Knowledge Organiser chapter 5 - Communicable disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Knowledge Organiser chapter 5 - Communicable disease Deck (43)
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1

What is a communicable disease?

A disease caused by a pathogen

2

What is a pathogen?

A microorganism that causes an infectious disease

3

What types of microorganism can cause disease?

Virus, bacteria, fungi or protists

4

Define ‘health’

A state of physical and mental well-being

5

What factors can affect our health?

Diet, stress and life situations

6

What is a main cause of allergies?

Immune responses caused by a pathogen

7

How do bacteria make us ill?

They reproduce rapidly in our bodies and produce toxins (poisons) that damage tissue and make us feel ill

8

How do viruses make us ill?

The reproduce rapidly inside cells causing damage

9

What ways can viruses be spread?

Air (including droplet), contact and water

10

How can the spread of disease be prevented?

Simple hygiene, destroying vectors, isolation of infected individuals and vaccination

11

What type of pathogen causes measles?

Virus

12

What are the symptoms of measles?

Fever and rash, can be fatal in children

13

How is measles spread?

Air (droplet inhalation)

14

How is measles prevented?

Vaccination

15

What type of pathogen causes HIV/AIDS?

Virus

16

What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS?

Flu like symptoms initially followed by damage to the immune system causing other illnesses

17

How is HIV/AIDS spread

Sexual contact or exchange of body fluids e.g. blood or sharing needles

18

How is HIV/AIDS treated?

Antiretroviral drugs

19

What type of pathogen causes TMV?

Virus (affects plants)

20

What are the symptoms of TMV?

Mosaic pattern of discolouration on the leaf which affects photosynthesis

21

How is TMV spread?

Contact, including by vectors

22

How is TMV treated?

Good hygiene and pest control

23

What type of pathogen is salmonella?

Bacteria

24

What are the symptoms of salmonella?

Fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea

25

How is salmonella spread?

In contaminated food

26

How is salmonella prevented?

Good food hygiene

27

What type of pathogen causes gonorrhoea?

Bacteria

28

What are the symptoms of gonorrhoea?

A thick yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis and pain when urinating

29

How is gonorrhoea spread?

Sexual contact

30

How is gonorrhoea controlled?

Treatment with antibiotics and the use of barrier contraception (e.g. condoms)

31

What type of pathogen causes rose black spot?

Fungus

32

What are the symptoms of rose black spot?

Purple or black spots on leaves which turn yellow and drop early, reducing photosynthesis

33

How is rose black spot spread?

Air (wind) or water

34

How is rose black spot controlled?

Using fungicides and/or removing and destroying affected leaves

35

What type of pathogen causes malaria?

Protist

36

What are the symptoms of malaria?

Recurring fever which can be fatal

37

How is malaria spread?

By mosquito vectors (being bitten)

38

How is malaria controlled?

Preventing mosquitos from breeding and avoiding being bitten/using insect nets and insect repellents

39

How does the skin defend us from pathogens?

Acts as a barrier, produces antimicrobial chemicals and is covered with healthy microbes

40

How does our nose defend us from pathogens?

Full of hairs and mucus to trap particles in the air that could have pathogens

41

How does our trachea and bronchi defend us from pathogens?

Produces sticky mucous to trap particles in air, cilia waft mucus up so we can swallow it

42

How do our stomachs defend us from pathogens?

Contains acid to kill pathogens in food and drink

43

How do white blood cells defend against pathogens that enter our body?

Ingesting them (phagocytosis), producing antibodies or producing antitoxins