Flashcards in L4 - Nature Conservation Deck (42):
What are considered to be species?
Animals, Birds and Plants
What type of landscapes need to be protected?
World Heritage Sites
What are Ramsar Sites?
Wetlands of International Importance
What is an SAC?
Special Area of Conservation
What is an SPA?
Special Protection Area
Which EU directive works to protect SACs? (Including the Directive Code)
The Habitats Directive (92/43/EC)
Which EU directive works to protect SPAs? (Including the Directive Code)
The Wild Birds Directive (79/409/EC)
What is the full name of Directive 92/43/EC?
Directive on the Conservation of Natural Habitats and of Wild Fauna and Flora
What is the full name of Directive 79/409/EC?
Directive on the Conservation of Wild Birds
What is a European Marine Site?
A collective term for SACs and SPAs covered by tidal water
What is the aim of a National Nature Reserve (NNR) and how does it differ from a SSSI?
To protect wildlife and geology but it is owned and managed by conservation agencies not by landowners like for SSSIs
What is the aim of a SSSI and how does it differ from a NNR?
To protect wildlife and geology but it is owned and managed by landowners not by conservation agencies like for NNRs
What is the aim of a Local Nature Reserve (LNR)?
To protect wildlife and geology that is of specific local interest
Name 2 Conservation Agencies
What does CROWA stand for?
The Countryside and Rights of Way Act (2000)
What is Stage 1 of the SAC selection and designation process?
Member States must send the EC a list of candidate sites using criteria laid down in Annex II of the Directive
What is Stage 2 of the SAC selection and designation process?
EC draws up lists of sites of Community Importance (SCIs) using criteria set out in Annex III
What is Stage 3 of the SAC selection and designation process?
Submission of national proposed sites and the drafting of a European list of SCIs by the EC
What is Stage 4 of the SAC selection and designation process?
After consultation with scientific experts a separate list of sites where one or more priority habitats or species are found is produced and termed Priority Sites. A Member State must designate sites for the protection of the priorities habitats and species under Annexes I and II
What is Stage 5 of the SAC selection and designation process?
Once the final list is adopted by the EC, the Member State must designate the sites as SACs within the next 6 years. Only after designation are sites afforded the highest level of protection under Article 6 of the Directive
Give 7 reasons why we should conserve
1. Goods have economic and social values
2. Research and Education
3. Aesthetics, culture and spiritualism
4. To protect emblematic animals
5. To protect ecosystem services
6. To reduce threats of development an habitat loss/degradation
7. To reduce threats of environmental pollution
In what year, did the biodiversity convention preamble outline the importance of conservation?
What are the 3 national sites?
3. Marine Conservation Zones
Give 7 mechanisms for nature conservation
1. Habitat/Site Designation
2. Mangement Schemes/Organisations
3. Individual Protection
5. Private Purchase
7. Legislation (National, EU & International)
Give 5 examples of conservation agencies
4. Natural England
5. Local Authority
Where is the Public Sector Duty outlined?
Section 40 of NERC Act 2006
Which act introduced NNRs and SSSIs?
National Parks and Access to Countryside Act 1949
How many NNRs are there in England and Wales?
England - 224
Wales - 76
How many SSSIs are there in the UK?
Do SSSIs cover the marine environment?
Section 28 (1) of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 states 3 people who have to be notified of a SSSI, who are they?
1. Local Planning Authority
2. Every owner and occupier on the land
3. The SoS
What does CROWA require when notifying SSSIs?
A list of the special features and damaging activities
Within what time frame must consent be gained for SSSIs?
What are the 3 pillars of activity for a Ramsar Site?
1. The designation of wetlands of international importance
2. The promotion of the wise use of all wetlands in the territory of each country
3. International cooperation with other countries to further the wise use of wetlands and their resources
What is Natura 2000?
An EU wide network of sites, which are significant for their conservation importance (coherent ecological network of SACs and SPAs)
How often must a report be produced for an SAC?
What is criteria?
"Measures taken pursuant to the directive shall take account of economic, social and cultural considerations to influence the designation of candidate SACs"
Which Article of the Wild Birds Directive refers to conserving and managing SPAs?
Article 4 (4)
Which Articles of the Habitats Directive refer to managing and conserving them?
Article 6 (1), (2), (3) and (4)
Which regulations implement SACs and SPAs to the UK?
Conservation (Natural Habitats) Regulations 1994
All terrestrial SACs are SSSIs - true or false?