Flashcards in L15/16 Deck (30)
Which cytokine communicates between the innate and adpative immune responses?
What cytokine do Th1 cells release to classically activate macrophages and make them more microbicidal?
Which cytokine do viruses induce the production of when the infect host cells? The goal here is to make neighboring cells anti-viral.
What cytokines are released when macrophages interact with LPS? What is the systemic effect of these?
What are the main 4 cytokines of innate immunity?
B/c from macrophages & NK
What are the main 4 cytokines of adaptive immunity?
What is a cytokine storm?
Cytokine overproduction --> sepsis
Explain the anti and pro-inflam roles of IL6.
Produced from macrophages --> inflam and fever
Goes to kidney --> acute phase reactants 9MBL & C reactive protein)--> decrease inflam
Which cytokines are VERY pro-inflam?
Which cytokines are very anti-inflam?
What are the 3 cytokines most important for hematopoiesis?
C-CSF & CM-CSF, neutrophils
What is the general model of cytokines signaling through their receptors to create effects?
Cytokine + receptor (w/ gamma chain)
Jak phosphorylates ITAMs
STAT get phosphorylated & dimerize
Complex acts as a TF
What is the IL 7 pathway for signaling at its receptor? What disease may arise from errors in this pathway?
IL 7 + IL7R
JAK 3 @ ITAM
STAT 5 dimerize
TF for inflam
- X linked = missing gamma subunit of receptor
- Autosomal = Jak 3 mutation
What is the general structure of most cytokine receptors?
1 pass TM receptors
What is the general structure of most CHEMOKINE receptors?
7 TM GCPR
Describe the IL 1 receptor.
Ig superfamily receptors
TIR internal domain - recruits MyD88
Similar to TLR signaling via MyD88
Which cytokine is the primary mediator of the inflammatory response to gram negative infection?
Explain the signaling pathway of gram negative bacteria to get TNF release. (Hint: LPS)
LPS + TLR4
TRAM & TRIF pathway
Which cytokine mediates RA?
Increased TNF & IL1
From macrophages & fibroblasts in synovial fluid
↑COX 2 --> PGE2
↑NO, adhesion molecules, IL-6
What is a role unique to IL1 in RA?
What is a role unique to TNF in RA?
How do you treat RA?
Abs against TNF = Adalimumab or Etanercept
What happens if you get rid of too much TNF?
Can't fight infection normally
Happens with immune suppression
Latent disease (TB) can recur
What is an anti-IL 1 Ab used for? Explain the mechanism.
= IL-1ra = recomb protein
Goal = anti-inflam
We make our own version of this but half life is really short!
Prevents IL 1 binding b/c won't let receptor dimerize with accessory protein --> no signal
Competitively inhibits the receptor
Explain the inflammasome activation in gout.
Inflammasome makes IL-1beta active
Now uric acid crystal joint to further dirve the production of IL-1beta
Use IL-1ra to treat and trap IL-1
Which cytokine can cause significant tissue damage if not controlled?
B/c will stimulate:
Net = kill target cells, tissue will be bystander
What cytokines act on naive T cells to cause them to differentiate into Th17 cells?
Which disease would you give IFN gamma for?
What cell type do chemo/radiation kill off first? What can you give to help this?
Leaves your innate immune system weak - susceptible to infection
Give G-CSF --> increase PMNs from the bone marrow