Key Terms Perfusion Week 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Key Terms Perfusion Week 3 Deck (78)
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1

Action potential

electrical stimulus created by the exchange of sodium, potassium, and calcium ions across the cardiac muscle cell membrane

2

Afterload

force the ventricles must overcome to eject their blood volume

3

Apical-radial pulse

rates normally identical; discrepancy in rates termed pulse deficit; assessed in patients with certain cardiovascular disorders

4

Arterial blood pressure

measure of pressure exerted by blood as it flows through arteries

5

Arteriosclerosis

a condition in which elastic and muscular tissues of arteries are replaced with fibrous tissue and their ability to constrict and dilate decreases

6

Atrial gallop

the fourth heart sound (S4)

7

Automaticity

ability to generate an electrical impulse; usually only demonstrated by pacemaker cells

8

Bradycardia

heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute

9

Cardiac cycle

process of the contraction and subsequent relaxation of the heart that constitutes one heartbeat

10

Cardiac index

cardiac output (CO) adjusted for a patient's body size or body surface area; provides useful data regarding heart's ability to perfuse tissues

11

Cardiac output (CO)

amount of blood pumped by ventricles into pulmonary and systemic circulations in 1 minute; HR x SV = CO

12

Cardiac reserve

heart's ability to respond to increase in strenuous activity and adjust cardiac output

13

Clotting

process used by the body to form a strong patch to stop bleeding

14

Clotting factors

plasma proteins involved in the process used by the body to stop bleeding

15

Coagulation

process the body uses to stop bleeding

16

Coagulation cascade

a complex series of events activated in the body via intrinsic or extrinsic pathways to control bleeding

17

Compliance

ability of arteries to contract and expand

18

Contractility

inherent capability of cardiac muscle fibers to shorten

19

Coronary circulation

network of vessels that supply blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the myocardium

20

Depolarization

phase when the heart contracts; initiated in the sinoatrial (SA) node

21

Desaturated blood

when oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mix due to congenital heart defects

22

Diastole

phase of ventricular relaxation

23

Diastolic blood pressure

pressure when the ventricles are at rest; lower pressure; present at all time with arteries

24

Dysrhythmia (arrhythmia)

irregular pulse rhythm

25

Ectopic

extra beats

26

Ejection fraction

represents the fraction or percentage of diastolic volume ejected from the heart during systole; equal to stroke volume (SV) divided by end-diastolic volume; normal range: 50-70%

27

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

a graphic record of the heart's activity

28

Electrocardiography

diagnostic test of cardiac function

29

Extrinsic pathway

initiated when blood leaks out of a vessel into tissue spaces

30

Fibrin

the insoluble protein end product of blood coagulation, formed from fibrinogen by the action of thrombin in the presence of calcium ions; fibrin threads form a meshwork for the basis of a blood clot