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What is encoding ?

Means to put something into a code , in memory info can be coded in diff forms as visual , audio, taste & smell


What is storage ?

Once info is recorded in a code it is then sorted as a memory


What is retrieval ?

For memory to function effectively it is necessary that the stored info can be recovered , retrieval involves RRR recognition , recall & construction


What is ESR?

Encoding , storage & retrieval


What is the definition of memory ? ( Sternberg 1999)

Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experience in order to use this info in the present.


What is stm memory ?

- limited amount of processing takes place. - limited capacity (7+ /-2)& short duration (max 30 secs). -unless rehearsal is used to maintain info


What is LTM?

-a permanent store which has unlimited capacity & duration. - info is passed to LTM after rehearsal


What is ESP?

Episodic, semantic & procedural memory


What is episodic & semantic & procedural memory ?

-episodic ( memory for past events). - semantic ( memory for details or facts). - procedural( memory for how to do things)


What is sensory memory ?

To retain info for long enough to allow for the consolidation of info from minute eye movements , this allows us to integrate the info rather that see life as a series "snap shots"


Who was the therapist for " the multi store memory model"

Atkinson & shiffrin (1968) & it's a cognitive approach


What are the three factors that affect duration ?

-rehearsal - when is prevented info is lost from stm. -effort- sebrechts et al (1989)- showed that info is from stm in a matter of seconds if no effort is not made to retain it. -capacity- the important factor is not the number of individual items to be recalled but the number of chunks of info


What are the 3 factors that affect our ltm ?

-childhood amnesia - very young children cannot organise & integrate memories in such fashion to recall later. -learning- good initial learning facilitates later recall from LTM (Bahrick & hall 1991) - if a person does not have a good initial experience encoding & storing their recall with suffer later. - recognition- memories from the distant past are more likely to be recalled if there is some form of recognition involved. (Bahrick & hall 1975) found that recall of old classmates could be improved if provided with clues


What's the difference with procedural & declarative memories & the difference between semantic & episodic ?

- procedural memories ( knowing how) whereas declarative memories ( is knowing that). - semantic memories ( general knowledge) whereas episodic memories is ( personal reflections)


What are the reasons for forgetting stm ?

Trace decay - info is forgotten because of the passage of time. (Peterson & Peterson 1959) found that duration of stm was approx 18 secs after which the time the memory disappeared via trace decay. Displacement- stm has limited capacity & as more Iteams are introduced into stm , it is inevitable that some items "drop out" as not enough space for them. Diversion of attention- if attention on something is not focused on info to be retained & is diverted towards something else then more likely to be forgotten. Brain damage- ( Warrington & shallices 1972) - study of KF found that his stm forgetting of audio letters & digits were greater than his forgetting of visual stimuli


Reasons for forgetting ltm ?

Trace decay - lack of use can cause decay of ltm "use it or lose it". - retroactive interference- this is when new info interferes with the ability to recall old info


What is cue dependent forgetting ?

It is easier to remember info when required to do so in he same environmental context as it was first learned ( Abernathy 1949) retrieval cues acts as a trigger for the original memory


What is state dependent forgetting ?

It is easier to remember info when you are in the same physical & emotional state as you were when you first learned it ( Goodwin et al 1969). It is has be showed in a number of altered states of consciousness - depressants, emotional states , hallucinogenics , stage of sleep and stimulants


What is brain damage?

Any change or damage to the brain which maybe a result of closed head injury , brain surgery , stork or etc may suffer from retrograde amnesia - this is loss of memory for any events which occurred prior to injury : treatment


What is korsakov syndrome ?

Is the results of advanced alcoholism causes anterograde amnesia - this is the loss of memory for new info


What is the hippocampus , cerebellum & cerebrum ?

Hippocampus- encodes and transfers new explicit memories to ltm. Cerebellum- memories involving movement


What is long term potentiation (ltp) ?

This occurs in hippocampus , ltp refers to the increase in neural responsivity. Laymans term - imagine if ur brain is a dense forest of neurones , all tangled up , when you make a connection you break through those dense branches & clear pathway. More times you walk down that pathway the clearer the pathway becomes , this why things become easier to remember the more u practice them


What is procedrual memory ?

Procedural memory is a part of ltm which is responsible for knowing how to do thing also know as motor skills.does not invole conscious thought.
-procedural memory is a subset of implicit memory and implicit memory uses past experience to remember things without thinking about them
-it differs from declarative memory or explicit memory which consists of facts and events that can be explicitly stored and consciously recalled or declared
Evidence of this is clivie wearing as he can still play the panino