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Flashcards in L4 - Nature Conservation Deck (42):
1

What are considered to be species?

Animals, Birds and Plants

2

What type of landscapes need to be protected?

National Parks
AONBs
World Heritage Sites
Heritage Coasts

3

What are Ramsar Sites?

Wetlands of International Importance

4

What is an SAC?

Special Area of Conservation

5

What is an SPA?

Special Protection Area

6

Which EU directive works to protect SACs? (Including the Directive Code)

The Habitats Directive (92/43/EC)

7

Which EU directive works to protect SPAs? (Including the Directive Code)

The Wild Birds Directive (79/409/EC)

8

What is the full name of Directive 92/43/EC?

Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora

9

What is the full name of Directive 79/409/EC?

Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds

10

What is a European Marine Site?

A collective term for SACs and SPAs covered by tidal water

11

What is the aim of a National Nature Reserve (NNR) and how does it differ from a SSSI?

To protect wildlife and geology but it is owned and managed by conservation agencies not by landowners like for SSSIs

12

What is the aim of a SSSI and how does it differ from a NNR?

To protect wildlife and geology but it is owned and managed by landowners not by conservation agencies like for NNRs

13

What is the aim of a Local Nature Reserve (LNR)?

To protect wildlife and geology that is of specific local interest

14

Name 2 Conservation Agencies

1. DEFRA
2. NRW

15

What does CROWA stand for?

The Countryside and Rights of Way Act (2000)

16

What is Stage 1 of the SAC selection and designation process?

Member States must send the EC a list of candidate sites using criteria laid down in Annex II of the Directive

17

What is Stage 2 of the SAC selection and designation process?

EC draws up lists of sites of Community Importance (SCIs) using criteria set out in Annex III

18

What is Stage 3 of the SAC selection and designation process?

Submission of national proposed sites and the drafting of a European list of SCIs by the EC

19

What is Stage 4 of the SAC selection and designation process?

After consultation with scientific experts a separate list of sites where one or more priority habitats or species are found is produced and termed Priority Sites. A Member State must designate sites for the protection of the priorities habitats and species under Annexes I and II

20

What is Stage 5 of the SAC selection and designation process?

Once the final list is adopted by the EC, the Member State must designate the sites as SACs within the next 6 years. Only after designation are sites afforded the highest level of protection under Article 6 of the Directive

21

Give 7 reasons why we should conserve

1. Goods have economic and social values
2. Research and Education
3. Aesthetics, culture and spiritualism
4. To protect emblematic animals
5. To protect ecosystem services
6. To reduce threats of development an habitat loss/degradation
7. To reduce threats of environmental pollution

22

In what year, did the biodiversity convention preamble outline the importance of conservation?

1992

23

What are the 3 national sites?

1. SSSI
2. NNR
3. Marine Conservation Zones

24

Give 7 mechanisms for nature conservation

1. Habitat/Site Designation
2. Mangement Schemes/Organisations
3. Individual Protection
4. Funding/Grants
5. Private Purchase
6. BAPs
7. Legislation (National, EU & International)

25

Give 5 examples of conservation agencies

1. NRW
2. EA
3. DEFRA
4. Natural England
5. Local Authority

26

Where is the Public Sector Duty outlined?

Section 40 of NERC Act 2006

27

Which act introduced NNRs and SSSIs?

National Parks and Access to Countryside Act 1949

28

How many NNRs are there in England and Wales?

England - 224
Wales - 76

29

How many SSSIs are there in the UK?

7,000

30

Do SSSIs cover the marine environment?

No

31

Section 28 (1) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 states 3 people who have to be notified of a SSSI, who are they?

1. Local Planning Authority
2. Every owner and occupier on the land
3. The SoS

32

What does CROWA require when notifying SSSIs?

A list of the special features and damaging activities

33

Within what time frame must consent be gained for SSSIs?

4-Months

34

What are the 3 pillars of activity for a Ramsar Site?

1. The designation of wetlands of international importance
2. The promotion of the wise use of all wetlands in the territory of each country
3. International cooperation with other countries to further the wise use of wetlands and their resources

35

What is Natura 2000?

An EU wide network of sites, which are significant for their conservation importance (coherent ecological network of SACs and SPAs)

36

How often must a report be produced for an SAC?

6-Years

37

What is criteria?

"Measures taken pursuant to the directive shall take account of economic, social and cultural considerations to influence the designation of candidate SACs"

38

Which Article of the Wild Birds Directive refers to conserving and managing SPAs?

Article 4 (4)

39

Which Articles of the Habitats Directive refer to managing and conserving them?

Article 6 (1), (2), (3) and (4)

40

Which regulations implement SACs and SPAs to the UK?

Conservation (Natural Habitats) Regulations 1994

41

All terrestrial SACs are SSSIs - true or false?

True

42

Which directive can be used to consider future directions?

Environmental Liability Directive 2004/35/EC