Flashcards in Knowledge Organiser chapter 5 - Communicable disease Deck (43)
What is a communicable disease?
A disease caused by a pathogen
What is a pathogen?
A microorganism that causes an infectious disease
What types of microorganism can cause disease?
Virus, bacteria, fungi or protists
A state of physical and mental well-being
What factors can affect our health?
Diet, stress and life situations
What is a main cause of allergies?
Immune responses caused by a pathogen
How do bacteria make us ill?
They reproduce rapidly in our bodies and produce toxins (poisons) that damage tissue and make us feel ill
How do viruses make us ill?
The reproduce rapidly inside cells causing damage
What ways can viruses be spread?
Air (including droplet), contact and water
How can the spread of disease be prevented?
Simple hygiene, destroying vectors, isolation of infected individuals and vaccination
What type of pathogen causes measles?
What are the symptoms of measles?
Fever and rash, can be fatal in children
How is measles spread?
Air (droplet inhalation)
How is measles prevented?
What type of pathogen causes HIV/AIDS?
What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS?
Flu like symptoms initially followed by damage to the immune system causing other illnesses
How is HIV/AIDS spread
Sexual contact or exchange of body fluids e.g. blood or sharing needles
How is HIV/AIDS treated?
What type of pathogen causes TMV?
Virus (affects plants)
What are the symptoms of TMV?
Mosaic pattern of discolouration on the leaf which affects photosynthesis
How is TMV spread?
Contact, including by vectors
How is TMV treated?
Good hygiene and pest control
What type of pathogen is salmonella?
What are the symptoms of salmonella?
Fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea
How is salmonella spread?
In contaminated food
How is salmonella prevented?
Good food hygiene
What type of pathogen causes gonorrhoea?
What are the symptoms of gonorrhoea?
A thick yellow or green discharge from the vagina or penis and pain when urinating
How is gonorrhoea spread?
How is gonorrhoea controlled?
Treatment with antibiotics and the use of barrier contraception (e.g. condoms)
What type of pathogen causes rose black spot?
What are the symptoms of rose black spot?
Purple or black spots on leaves which turn yellow and drop early, reducing photosynthesis
How is rose black spot spread?
Air (wind) or water
How is rose black spot controlled?
Using fungicides and/or removing and destroying affected leaves
What type of pathogen causes malaria?
What are the symptoms of malaria?
Recurring fever which can be fatal
How is malaria spread?
By mosquito vectors (being bitten)
How is malaria controlled?
Preventing mosquitos from breeding and avoiding being bitten/using insect nets and insect repellents
How does the skin defend us from pathogens?
Acts as a barrier, produces antimicrobial chemicals and is covered with healthy microbes
How does our nose defend us from pathogens?
Full of hairs and mucus to trap particles in the air that could have pathogens
How does our trachea and bronchi defend us from pathogens?
Produces sticky mucous to trap particles in air, cilia waft mucus up so we can swallow it
How do our stomachs defend us from pathogens?
Contains acid to kill pathogens in food and drink