L2 anatomy- general osteology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L2 anatomy- general osteology Deck (19):
1

locomotor apparatus

consists of the movement of the skeletal, articular and muscular systems where they are grouped according to the major divisions of the body- trunk, head, forelimb and hindlimb

2

skeletal system

a part of the locomotor apparatus that is applied to the framework of hard structures which support and protect soft tissues.

3

osteology

study of bones

4

axial skeleton

consists of bones of the skull, hyoid apparatus, cartilages of the larynx and bones of the vertebral column, rubs and sternum
(Skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum.)

5

appendicular skeleton

includes the bones of the thoracic girdle and forelimb, and pelvic girdle and hindlimb

6

long bone

- elongated and cylindrical in shape.
- The shaft is tubular and encloses the medullary cavity, which contains the medulla or bone marrow.
- has one dimension that outweighs the others
- epiphysis on outer edges and diaphysis in the middle
- occur in the limbs- humerus, femur, radius

7

flat bone

- thick and plate- like
- two plates of compact bone separated by spongy bone and marrow
- for protection of vital organs
- expanded substrate for muscle attachment
- has 2 dimensions that outweigh the third

8

short bone

- has 3 dimensions that are approximately equal
- no marrow cavity
- for shock absorption during locomotion
- carpal, tarsal and patella bones

9

irregular bone

- short bones with irregular shape
- unpaired
- protection of spinal cord
- for support
- muscle attachment
e.g. bones of vertebral column and cranial base (atlas, axis)

10

compact bones

- outer bone
- forms hard outer shell of bones
- dense
- low porosity

11

spongy/ cancellous bones

- inner bone
- bulls of short bones and extremities of long bones
- contains bone marrow
- low density
- high porosity

12

periosteum

thick membrane covering the outer surface of bone
- its deep layer is able to produce bone

13

fetal/ red marrow

- hematogenic/ hemopoietic- blood forming
- richly vascularised
- gelatinous tissue
- persists in adult vertebral bodies, skull base, sternum, ribs and long bones.

14

yellow marrow

- waxy
- hemopoietic potential however it's dormant
- marrow in larger spaces that first become inactive
- rich in fat cells
- in adult

15

grey marrow

- not hematogenic
- no fat
- almost liquid
- in elderly and skinny subjects

16

intramembranous ossification

- bone derived from a connective FIBROUS tissue template e.g. skull and facial bones

17

endochondral ossification

- bone tissue derived from a connective CARTILAGINOUS tissue template
e.g. axial and appendicular skeleton (except skull and facial bones)

18

osteogenesis

connective tissue cells is transformed into osteoblasts (arranged layer by layer) and osseous matrix.

19

osteolysis

to give the spongy tissue
- the osteoclasts or humeral dissolution create cavities in the new bone to give spongy tissue or dipole (spongy bone or flat bone)