L18-Vet Med Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L18-Vet Med Deck (64):
1

Anatomy.
T/F: “Dogs are not humans and cats are not small dogs”

TRUE!

2

Anatomy.
Describe the 4 components of the digestion of herbivore.

1. Long digestive tract (up to 10x length of body)
-“fermentation vat”
2. Square & flat molars:
-increased surface area to crush and grind plants.
5. Lower jaw has a
pronounced sideways motion to grind plants
4. Saliva has CHO-digesting enzymes (amylase)

3

Anatomy.
Describe the 3 components of the digestion of omnivore.

1. Medium length digestive tract
- gastric pH of humans is 4-5
2. Flat molars and sharp incisors:
-for tearing and grinding
3. Saliva contains CHO digesting amylase

4

Anatomy.
Describe the 4 components of the digestion of carnivores.

Short, simple and acidic digestive tracts: animal proteins and fats are quickly and easily digested
Gastric pH = 1-2
2. Sharp teeth:
for killing prey and
tearing/ripping meat
Molars are triangular with jagged edges & function like serrated-edged blades

Digestion: Carnivores
3. Jaws move vertically and open wide to swallow large chunks of meat; do not chew their food.
4. No amylase in saliva

5

Anatomy.
Metabolic rate differences between human, dog, cats - re: temp.

Human: 98.6
Dog: 100-102
Cat: 100-102

6

Anatomy.
Metabolic rate differences between human, dog, cats - re: respiratory rate.

Human: 12
Dog: 18-24
Cat: 20-30

7

Anatomy.
Metabolic rate differences between human, dog, cats - re: heart rate.

Human: 60-70
Dog: 90-120 (small), 70-110 (med), large (60-90)
Cat: 150-200

8

NHPs.
List different types

1. Topical
2. PO
3. Homeopathy
4. Rescue remedy

9

1. Topical
Gucci or nah?

NAH! b/c must shave the area to apply so fur does not get mattted
Owners need to wash the area througholy before every application
Remember if ingested TOXIC

10

1. Topical
Uses?

Lumps, bumps, raw area, abrasion, scratch, sebaceous gland cyst, wart, wound

11

1. Topical
E.g. products

1. Tea Tree Oil
2. Vitamin E
3. Honey

12

1. Topical - Tea tree oil
T/F: Can be ingested?

NO! - extremely poisonous, esp to cats & small dogs
-dilute 1:100 w/ water

13

1. Topical - Tea tree oil
____ is the toxic agent.
List signs of toxicity & OA of tox.

terpenes (which is what makes it effective.
signs of toxicity:
-drooling, vomiting paresis, paralysis tremors, seizures, coma
- symptoms 2-12 hours post exposure

14

1. Topical - Vit E
T/F: ok to ingest?

TRUE - only if PO, not topical
-no worries if ingested

15

1. Topical - Vit E
human PO v topical oil.

Recommend: PO capsules b/c:
-can puncture and apply topically
-better absorption, thinner
-ok to ingest

Topical oil: too thick, too sticky, not for ingestion

16

1. Topical - Vit E
Apply ____ x /day for ___ days

-apply 2-3x/day x 14 days

17

1. Topical - Honey
Effects? (3)

-Antibacterial
-Antifungal
-Anti-inflammatory

18

1. Topical - Honey
Application?

-“Goopy and sticky” so area/skin must be wrapped -The only food to never go bad or rancid
-good for paws

19

1. Topical - Honey
Describe Rx prod.
v regular honey?

Bandage that contains minuka honey, expensive
She reccommends just using regular, unpasterized honey, she says it works just the same. Good for laserations for any animal (inc: horse, humans, dogs, cats, etc)

20

2. Oral
List supplements

-Glucosamine HCl-Chondroitin-MSM
-Probiotics
-Co-Enzyme Q-10
-Milk Thistle
-Saw Palmetto
-Omega 3 Fatty Acids: Fish vs. Flax -Slippery Elm
-Vitamins
-Calcium

21

2. Oral - Glucosamine HCl-Chondroitin-MSM
Uses?
Recommended for?

1. Arthritis/degenerative joint disease DJD
2. Chronic inflammation including cystitis
Recommended:
1. all athletic dogs and seniors
2. cats w/ arthritis

22

2. Oral - Glucosamine HCl-Chondroitin-MSM
T/F: Glucosamine HCl better absorbed by carnivores than Glucosamine Sulfate

True!

23

2. Oral - Glucosamine HCl-Chondroitin-MSM
Dose?
SE?
Human v vet?

Dose: 500 mg – 3000 mg/day
>Add the mg of the ingredients to obtain the total dose
SE: GI upset (soft stool/diarrhea)
>therefore must taper
-Human fine & cheaper

24

2. Oral - Probiotics
Indication?
Vet product called ____ contains _____ organisms?

recommend:
1. any type of digestive upset 2. when animals are on antibiotics
Veterinary products:
Forti flora and has 100,000,000 organisms

25

2. Oral - Probiotics
Human products criteria?

1. Refigerate
2. Large number of bacteria
-2+ billion organisms
-b/c acidic stomach pH of carnivores likely destroys some of the organisms)

26

2. Oral - Probiotics
Dose?

Medium- large dogs: human dose
Small dogs, cates: 1/4-1/2 human dose

27

2. Oral - Pre-biotics
Describe.

-Food ingredients travel undigested to colon
-Ferment in colon, convert to SCFA which inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria
-Promote and support (feed) healthy digestive flora
-Combine with probiotics

28

2. Oral - Probiotics/Pre/syn
Com pur & cont ratz!

Pre: food for bacteria i.e. only metabolized by gut bacteria NOT human host
Syn: combo of pre and pro
Pro: live bacteria

29

2. Oral - Digestive enzymes
List digestive enzymes.

Alpha-amylase
Lipase
Cellulase
Protease

30

2. Oral - Digestive enzymes
T/F: Vet brand is BETTER than human.

tru!
because it is specifically designed for their acidic digestive tract - one of the few vet brands that are better.

31

2. Oral - Co-enzymes Q-10
Indications.

-heart disease
-gingivitis/stomatitis
-cancer
-geriatric animals

32

2. Oral - Co-enzymes Q-10
Dose.

Daily dose:
-small dogs/cats= 30 mg
-med-large= 60-120 mg
No vet products

33

2. Oral - Milk thistle
AI?
Indication?

-Silymarin seeds
-Hepato-protectorants
>For all animals on any type of LT medication OR any type of liver or gallbladder disease including G.B. “sludge”

34

2. Oral - Milk thistle
MOA?

Helps the gall bladder to open up to help squeeze out sludge
More prevalent for dogs because they seem to have more gall bladder probs

35

2. Oral - Milk thistle
Dose?
-Medium- large?
-smoll?

Many human & vet products
med- large dogs = 250 mg (SID or BID)
Dose:
1. med-lagre: 250 mg SID or BID
2. Small/cats: glycerin-based liquid milk thistle from NPH Company (Edmonton) Dr. Steve Marsden

36

2. Oral - Saw palmetto
Indications?

-Relaxing smooth muscle of urethra
-bladder crystals, urinary tract “sludge”, urethral mucous plugs in cats/dogs
-FUS, FLUTD in cats; urethral spasms after being catheterized/ “unblocked”
-Dogs with bladder sphincter spasms after spinal/pelvis trauma


37

2. Oral - Saw palmetto
T/F: Better than Phenoxybenzamine

tru
-has a lot of SE

SP: large doses are ok, non-sedating, non-toxic

38

2. Oral - Saw palmetto
T/F: need for male dogs b/c of neutering!

FALSE
-neutered therefore NO prostate probs
-Almost always MALE because they have longer and narrower urethras. Female cats have shorter and wider so does not happen as often.
Cat> Dogs - just because dont watch cats pee (so you would not be able to observe problem).

39

2. Oral - Saw palmetto
dose

-glycerin extract dose:
2ml/5 kg divided 2-3x/day

40

2. Oral - FAs
Carnivores require:
O6:O3 ratio should be?

Linoleic acid (Omega 6)
Linolenic acid (Omega 3) Arachidonic acid (from animal fat)
2:1 BUT often 20:1 or 10:1

41

2. Oral - FAs
Why is fish based O3= only GUCCI one?

1. fish based - b/c:
-better absorbed by animal
-powerful anti-inflam properties
2. O3
-require it, O6 can have excessive pro-inflam
-enough O6/9 in diet
>no need for combs
>only consider if homemake food
-Add EPA & DHA #'s to get the highest number for antiflammatory effect

42

2. Oral - FAs
T/F: ALA (O3 from flax) needs to be converted to EPA and then DHA to be effective.

Yes
-dogs can only convert 20% of ALA to DHA

43

2. Oral - FAs
O3s are fragile especially to ___ or ___

heat or light

44

2. Oral - FAs
list 2 types.

1. Triglyceride
-higher cost, BA, more stable
2. ethyl ester
-easier, cheaper
-higher amounts of EPA & DHA
-more unstable

45

2. Oral - Slippery elm
Indications?

1. diarrhea
2. bronchitis and cough
>b/c lungs and large intestine are paired in TCM
AI: mucilage & antioxidants (found in inner barK)

46

2. Oral - Slippery elm
Dose?

Dose: dried herb
500-400 mg/kg divided TID
Infusion powder
5g/cup cold water then administer 1/4-1/2 cup/10 kg divided TID

47

2. Oral - vitamins
A

Dogs can make Vitamin A carotene (veggies) but cats CANNOT
>cats must get it from liver, meat, fish eggs, dairy (or supplements)
-Dose for adult animals: 75 IU/kg/day

48

2. Oral - vitamins
B

Chronic diarrhea in pets can sometimes respond to B12 injections: b/c of “Cobalamin deficiency”
-B for x bowel movement
AE: pink tinge urine

49

2. Oral - vitamins
C

Dogs & Cats can synthesize Ascorbic Acid into vitamin C
-can use: Na Ascorbate*, Ascorbic acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Ester C
Dose= 50 mg/kg up to 1000 mg/day
AE: Gastritis and diarrhea in high dose

50

2. Oral - vitamins
D
T/F cats & dogs can get it from sun?
sources
D2 is: __ and D3 is __
Dose?

FALSE
NS: yolk, milk and its by
natural sources are fish liver oil, fatty fish, egg
-D2 = synthetic & D3 = natural
Dose: 75 IU/kg body wt/day

51

2. Oral - vitamins
E
Source?
most potent ?
Dose?
AE?

-source: wheat germ oil, liver, eggs
-most potent: D-alpha
-dose: 400-800 IU/day
>non-toxic, no SE
>animals fed 6000 IU/day for months showed no side effects

52

2. Oral - calcium
T/F: need to give?

NO NEED TO GIVE!
-must be balanced w phosphorous
-most forms are well absorbed:
>Bonemeal (oral and non-toxic), Ca carbonate, Ca lactate, Ca amino acid chelate

53

2. Oral - calcium
T/F: can use egg shells?

Tru but only need if pet owner 100% cooks homede for dog

54

2. Oral - essential AA
Dogs have ? # of e AAs
Cats ?

10
11 - all above + taurine
can use whey powder supplements but only use when really sick

55

2. Oral - essential AA
Where is taurine found

raw hearts

56

3. Homeopathy
Describe.

-Like cures like
- a system of medical practice that treats a disease especially by the administration of minute doses of a remedy that would in larger amounts produce in healthy persons symptoms similar to those of the disease
-sometimes called pseudo therapy, popular in europe, very safe, OTC products

57

3. Homeopathy
T/F: can be in tablet or liquid form

True
-liquid form can be alcohol based, dilute with warm warm to evaporate alcohol

58

4. Rescue remedy
Name product

Bach flower remedies
Dr. Ed Bach
Use high doses, v safe

59

Toxins: BEWARE
List e.g.

1. Tea tree oil
2. acetaminophen
3. Xylitol

60

Toxins: BEWARE
Teatree - WHY?

remembs poisonous

61

Toxins: BEWARE
acetaminophen - WHY?

cats v sus
toxic dose: 10 mg/kg BW
-cats do not have ability to metabolize the drug
>can cause liver damage, met-hemogloblin is formed and cannot transport O2

62

Toxins: BEWARE
acetaminophen - WHY?
Signs of tox?

time frame: reaches BS w/in 20 mins w/ clinical signs in few hours
-depression, weakness, tachypnea, dyspnea, cyanosis, vommiting, mucous membranes are muddy brown, facial/paw edema,, death

63

Toxins: BEWARE
xylitol - WHY?

artificial sweetner
-poisonous to dogs - potent release of insulin in pacreas of non-primates
-hypoglycemia and hepatic necrosis
cats - idk if

64

Toxins: BEWARE
T/F: 1 stick of gum can poison a 5 kg dog

tru