L16 - Hypertension Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L16 - Hypertension Deck (59)
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1

How many deaths per year in the US due to hypertension

One million

2

How does BP vary with age

Increases

3

How does BP vary with gender, what causes this?

Higher in males - due to presence of testosterone

4

Normal diastolic pressure

85

5

What would be considered a high normal diastolic pressure

85-89

6

What would be considered mild hypertension as a diastolic pressure

90-104

7

What would be considered moderate hypetension as a diastolic pressure

105-114

8

What diastolic pressure would be considered severe hypertension

Greater than 114

9

What systolic pressure would be considered normal

140 or below

10

What systolic pressure/s would be considered to be borderline systolic hypertension

140-159

11

What systolic pressure/s would be considered to be isolated systolic hypertension

Greater than 160

12

What do more recent BP guidelines suggest

BP should be kept as low as possible - but so that perfusion throughout the body can be maintained

13

What are the two types of hypertension

Essential hypertension
Secondary hypertension

14

Essential hypertnesion

Many risk factors but no clear cause
Can be spontaneous

15

Secondary hypertension

Consequence of a clinical condition

16

MABP is proportional to

CO x TPR

17

How does CO vary with age?
Why is this the case

Decreases
The heart is a mechanical pump - this will have a finite number of beats

18

How does TPR vary with age
Give examples of what causes this variation

Increases
Arteriosclerosis - stiffening of the vessels

19

What are the likely causes of essential hypertension

Cardiac dysfunction
Vessel abnormalities
Kidney dysfunction

20

Explain how kidney dysfunction could lead to essential hypertension

In the long term - unable to control total blood volume
Kidneys will naturally vary with age
Known as volume induced hypertnesion

21

Explain how cardiac dysfunction could lead to essential hypertension

Increased repsonse to stress and catecholamines, also increase sensitivity to cortisol
Leads to vessel constriction

22

What sorts of vessel abnormalities may lead to essential hypertension

Sympathetic NS abnormalities
Abnormalities of local factors
Smooth muscle hypertrophy

23

How may smooth muscle hypertrophy lead to EH - what is the name given for the process

Smooth muscle is made to work harder
Any further contractions will be more powerful - causing greater constriction
Leads to VASCULAR REMODELLING

24

Why is hypertension classed as a syndrome

Syndrome due to being caused by many different factors

25

EH is

Familial

26

Is EH genetic - evidence

Corrleation between twin studies

27

What races are of an increased EH risk

African-Caribbean

28

What are some known environmental risk factors for EH

Diet and obesity (metabilic syndrome)
Adopting a western lifestyle
Salt intake
Vit D deff syndrome

29

What is metabolic syndrome

Collection of symptoms which can lead to type 2 diabetes mellitus

30

What % of the population has a predisposition to Eh

30-50%