
the translatory portion of mandibular movement viewed in the transverse plane that occurs at a rate or amount that is directly proportional to the forward movement of the non-working condyle (i.e. straight line movement).

38
Q

Maximal Intercuspal Position,

A

Maximal Intercuspation - (MI, MIP, intercuspal position, IP, ICP) -
the complete intercuspation of the opposing teeth independent of condylar position.

39
Q

Maximal Intercuspal Contacts

A

tooth contacts (static) in maximal intercuspation.

40
Q

Maximal Intercuspation Occlusal Prematurity

A

(deflective contact, interference) -
any contact of opposing teeth which prevents the mandible from achieving the position of maximal intercuspation. This usually results in an increased occlusal vertical dimension which is at a minimum during maximal intercuspation.

41
Q

Mutually Protected Articulation

A

(mutually protected occlusion) -
An occlusal scheme in which the posterior teeth prevent excessive contact of the anterior teeth in maximal intercuspation, and the anterior teeth disengage the posterior teeth in all mandibular excursive movements.

42
Q

Non-Centric Cusps

A

(non-functional cusps, guiding cusps, shear cusps) -
the buccal cusps of the maxillary posterior teeth and the lingual cusps of the mandibular posterior teeth. (assumes proper inter-arch alignment.)

43
Q

Non-Working Side

A

(mediotrusive side, non-functional side, balancing side, orbiting side, idling side) -
the side of the mandible opposite to the direction of movement or displacement. Assume the direction of movement is away from maximal intercuspation. The side of the mandible that moves toward the median line in lateral excursion.

44
Q

Non-Working Side Occlusal Contacts

A

(mediotrusive side contacts, non-functional side contacts, orbiting side contacts, idling side contacts) -
any tooth surface making contact on the side of the mandible opposite to the direction of lateral displacement.

45
Q

Non-Working Side Deflective Occlusal Contacts

A

(mediotrusive interferences, non- working interferences, balancing side interferences, idling side interferences, orbiting side interferences)
any tooth surface on the non-working side which hinders the desired occlusal contact or mandibular movement.

46
Q

Occlusal Prematurity

A

any contact of opposing teeth that occurs before the planned intercuspation.

47
Q

Occlusal Table

A

the portion of the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth that lies within the perimeter of the cusp tips and marginal ridges.

48
Q

Occlusal Table Width -

A

the maximum buccolingual dimension of the occlusal table; the distance from the buccal cusp apex to the lingual cusp apex as viewed from the mesial or distal.

49
Q

Occlusal Vertical Dimension

A

(vertical dimension of occlusion, VDO) -
the distance measured between a maxillary reference point and the mandibular counterpart when the occluding members are in contact. This distance is at a minimum with the mandible in maximal intercuspation.

50
Q

Optimal Occlusion

A

(ideal occlusion) -
an occlusal scheme or design which is thought to satisfy all mechanical and neuromuscular requirements for maximum sustained health of the masticatory system.

51
Q

Physiologic Occlusion

A

an occlusion which exists in the absence of signs and symptoms of occlusion- related pathosis. Acceptability of occlusal variation and a sense of psychological and physical patient comfort are implied.

52
Q

Protrusion

A

anterior movement of the mandible.

53
Q

Protrusive contacts

A

any tooth surface making contact when the mandible moves anteriorly.

54
Q

Protrusive Deflective Occlusal Contact

A

(protrusive interference) -

any surface which hinders the desired occlusal contact or mandibular movement during anterior excursions.

55
Q

Retruded Contact Position

A

(RCP, centric relation occlusion) -
the relation of the mandible to the maxillae at the instant of tooth (or prostheses, or occlusal rim) contact following closure about the transverse horizontal axis.

56
Q

Retrusion

A

posterior movement of the mandible.

57
Q

Retruded Contacts

A

(retrusive contact) -

any tooth surface making contact when the mandible moves posteriorly.

58
Q

Retrusive Deflective Occlusal Contacts

A

(retrusive interferences) -
any tooth surface which hinders the desired occlusal contact or movement of the mandible during posterior movement. Often applied to the range of movement between maximal intercuspation and the retruded contact position (or centric occlusion).

59
Q

Reverse Articulation

A

(reverse occlusion, crossbite) -
malocclusion in which the mandibular teeth are located facial to an ideal occlusal relationship with the opposing maxillary teeth when all teeth are maximally occluded. It may involve the entire mouth, specific segments, or individual teeth. The maxillary buccal cusps articulate on the central fossae line of the mandibular teeth.

60
Q

Therapeutic Occlusion

A

an occlusal scheme devised and executed by the dentist using comprehensive restorative techniques. It may be used to counteract existing or to minimize future problems.

61
Q

Transverse Horizontal Axis

A

(hinge axis, terminal hinge axis)
a unique imaginary mediolateral line about which the mandible can be made to repeatably undergo pure rotation by clinical manipulation. Both condyles should occupy the most superoanterior position in their mandibular fossa with discs properly interposed (compare this definition with centric relation).

62
Q

Transverse Horizontal Axis Movement

A

(arc of closure)
arcing motion of the mandible about the transverse horizontal axis. The mandibular cusps move in arcs whose radii are determined by the cusp’s distance from the transverse horizontal axis.

63
Q

Transverse Horizontal Axis Deflective Occlusal Contact

A

(RCP interference, centric relation interference, CR prematurity) -
any tooth surface that hinders desired occlusal contact or mandibular movement when the mandible is rotated about the transverse horizontal axis.

64
Q

Unilateral Balanced Occlusion

A

(group function occlusion) -

simultaneous contact of most teeth on the working side, but no contact on the non-working side.

65
Q

Vertical Dimension

A

The degree of separation (distance between) the maxillae and the mandible.

66
Q

Vertical Overlap

A

(overbite) -
the amount by which the incisal edges of the maxillary anterior teeth are inferior to the incisal edges of the mandibular teeth at maximal intercuspation.

67
Q

Working Side

A

(laterotrusive side, rotating side) -
the side toward which the mandible moves or is displaced. Assume movement or displacement is away from maximal intercuspation.

68
Q

Working Side Contacts

A

(laterotrusive contacts, functional side contacts, rotating side contacts) -
any tooth surface making contact on the side of the mandible toward which it is displaced. Assume displacement occurs laterally from the maximal intercuspal position.

69
Q

Working Side Deflective Occlusal Contacts

A

(laterotrusive interference, working side interference, functional side interference, rotating side interference) -
any tooth surface on the working side which hinders the desired occlusal contact or mandibular movement.