Key Terms Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key Terms Exam 2 Deck (43)
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1

affricate

Speech sound composed of a stop followed by a fricative, such as scraTCH.

2

alveolar ridge

Tissue above the upper teeth on the roof of your mouth where your tongue rests to produce "alveolar" sounds, such as /t/ or /z/.

3

approximant

Sound made by restricting but not blocking vocal tract, such as /r/ or /j/.

4

distinctive feature

Characteristics of speech sounds that distinguish them from one another. Specifically manner of articulation, place of articulation, and voicing for consonants. As well as, height, frontness, tenseness, and roundedness for vowels.

5

epiglottis

The cartilage that covers the opening between vocal chords and the larynx.

6

flap

Consonant sound produced by single, rapid contact between two organs of articulation. In american english it is most commonly produced by the /t/ or /d/ between two vowels, like butter.

7

fricative

Speech sound such as /f/ produced when articulators are brought together closely producing friction as air passes through the mouth.

8

glide

Speech sound produced by transition from one speech sound to another, such as /w/ or /j/.

9

glottal stop

Speech sound produced in the larynx, when the glottis (opening between the vocal chords) is closed then audibly released.

10

larynx

Muscular, cartilaginous part of the respiratory tract that contains the vocal chords.

11

liquid

Consonant sound produced when articulators are in proximity of each other but do not impede airflow, such as /l/ or /r/.

12

obstruent

Speech sounds like affricates, fricatives, or oral stops, that are produced through obstruction of airflow in the mouth.

13

oral sound

Speech sound produced by funneling air through the mouth, such as affricates, fricatives, and stops.

14

phonotactic constraint

Rules for what sounds or sequences of sounds can occur in the onset or coda of a syllable in a particular language.

15

pitch

Rate of repetition or vibration of the vocal chords in the production of speech sounds.

16

soft palate (velum)

The rear surface of the roof of the mouth, leading forward to the hard palate and back towards the larynx.

17

sonorant

Any speech sound that includes "humming" or voicing.

18

spectogram

Image of a sound wave, used for acoustic and auditory phonetics.

19

stop

Speech sound produced, in part, by complete obstruction of airflow.

20

tone

Pitch of a word that changes it's meaning.

21

trachea

The "windpipe" through which air flows from the lungs to the larynx.

22

vocal chords

The elastic muscles that stretch over the larynx.

23

phonetics

Description and classification of sounds and the study of their production and perception.

As opposed to the study of application of phonetics in a particular language or language family that is phonology.

24

phonology

The study of sound systems and sound change, usually within a particular language or family of languages.

As opposed to the broader study of production, perception, classification, and description of ALL sounds that is phonetics.

25

phoneme

The smallest unit of language: individual sound units, or segments.

26

allophone

A variation of a phoneme that changes depending of phonetic environment (surrounding sounds). Such as light or dark /l/ and the aspirated /p/ or /k/.

27

articulatory phonetics

Focuses on how speech sounds are produced with articulators, like the tongue, teeth, lips, hard/soft palate etc.

28

acoustic phonetics

Focuses on how speech sounds are transmitted. (the characteristics of sound waves created and perceived as part of "speech")

29

auditory phonetics

Focuses on how the ear translates sound waves into electrical impulses to the brain and how the brain perceives these as speech sounds. (how the brain translates sound waves into speech sounds)

30

consonants

Generally involve stopping or impeding the airflow from the lungs as the articulators near or touch each other.