L16: Vaccines Flashcards Preview

Immunology > L16: Vaccines > Flashcards

Flashcards in L16: Vaccines Deck (22):

Types of viral vaccines

1.) Live, attenuated: prolonged passage of virus in other hosts decreases it pathogenicity
2.) Inactivated: heat / chemically inactivated
3.) Subunit: consists of single viral protein


Types of bacterial vaccines

1.) Inactivated: heat killed
2.) Toxoid: detoxification of toxins without loss of immunogenicity
3.) Conjugate: polysaccharide antigens from bacteria conjugated to protein


Attenuated viral vaccine advantages, disadvantages

- Advantage: generates long-lasting immunity as virus undergoes limited replication generating greater antigenic stimulus, causes both antibody and cell-mediated immunity
- Disadvantage: may revert to full virulence, contaminating pathogens, often fatal for immunocompromised, potential risks for fetus


Inactivated viral vaccine advantages, disadvantages

- Advantage: less concern for safety compared to live, transport and storage is easier
- Disadvantage: doesn’t generate level of protection of live vaccines


What are conjugated bacterial vaccines? How do they work?

- Some bacteria have polysaccharide coats. B cells can be activated against this in an T cell independent manner; however, they also don’t generate memory or isotype switching when doing so. To counter this, conjugate vaccines are polysaccharides conjugated to protein carrier – therefore conferring a TD immune response and allowing for switching to high affinity IgG and creating memory


What are adjuvants?

- substances added to vaccines that promote greater immune responses
- they convert soluble protein antigens into particulate matter that is more readily ingested by APCs


Hep B vaccine

- Viral subunit vaccine, specifically surface antigen, requires 3 IM injections generates serum antibody


DTaP vaccine

- Bacterial toxoid vaccine, formaldehyde-treated toxins from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
- Acellular pertussis = pertussis exotoxins that have been mutated to be nontoxic, but immunogenic
- Generate antibody to toxins, but not to bacteria


Bacterial toxoid vaccines target bacteria directly. True/False

- False. They target and neutralize the toxins produced by bacteria


Hemophilus Influenzae type B vaccine

- Bacterial conjugate vaccine, with conjugated protein = tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid or group B N.meningitidis outer membrane


Meningococcal vaccine

- Bacterial conjugate vaccine protective against 4 groups of Neisseria meningitidis


Polio vaccine

1.) Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) = Salk – generates serum antibodies to neutralized virus before it reaches CNS
2.) Live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) = Sabin – local mucosal immunity in GI tract to prevent spread of virus in bloodstream – 1 in 2.6 million doses causes vaccine-induced paralytic polio – no longer given in US


MMR vaccine

- Live, attenuated viral vaccine, confers CMI and antibody response
- Measles = rubeola virus
- Mumps = rubula virus
- Rubella virus = german measles


Varicella vaccine

- Live, attenuated viral vaccine, confers CMI and antibody response


Rotavirus vaccine

- Live, attenuated viral vaccine, vaccine is rhesus virus expressing human virus antigen VP7


Pneumococcal vaccine

- Bacterial conjugate vaccine composed of S. pneumoniae polysaccharides conjugated to carrier


Influenza vaccine

1.) Live, attenuated viral vaccine = FluMist = delivered intranasally for healthy, non-pregnant persons aged 5-49 without high-risk conditions
2.) Inactivated viral vaccine given IM approved for those greater than 6 months of age, including those with chronic medical conditions


HPV vaccine

- Subunit viral vaccine against L1 capsid protein generates neutralizing antibodies


A 4 year old male with X-linked agamma-globulinemia is accidently vaccinated. Fortunately, no adverse effects were noted. Which of the following vaccines was likely administered to this child?
1. Chickenpox vaccine
2. Measles vaccine
3. Influenza vaccine (nasal)
4. Rubella vaccine
5. Tetanus vaccine

- Tetanus vaccine


According to the CDC, which vaccines can be administered to a pregnant woman?
1. All vaccines
2. All vaccines except live ones
3. Only live viral vaccines
4. No vaccines should be given

- All vaccines except live ones


Which vaccine prevents disease, but does not directly cause the elimination of the infectious agent that causes the disease?
1. Diphtheria vaccine
2. H. influenzae type B vaccine
3. Mumps vaccine
4. Rubella vaccine
5. Varicella vaccine

- diphtheria vaccine


Which type of vaccine is most likely to elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the vaccine antigen?
1. Attenuated virus vaccine
2. Bacterial polysaccharide vaccine
3. Bacterial subunit vaccine
4. Inactivated virus vaccine
5. Virus subunit vaccine

- attenuated virus vaccine