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Flashcards in Kinas samhälle Deck (124):


矛盾 máo dùn



Deng started the political reform



October 1st CCP takes over China and founds the PDC.
The war of liberation was won



China joins WTO on december 11
A US spying plane collides with a Chinese plain on Chinese controlled territory using the death of the PRC pilot and a diplomatic crisis. Hainan Island incident
China receives the nomination to host 2008 olympics



Mao Zedong dör (mycket hände detta oknycks år)


What does the term Greater China refers to?

Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan.
Usually refers to the economic and cultural relations.


Which are the levels of administration in the PRC?

provincial (province, autonomous region, municipality, and special administrative region), prefecture, county, township, and village.


Can you list some of the autonomous regions? Among them which are the special administrative regions?

Inner Mongolia

Hong Kong
Macao (Macau)


Who is leading the PRC today?

Xi Jinping and his prime Li Keqiang


Which positions are also covered by the
President? With which implications?

President of the People's Republic of China
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
Chairman of the Central Military Commission
Commander-in-chief of Joint battle command of People's Liberation Army


What is the name of the last Imperial dynasty?

Qing dynasty


First opium war

China had not had much contact with the west. Only via missionaries coming to China in the 1800. And via their export. But since they only exported they also hoarded all the silver they received for their goods and the west did not like this. The west started selling opium to the Chinese, something they became addicted to and wanted to buy.
The war ends with the treaty of Nanjing. Where Uk gets access to Hong Kong.


Second opium war

Uk expanded their Hong Kong trade



Qing dynasty falls. The Nationalist party guided by Dr Sun Yat-sen takes over. KMT/GMT
There was a warlord period following the 1911 revolution


First world war for China

The armistice of the war gave japan a large part of China which had belonged to Germany, Manchuria, to Japan. The bitter enemy.


Sun Yat-sen






The doctrine of the ‘three principles’
三民主义 - KMT

民族 minzu nationality,
民权 minquan ‘the government of the People’,
民生 minsheng ‘the People’s welfare’/livelihood.


Which was the last Chinese dynasty and when did it fall? Which were some of the main causes?

Qing dynasty.
Fell 1912
The had not been up to date with the technological advancements of the world. Tje opium wars showed the a new kind of government was needed and when some intellectuals and powerful men no longer found it worth while trying to change the conservative emperor there was an uprising.


Which was the party that established the first republic government and who was the leader associated with it?

KMT - Kuomintangi
The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren, won a parliamentary election held in December 1912. When the dynasty fell. However the army led by President Yuan Shikai retained control of the national government in Beijing. After Yuan's death in 1916, local military leaders, or warlords, asserted autonomy.


When was the first Chinese Republic established?

1912 - the Republic of China was preceded by the last imperial dynasty of China, the Qing dynasty


Which was the ideology that supported the first republican government?

Three Principles of the People: nationalism (non-ethnic, independence from imperialist domination), democracy, and the people's livelihood (free trade and Georgist tax reform)


What is Manchuria and when/how did it become a Japanese territory?

Manchuria is the most north eastern part of China.
Japan invaded in 1931


May 4th Movement

Advocacy of ‘Mr Science and Mr Democracy”
(1919 movement)
Movement of intellectuals and students and also managed to involve large groups of people

was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on May 4, 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.


When was CCP founded?



What year did Sun Yat-sen die?



What year was the treaty of Versailles signed?



When did Jiang Kai-shek (KMT) reassert control over China?



What year did the long march take place?



What was the Marco Polo Bridge incident?

The start of the Sino-Japanese war 1937-1945
Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army


When did the japanese first invade China and start the Sino-Japanese war?



What years did the Chinese civil war take place?



What is it that sparked the KMT, that remains a part of CCP and is still strong in China with regards to the west?

China was seeking a ‘recompense’ from the Western powers who had caused its decline.


What are the main organisations of the CCP?

The National Congress is the party's highest body
The National Congress elects the Central Committee, the party's highest decision-making institution between national congresses
They elect the General Secretary of the Central Committee.
As well as the Central Military Commission, Politburo, Politburo Standing Committee and the Central National Security Commission


Why and how did Mao’s policy changed after the 100 Flowers Campaign?

After the 100 Flowers campaign Mao swiftly changed course. The criticism was too heavy and the following campaign was the anti-rightist campaign camping down on the people who had dared to speak up.

Those targeted were publicly criticized and condemned to prison labor camps.

The ideological crackdown following the campaign's failure re-imposed Maoist orthodoxy in public expression, and catalyzed the Anti-Rightist Movement.


What was the The Hundred Flowers Campaign?

A period where Mao incurred the members of the CCP mainly to speak their mind on how the country and the governing could be improved.
"The policy of letting a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend is designed to promote the flourishing of the arts and the progress of science."


What was the first first ‘rectification campaign’?

The Anti-rightist Campaign.
Labour camps and famines.


What campaign came after the anti-rightist campaign?

The Great Leap Forward
The goal was fot China to reach the steel production levels of the UK in 15 years.
Many lost their lives, mostly due to too hard work or starvation.


What was the Socialist Education Campaign and when was it launched?

Lin Biao publishes Mao’s Little Red Book


What was the Great Cultural Revolution and when was it taking place?

Many slogans were launched in order to ‘destroy the old’ for a ‘red China’.
Mao became a cult-figure and ‘Mao Zedong Thought’ almost a religion
1966-1969 was a violent phase when ‘capitalist roaders’ were persecuted (including Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping)


When where the Three Bitter Years, and what odes it refer to?

It refers to the great starvation caused by the Great leap forward.


What happened in march 1959?

China occupies Tibet


When and why does the Sino-Soviet relation turn sour?

Stalin is being replaced by Khrushchev


What happens in July 1959?

The Lushan conference. Where Peng Dehuai criticizes the great Leap Forward.


Who takes over the presidency of PR when Mao takes a step back?

Liu Shaoqi


Who was Lin Biao?

He was the General of the PLA and made the army a stronghold of Maoism


Who was Jiang Qing

Maos third wife, actress, member of gang out four.


When is Deng Xiaoping recalled ti Beijing and by whom?

Zhou Enlai


Who is Zhou Enlai

The leader in 1974, Maos faithful advisor since the beginning.


When are the radical years put to an end?

In 1976 when Maos dies. Along with Zhou Enlai


Who became the leader after Mao?

Hua Guofeng


What are the name of the gang go four?

Jiang Qing
Yao Wenyuan
Zhang Chunqiao
Wang Hongwen


Who is Deng Xiaoping?

He was the paramount leader of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1989. After Chairman Mao Zedong's death, Deng led his country through far-reaching market-economy reforms. While Deng never held office as the head of state, head of government or General Secretary (that is, the leader of the Communist Party), he nonetheless was considered the "paramount leader" of the People's Republic of China from December 1978 to November 1989. As the core of the second-generation leaders of Communist Party of China, Deng shared his power with several powerful older politicians commonly known as the Eight Elders.
Died 1997


What was the four modernization's?

The reform era of Deng Xiaoping, first initiated by Zhou Enlai. The reform where introduced in 1977
Deng delivered a speech to the Eleventh Party Congress stressing the Four Modernizations of:


How did Deng deal with the legacy of Maoism?

1981 - Mao remained a crucial leader but he made mistakes, as he was misled.


What record did Deng initiate in 1978?

Reform and Open Up Policy
1979 first joint-ventures


What was the contract responsibility system?

first adopted in agriculture in 1979
The system contains two features. First, farmland is still owned by the public. Second, production and management are entrusted to individual farming households through long-term contracts. During the contract period, the farmers pay taxes to the State and collective reserves to local governments, and keep all the other produce for themselves.

The system was so warmly accepted by farmers that by the end of 1983 it had incorporated more than 90 percent of the country's farming households. The system not only released rural productive forces but also turned out to be the breakthrough of the rural reforms.


When did the Special Economic Zones come to place? And where?

henzhen, Zhuhai and Shantou in Guangdong Province and Xiamen in Fujian Province, and designated the entire province of Hainan as a special economic zone.


What are Township and Village Enterprises?

Introduced by the mid 1980s
collective-run entities
By 1997 the TVEs generated almost a third of national GDP
Market-oriented public enterprises under the purview of local governments based in townships and villages in the People's Republic of China.


What happens 1979?

Establishment of diplomatic relations US-PRC.


When and by whom is Chinas structure called "socialism with Chinese characteristics"

Jiang Zeming


When and by whom is "market socialism" added to the Chinese constitution?

Hu Jintao


When did China going WTO?



What happened with Chinese economy structure in 2002?

extension of the benefits of the SEZs to the whole country.


Which where Dengs Four Cardinal Principles?

The socialist road
The dictatorship of the proletariat/Communism
The CCP leadership


What happened 1989?

Tiananmen square massacre
Hu Yaobang was dismissed in 1987 and succeeded by Zhao Ziyang. In 1989 Gorbachov visits China. In april 1989 Hu dies. Students start gathering at Tiananmen square and demand political reform.
Zhao Ziyang supports the students and is removed from his post (later arrested). Deng Xiaoping steps back in to order the crackdown of the students movement on June, 4th.


What happened with Dengs political fraction in the 1980s?

It became dominant and Deng managed to outmaneuver Maos person of choice Hua Guofeng.
He nominated Hu Yaobang as chairma) and Zhao Ziyang as premier. they sat until 87 and 89 respectively


Who was Jiang Zemin?

Supported by Deng
General Secretary of the CCP 1989-2002
President of the PRC 1993-2003 (Premier Zhu Rongji)
President of the Military Commission 1990-2005

三个代表 The Three Represents (2002)
“The CCP always represented the requirements for developing China's
advanced productive forces, the orientation of China's advanced culture and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people.”


Who was Hu Jintao

President and party leader 2003-2013
Premier Wen Jiabao
Harmonious society or river crabs society?


Who is Xi Jinping?

A Chinese politician who currently serves as the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China,[2] the President of the People's Republic of China, and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. As Xi holds the top offices of the party and the military, in addition to being the head of state through the office of the president, Xi is sometimes referred to as China's "Paramount Leader"[3][4] and since the formal endorsement during the sixth plenum, is officially called a "core" leader.[5] As the general secretary (de facto leader), Xi is also an ex-officio member of the Politburo Standing Committee, China's top decision-making body.2012-
Premier Li Keqiang


Chinese dream

Xi said that young people should "dare to dream, work assiduously to fulfill the dreams and contribute to the revitalization of the nation." According to the party's theoretical journal Qiushi, the Chinese Dream is about Chinese prosperity, collective effort, socialism, and national glory


List at least two Communist leaders (in addition to Mao Zedong) who contributed to the founding of the PRC.

Zhou Enlai - premier under Mao
Liu Shaoqi - president 59, died in the cultural revolution due to not being friendly with Mao


What was the Jiangxi Soviet?

The largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic, an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil war.


Which were the first CCP policies in relation to land distribution?

Land reform law 1950
Nationwide agicultural reforms took place from 1950 until the spring of 1953. In some places, the law was executed with more force than was called for, leading to the mistreatment of former landlords. In all, about one million of them were executed.
Before long, the land that had been handed out to the peasants was slowly returned to the state. In a process of collectivization that started in 1953, the farmers were first organized in so-called mutual help teams. These were gradually merged into lower agrarian cooperatives. During the Great Leap Forward, these lower forms of cooperatives would be merged into huge People's Communes.


Which was the main difference between the early Maoist policies and the radical years in terms of land distribution?

Great leap forward market the shift. Before the people had had more to say regarding their own agricultural production. Now the communes grew larger and the production also sank


What defines a ‘commune’?

a group of people living together and sharing possessions and responsibilities. In this case farmland, seeds, tools, and crops.


Which were the goals of the Great Leap Forward?

The campaign was led by Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization


Which were the outcomes of the Great Leap Forward?

It caused the Great Chinese Famine


Which years are considered the ‘Bitter Years’ and why?

The three bitter years is the Great Chinese Famine, between 1959-1961


Briefly describe the trajectory of Deng Xiaoping within the CCP?

After the great leap forward he was favored in the CCP but then Mao started the cultural revolution in 66 and he was sent away, when the cultural revolution was over and Mao was outplayed he gained favor again and later was the paramount leader of China even if he never held the official position.


Who launched the policy of the ‘four modernizations’?

Zhou Enlai in 1963, and enacted by Deng Xiaoping, starting in 1978


Which sectors did the ‘four modernizations’ take as their central sectors?

Strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology in China


What does SEZ mean?

Special economic zone


Who are the two main political figures in China today? And which roles do they serve?

Xi Jinping - president
Li Keqiang - prime minister


Who was Hu Yaobang? What was his role in relation to the Movement which led to the events on Tian’amen square (which day marks the end of the students movement)?

Hu Yaobang (November 20, 1915 – April 15, 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China. He was the leader of the Communist Party of China from 1981 to 1987, first as Chairman from 1981 to 1982, then as General Secretary from 1982 to 1987. Hu joined the Chinese Communist Party in the 1930s, and rose to prominence as a comrade of Deng Xiaoping. During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), Hu was purged, recalled, and purged again, following the political career of Deng.

Throughout the 1980s Hu pursued a series of economic and political reforms under the direction of Deng.
When widespread student protests occurred across China in 1987, Hu's political opponents successfully blamed Hu for the disruptions, claiming that Hu's "laxness" and "bourgeois liberalization" had either led to, or worsened, the protests. Hu was forced to resign as Party general secretary in 1987, but was allowed to retain a seat in the Politburo.

A day after Hu's death, in 1989, a small-scale demonstration commemorated him and demanded that the government reassess his legacy. A week later, the day before Hu's funeral, some 100,000 students marched on Tiananmen Square, leading to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.


What does the term ‘Democray Wall’ refer to?

During the November 1978 to December 1979, thousands of people put up "big character poster" on a long brick wall of Xidan Street, Xicheng District of Beijing, to protest about the political and social issues of China. Under acquiescence of the Chinese government, other kinds of protest activities, such as unofficial journals (Chinese: 地下刊物), petitions, and demonstrations, were also soon spreading out in major cities of China. This movement can be seen as the beginning of the Chinese Democracy Movement. It also known as the "Democracy Wall Movement" (Chinese: 民主牆運動). This short period of political liberation was called as "Beijing Spring".


When did China entered to the WTO and what did it mean?



Which are the resent leader teams? President and prime minister

Jang Zemin - Li Peng (Zhu Rongji)
Hu Jintao - Wen Jiabao
Xi jinping - Li Keqiang


What does the expression ‘Xi-Li administration’ refers to?

the current administration


In which years were the economic reforms and policy of the ‘opening up’ launched?



Which leader is credited as the father of China’s Reform Era?

Socialism with Chinese characteristics
Deng Xiaoping
The first stage, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, involved the decollectivization of agriculture, the opening up of the country to foreign investment, and permission for entrepreneurs to start businesses. However, most industry remained state-owned. The second stage of reform, in the late 1980s and 1990s, involved the privatization and contracting out of much state-owned industry and the lifting of price controls, protectionist policies, and regulations, although state monopolies in sectors such as banking and petroleum remained. The private sector grew remarkably, accounting for as much as 70 percent of China gross domestic product by 2005.[5] From 1978 until 2013, unprecedented growth occurred, with the economy increasing by 9.5% a year. The conservative Hu-Wen Administration more heavily regulated and controlled the economy after 2005, reversing some reforms


What does PL A mean and what is it?

Peoples Liberation Army. The official name of China’s armed forces


Which army retreated to the island of Taiwan on which the Republic of China is based?

The Republic of China Armed Forces


What does the 1911 Revolution mark in Chinese history?

The end of dynasties and the beginning of a new warlord era in addition to the two major world wars. Both civil and international and bilateral wars.


Elizabeth C. Economys argument regarding Chinas environmental crisis

She argues that China's approach to environmental protection mirrors its economic development program: devolving authority to local officials, opening the door to private individuals, and inviting participation from the international community, while retaining only weak central control.

The result has been a patchwork of environmental protection in which a few wealthy regions with strong leaders and international ties improve their local conditions, while most of the country continues to deteriorate, and some regions suffer irrevocable damage.

A historical legacy from the dynasties.


When did China start to develop environmental institutions?

1972 in connection to the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment


What was the airpocalypse?

The nickname of Beijings air pollution in Junuary 2013
Deemed forty times the level deemed safe by the World Health Organization (WHO)
They introduced a warning system after this. The red allert was used in the beginning of 1015


How many cars where there in China in 2004 and 20014 respectively?

2004 - 27 million
2014 - 154 million


How many procent of the Chines population lived in cities in 2000 and 2015 respectively?

2000 - 36%
2015 - 54%


one world, one dream. olympics

Green Olympics, High-tech Olympics and People’s Olympics


What does Waley-Cohen underline as elite mentality regarding foreign ideas?

China’s political elites ‘have been consistently reluctant to allow free rein to any kind of foreign ideology, for fear of losing political and moral control over that portion of the population for whom the foreign ideology might come to prevail over Chinese values and traditions.’


What happened in Chinese IR 1999?

NATO bombed Chinas embassy in Belgrade


What characterizes Chinas self image?

An unstable consciousness of ancient glory and modern humiliation still haunts contemporary China’s self-image,

olympics article


Peter Hays Gries ov contemporary chinese patriotism

cannot be read literally, but must be understood in their historical and political contexts. When tributary missions came to pay obeisance, imperial officials referred to China as ‘our inferior nation’ (biguo) and the tributaries as ‘your superior nation’ (guiguo). They were so confident that China was the undisputed center of civilization . . . that they could afford the self-deprecation. By contrast, Chinese diplomats under the People’s Republic have routinely referred to China as ‘great’ (weida). These diametrically opposite choices of diction point to an insecurity – central to today’s nationalism – about China’s international status.

olympics article


When did the peaceful rise become a thing in Chinese IR?

In 2003


Who is Zhuo Yongkang?

the partys former security chief and the highest member of the CCP to be under investigation for corruption under Xi.


Xishan Club

Businessmen and politicians from Shanxi province with much power


what was the Yan'an period?

After 1937 the communist where gathered in Yan'an with the KMT surrounding them


When did the farmland become collectivized?

Following the Communist Party of China's victory in the Chinese Civil War, control of the farmlands was taken away from landlords and redistributed to the 300 million peasant farmers.[10] In 1952, gradually consolidating its power following the civil war, the government began organizing the peasants into teams. Three years later, these teams were combined into producer cooperatives, enacting the Socialist goal of collective land ownership. In the following year, 1956, the government formally took control of the land, further structuring the farmland into large government-operated collective farms.

Although private plots of land were re-instated in 1962 due to this failure, communes remained the dominant rural unit of economic organization during the Cultural Revolution


When was the farmland reorganized in to communes?

By 1956 the transformation of mutual aid teams into agricultural cooperatives was nearly complete.

These cooperatives contrasted with those of the earlier stage in that members no longer earned income based on shares of land owned. Instead, collective farm profits were distributed to members primarily on the basis of labor contributions. The average cooperative was made up of 170 families and more than 700 people.


What was Maos idea regarding new democracy?

An ide that China with its semi-feudal semi-colonial status had to have an extra step in the process towards communism. Between capitalism and socialism. Where there would be an alliance of the classes and a mixed public/private economy.


Who was Yuan Shikai

The military leader who retained control of the newly founded republics government. After Yuan's death in 1916, local military leaders, or warlords, asserted autonomy.


What is the Politburo Standing Committee

Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), and is responsible for convening meetings of the PSC and the Politburo, while also presiding over the work of the Secretariat.[56] The Politburo "exercises the functions and powers of the Central Committee when a plenum is not in session".[57] The PSC is the party's highest decision-making institution when the Politburo, the Central Committee and the National Congress are not in session.[58] It convenes at least once a week


Which years are referred to as "Maoist radical years"?



What are some of the reasons for which the years after 1957-58 are defined by scholars as the ‘Maoist radical years’?



What is the cost of introducing consumer culture?



What was done during the Four Modernizations campaign?



List at least two of the early reforms brought forward by the CCP after 1949.



List at least two major changes in relation to society or economy during the Era of Reforms.



What was the Long March? In which years did it take place?



Which were the major issues that the CCP had to face after the founding of the People’s Republic?



Who was the leader of the fight against the Natonalist?



Which were the main reforms after 1949?



Vad var det som fick KMT och kommunisterna att bryta sin allians 1927?

Kommunisterna menade att det krävdes en klasskamp för att få bukt på imperialismen då kinas överklass var starkt knutna till västvärldens pengaflöden. KMT höll inte med