L25/26: Lean & Productivity Flashcards Preview

Management > L25/26: Lean & Productivity > Flashcards

Flashcards in L25/26: Lean & Productivity Deck (40):

Main concerns of site management?

- environmental concern
- health and safety
- construction plan and methodology


Current state of affairs:

- physical characteristics of production ignored
- production largely uncontrolled
- no systematic process for learning from experience
- central control fantasy/ push system


What is lean?

- production philosophy to increase productivity and to eliminate waste


What does lean focus on?

-the difference between value and waste


Differences in traditional and lean:
Traditional: decisions are made sequentially by specialists

Lean: Downstream players are involved in upstream decisions, and vice-versa


Differences in traditional and lean:
Traditional: activities are performed as soon as possible

Lean: activities are performed at the last responsible moment


Differences in traditional and lean:
Traditional: not all product life cycle stages are considered in the design

Lean: all product life cycle stages are considered in the design.


Differences in traditional and lean:
Traditional: Participants build up large inventories to protect their own interests

Lean: Buffers are sized and located to perform their function of absorbing system variability


Differences in traditional and lean:
Traditional: Organisations link together through the market, and take what the market offers

Lean: Systematic efforts are made to optimise supply chains


Differences in traditional and lean:
Traditional: learning occurs sporadically

Lean: Learning is incorporated into project, firm and supply chain management.


What are the principles of lean?

- identify the Value stream
- remove the Waste
- create Flow
- let the customer Pull
- pursue Perfection


Where is most value added?

- During Manufacturing rather than Construction


What environmental considerations do classic value streams tend to overlook?

- raw materials used vs needed in products and processes
- pollution & other env. wastes in the value stream
- flows of information to env. regulatory agencies


What can simple adjustments to your value stream map do?

- Help explicitly address pollution and natural resource wastes
- improve cost reduction opportunities
- save additional time
- improve the health and safety of the workplace


A "materials line" can be added to the value stream to examine:

- amount of raw materials used by each process
- amount of materials that end up in the product and add value from the customer's perspective


What are some simple adjustments of value stream mapping?

- use icons or red dots to identify processes with key environmental, health, and safety (EHS) opportunities
- use icons to highlight where EHS experties needed
- add key env. data to process boxes


What does the timeline on a value stream map look at?

- value added and non value added time in the value stream


How to create flow?

- coordination
- basic lean tools and techniques
(e.g. 5 S's, spaghetti chart, visual controls)


What are the 5 S's?

- Sorting
- Simplifying
- Sweeping
- Standardising
- Self discipline


What does sorting include?

sort out the necessary from the unnecessary, discard the unnecessary


What does simplifying include?

create and identify a place for everything based on how often it is used


What does sweeping include?

physical and visual control of the work area


What does standardising include?

creating standard ways to keep the work areas organised, clean and orderly, documenting agreements made during the SS's


What does self discipline include?

Follow through


What does process mapping categorise all steps into?

1. Value added
2. Non value added but necessary
3. Non value added & not necessary


What does process mapping include?

- mapping all steps & 'wait' times of activities
- measure distance travelled & cycle time
- categorise all steps
- eliminate all #3s + improve #2's
- reduce setup time & do 5S's


What is the purpose of visual controls?

To put in plain view all tools, parts, plans, schedules and performance indicators so everyone can see at a glance what is happening.
(e.g. hard hats, daily/weekly schedules)


What are ways to pursue perfection?

- stress the production system to identify needed improvements
- experiment but buffer the production not to violate commercial agreements
- manipulate constraints to drive innovation and improvement


What are 3 different types of productivity?

- Labour
- Capital
- Time


What is productivity

output/ input


What is the measure for labour productivity?

work/ workers


What is the measure for capital productivity?

value added / capital employed


What is the measure for time productivity?

progress / working hours


What are common factors that affect productivity?

- skills and experiences of workforce
- management
- material availability
- job planning
- worker motivation


Factors to improving the efficiency of the work:

- develop a network
- more effective planning
- pre-work
- develop manuals
- use IT systems, communication and planning software
- use downtime and idle time better
- have a backup plan
- better communications
- quality
- pricing strategy


Factors to improve the competency of people:

- improve the level of technical skills
- diversity
- workforce stability
- support and supervision
- team building
- influences of peer workers
- working stress
- equality and pride


Key factors in training in project management:

- communication
- organisational skills
- adopt common procedures and practices
- contingency and uncertainty planning
- improve analytical skills
- develop and promote learning skills


Factors to strengthen middle management skills for key staff:

- ability to communicate and coordinate
- how to motivate people
- develop a clear business vision
- train in quality techniques and how to write procedures and policies
- number of employees managed
- delegation of responsibility
- continuous improvement techniques
- sustainability


A holistic, multi faceted industry level approach is required to:

- ease the mobility
- provide a clear career pathway
- improve qualifications or certificates incentives
- online learning to attract young IT literate workers
- integrated supply chain approach
- better relationships with clients
- value for money approach in procurement strategies.


Role of site managers

- prepare sites
- plan products
- supervise