Kidney Stones Flashcards Preview

Nephrology > Kidney Stones > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidney Stones Deck (5)
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1

Calcium Oxalate

Due to: hyperparathyroidism, malabsorption, distal RTA

Envelope shaped crystals

2

Uric Acid

Due to gout or myeloproliferative disorders

Rhomboid crystals, radiolucent

tx with urine alkalinization with citrate, allopurinol second line.

3

Struvite

Recurrent urinary tract infections

Staghorn Calculi, coffin lid crystals

4

Cystine

Due to decreased reabsorption of cystine in kidney

hexagonal crystals, large branched claculi

Generally stones present at young age (childhood/adolescence).

5

Dietary interventions to reduce Ca stone recurrence

Reduce sodium (decreases urinary Ca excretion)
Reduce animal protein (decreases uric acid and Ca excretion).
Increase dietary Ca (binds to oxalate in gut --> dec absorption of oxalate) - not Ca supplement
Increase fluid
Increase citrate ingestion
Increase fruits and vegetables (increases citrate excretion in kidney).