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Flashcards in Knee, Hip and Thigh Deck (67):
1

What is patellar tendinopathy?

An overuse injury affecting the knee.

Pain usually occurs at the apex of the patella.

2

What are some related conditions to patellar tendinopathy?

- Osgood-Schlatter's disease.
- Tibial tubercle apophystis.
- Tibial tubercle avulsion.

3

What is the purpose of a patellar tendon taping technique?

To create a new fulcrum of insertion point for the tendon. Also tilts the patella off of the bony surface.

4

What are the two different methods for the patellar tendon?

1. Place a pad over the mid-patellar tendon area and use elastic tape to apply pressure to the pad.
2. Apply several rounds of prowrap extending slightly above and below the knee then roll into one thin strip at the level of the patellar tendon.

5

What structures are injured during patellar subluxation/dislocation?

- Medial retinaculum.
- Articular surfaces of the patella and the femur.

6

What is the purpose of the patellar subluxation/dislocation taping technique?

To prevent superior-lateral deviation of the patella, by applying force to the patella in an inferior-medial direction.

7

What are the components of a patellar subluxation/dislocation taping technique?

- Place a foam pad ( 'C' shaped) adjacent to the lateral border of the patella.
- Use elastic tape to apply inferior-medial pressure to the pad.
- Rip the tape length-wise so it does not cover the patella but goes around it.
- Wrap around the knee and repeat.

8

What is the purpose of the McConnell taping technique of the knee?

To provide symptomatic relief from patellofemoral pain by attempting to correct improper patellar alignment.

9

What are the components of a McConnell taping technique of the knee?

- Use hypafix as an anchor to cover the entire patella from medial epicondyle to lateral epicondyle.
- Using leukotape strips begin on the patella and apply firmly.

10

What are some different techniques used for a hamstring/quadricep strain?

1. Use a 6 inch tensor.
2. Use a compression pad over the site of the strain with a wrap on top.
3. "Herring bone" technique with elastic tape or wrap on top.

11

What are two techniques used for a quad contusion?

1. A tensor with a compression pad for an acute contusion.
2. A tensor with a donut pad/protective pad for return to play.

12

What is the purpose of a collateral ligament taping technique for the knee?

Usually used for return to play if there is little to no laxity found with ligament testing or at the end stages of rehab for support and proprioceptive feedback.

13

What are the components of a collateral ligament taping technique for the knee?

- Person should be weight-bearing on the leg to be taped.
- Slight flexion of the knee.
- 3 proximal and 2 distal (should not pass the apex of the gastric muscle belly) anchors.
- Around 7 strips to make up the 'fan' using zinc oxide (placed on either the medial or lateral side of the knee).
- Moleskin may be used to provide extra support.

14

What are the components of a hyperextension taping technique for the knee?

- Person should be weight-bearing on the leg to be taped.
- Slight flexion of the knee.
- 3 proximal and 2 distal (should not pass the apex of the gastric muscle belly) anchors.
- Around 7 strips to make up the 'fan' using zinc oxide (placed on posterior side of the knee).
- Cover with elastic tape or a tensor.

15

What is the purpose of a hip spica?

Used for the support of the hip flexors and for groin strains.

16

What are the components for a his spica technique?

- Person is weight-bearing.
- Position the leg in internal rotation, slight knee flexion and slight hip flexion.
- Wrap tensor around the thigh from lateral to medial.
- Avoid tension over the hamstrings and around the waist.

17

What are the different types of knee braces?

- Prophylactic
- Rehabilitative
- Functional

18

What is the purpose of a prophylactic brace?

- Prevent or reduce the severity of knee injuries
- Provide moderate support

19

When are prophylactic braces used?

- Protect the knee from valgus forces
- Protect the knee from MCL injuries

20

What are the different types of rehabilitative braces?

- Immobilization/splint
- Post surgical

21

What is the purpose of rehabilitative braces?

- Support
- Immobilize
- Allow protected ROM following injury and surgery

22

What injuries can a rehabilitative brace be used with?

- Sprains
- Meniscal tears
- Tendon ruptures
- Fractures
- Dislocations/subluxations
- Osgood Schlatters disease
- Sinding Larson Johansson syndrome

23

What is the purpose of a functional brace?

- Provide moderate stability
- Control anterior tibial translation and rotary stress

24

When is a function brace commonly used?

- ACL injury
- PCL injury
- MCL injury
- LCL injury

25

What is the purpose of a neoprene sleeve?

Provide compression and mild support

26

What injuries can the neoprene sleeve be used with?

- Contusions
- Sprains
- Meniscal tears
- Patellofemoral pain
- Quadriceps tendonitis
- Plica
- Bursitis
- Overuse injuries

27

What are some common injuries and conditions of the knee?

- Contusions
- Sprains
- Meniscal tears
- Plica syndrome
- Anterior knee pain
- Nerve contusion
- Fractures
- Dislocations/subluxations
- Bursitis
- Overuse injuries and conditions

28

What causes contusions of the soft tissue and bones?

Compressive forces

29

What causes a contusion of the infra-patellar fat pad?

- Direct blow
- Chronic compression
- Being pinched between the tibia, patella and femur

30

What is the MOI for a medial collateral ligament sprain?

- Valgus force on the lateral aspect of the knee
- Result of adduction and internal rotation of the knee

31

What is the MOI for a lateral collateral ligament sprain?

- Varus force on the medial aspect of the knee
- Result of internal rotation of the tibia

32

What is the MOI for an anterior cruciate ligament sprain?

- Medial or lateral lower leg rotation on a planted foot
- Direct force causing hyperextension
- External tibia rotation with the knee in a valgus position
- Result from quick deceleration, cutting, twisting and landing movements

33

What is the MOI for a posterior cruciate ligament sprain?

- Fall on the anterior knee while in a flexed position with foot plantar flexion
- A direct force to the proximal lower leg, hyperextension or a rotational force

34

What causes meniscal tears?

- Compression and shearing forces

35

What is the MOI for a meniscal tear?

- Results from twisting or cutting movements on a planted foot during flexion or extension of the knee

36

What injuries can be associated with meniscal tears?

Multiple sprains of the MCL

37

What causes medial plica syndrome?

Direct blow to the medial knee as a result of being kicked or by repetitive friction of the plica over the medial femoral condyle during knee flexion and extension

38

What may result from medial plica syndrome?

Can cause inflammation and additional thickening

39

What are some conditions that may cause anterior knee pain?

- Patellofemoral stress syndrome
- Chondromalacia patella
- Patellar tendinitis (jumper's knee)
- Osgood-Schlatter disease
- Sinding-Larsen Johansson disease
- Patellar or quadriceps tendon ruptures

40

What can cause patellar or quadriceps tendon ruptures?

- Structural abnormalities
- Compressive and shear forces
- Abnormal tracking of the patella
- Repetitive tension
- Inflexibility of musculature and retinaculum
- Weakness of musculature
- Structural degeneration

41

What can cause a peroneal nerve contusion?

- Direct blow or excessive compression to the inferior aspect of the fibular head

42

What is the MOI of a nerve contusion?

Result of being kick for excessive compression from a wrap of brace

43

What can cause a fracture of the patella?

Direct blow occurring with a fall or a blow to the anterior knee
- An eccentric contraction of the quadriceps occurring with jumping or running movements

44

What can cause a fracture of the osteochodral and chondral?

Direct blow or violent twisting, cutting or rotational movement

45

What can cause an avulsions fracture?

Overuse, direct trauma or a violent muscular contraction

46

What can cause a fracture of the tibial tubercle?

- Active contraction of the quadriceps with forced flexion of the knee
- May follow the development of OSD

47

What is the MOI of a dislocation or a subluxation?

Multidirectional and/or rotary forces

48

What can cause a dislocation/subluxation?

- Sudden deceleration with an associated cutting movement
- Associated with flat condyles, pronated feet, genu valgum, externally rotates patellas, medial knee laxity and lateral knee tightness

49

What can cause a pre patellar bursitis?

Compressive force from a direct blow or excessive kneeling

50

What can cause a deep infra patellar bursitis?

Repetitive friction of the patellar tendon

51

What can cause a pes anserinus bursitis?

- Compressive force from a direct blow
- Genu valgum
- Quadriceps weakness
- Inflexibility of the hamstrings

52

What can cause a semimebranosus bursitis (Baker's cyst)?

Ligamentous or meniscal injuries of the knee

53

What can cause an iliotibial band syndrome?

- Repetitive stress and friction
- Excessive foot pronation
- Leg length discrepancy
- Genu varus
- Training errors

54

What can cause pes anserinus tendinitis?

- Genu valgum
- Quadriceps weakness
- Overuse

55

What can cause stress fractures?

- Repetitive jumping or running movements
- Training errors

56

What is the purpose of bracing techniques?

- Provide immobilization, support and compression
- Correct structural abnormalities

57

What are the different categories of bracing techniques?

- Prophylactic
- Rehabilitative
- Functional

58

What is the purpose of a prophylactic brace?

- Prevent or reduce the severity of knee injuries
- Provide moderate support
- Primarily used to protect from valgus forces and injury to the MCL

59

What is the purpose of a rehabilitative brace?

- Support, immobilize, and allow protected range of motion following injury and surgery

60

What is the purpose of a functional brace?

- Prevent and treat ACL, PCL,MCL and LCL sprains
- Provides control of anterior tibial translation and rotary stress
- Provides moderate stability following injury and surgery
-Provides protection against unidirectional and multidirectional forces

61

What is the purpose of a neoprene sleeve?

- Provides compression and mild support
- Use with contusions, sprains, meniscal tears, anterior knee pain, plica syndrome, bursitis and overuse injuries and conditions

62

What does a neoprene sleeve with hinged bars control?

- Valgus force
- Varus force
- Rotary stresses

63

What does a neoprene sleeve with a buttress control?

- PFSS, chondromalacia, patellar dislocations and subluxations, patellar tendinitis and OSD

64

What is the purpose of the patellar tendon strap?

- Treat patellar tendinitis, OSD, PFSS and chondromalacia
- Lessens tension on the tendon at the inferior pole of the patella and/or at the tibial tubercle

65

What is the purpose of off the shelf padding?

- Prevent and treat bursitis, OSD, SLJ and contusions
- Provides shock absorption and protection

66

What is the purpose of soft, low-density padding?

- Provide shock absorption
- Used in sports such as baseball, basketball, volleyball, etc...

67

What is the purpose of hard, high-density padding?

- Provided shocks absorption
- Used in sports such as baseball, hockey, etc
- Limits chronic or prolonged compression