Knowledge Organiser chapter 6 - Preventing and treating infection Flashcards Preview

G.C.S.E Bioliogy Knowledge Organisers > Knowledge Organiser chapter 6 - Preventing and treating infection > Flashcards

Flashcards in Knowledge Organiser chapter 6 - Preventing and treating infection Deck (27)
Loading flashcards...
1

What system tries to destroy pathogens if they get in the body?

The immune system

2

What is contained inside a vaccine?

dead or inactive forms of a pathogen

3

How does a vaccine work?

It stimulates white blood cells to produce antibodies for that pathogen so if an active form enters the body, antibodies are produced quickly

4

What is ‘herd immunity’

When a large enough proportion of the population are immune to a disease, its spread is much reduced

5

What do painkillers do?

Relieve symptoms of disease

6

What do antibiotics do?

Kill bacterial pathogens

7

What was the first antibiotic called?

Penicillin

8

Why can antibiotics not be used for viral infections?

They do not kill viruses, only bacteria

9

Why is it difficult to develop drugs to kill viruses?

Because they live inside your cells, so the drugs would also damage your cells

10

Why do antibiotics not work on some bacteria?

Antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria are evolving

11

What plant is the drug digitalis (digoxin) extracted from?

Foxglove

12

What is digitalis (digoxin) used to treat?

Heart problems

13

What plant is the drug aspirin from?

Willow

14

What is aspirin used to treat?

Pain

15

Where is the antibiotic penicillin from?

The penicillum mould

16

How are most new drugs made?

They are synthesised by chemists in the lab but the starting point may be a chemical extracted from a plant

17

What are all new drugs tested for in clinical trials?

Toxicity, efficacy (if they work) and dose

18

Who are clinical trials tested on?

Healthy volunteers & patients

19

How are drugs tested before being tested on humans?

In the lab using cells, tissues and live animals

20

What is a ‘double blind’ trial?

A test where neither the patient or the doctor know if the patient is being given the drug or a placebo

21

What is a ‘placebo’?

A dummy drug that does not contain any of the medicine being tested

22

Why are placebos used?

As a control

23

How is a ‘hybridoma’ made?

Combining a mouse lymphocyle with a tumour cell

24

How are hybridomas used to make ‘monoclonal antibodies’?

Stimulating the mouse lymphocyte to produce a particular antibody, making it into a hybridoma which will divide and make large amounts of the antibody

25

How are monoclonal antibodies used?

diagnostics such as pregnancy tests, to detect levels of hormones or chemicals in the blood, to detect pathogens, to identify specific molecules in a cell to deliver drugs to specific cells in the body (e.g. cancer cells)

26

Why are monoclonal antibodies not as widely used as they were expected to be?

They created more side effects than expected

27

Draw a flow chart to show the production of monoclonal antibodies