Flashcards in L8 - Water Quality and Control Deck (35):
Give 6 reasons why water is important
1. Industrial Processes
2. Ecosystems and Ecology
3. Quantity AND Quality
4. Human Consumption
5. Waste Disposal
6. Cross-Boundary Issues
What are the 5 main pollutant characteristics?
3. Obstacles to O2
4. Suspended Solids
5. Temperature Changes
Give 9 common pollutants
2. Metal Salts
4. Organic Matter
7. EC Priority Substances
What are the 4 main types of release to water?
1. Non-Point Source
2. Point Source
Since when has water pollution been a matter for the Scottish Parliament?
Under which Act does WG have responsibilities for water?
Government of Wales Act 2006
Who is the member state for EU negotiation?
What is an effluent?
Any fluid discharged from a source into the environment and allowed to enter the drainage system or allowed leak onto the land and soak into the ground
What is surface water?
Releases, spills or leaks into the ground or into surface water drains
Environmental permits are required for what distances offshore?
3nm in E & W
6nm in Scotland
What does the EA have a duty to do with regards to surface waters?
To maintain and improve the quality of surface waters
What is groundwater?
Where spills, onto the ground or long term leaks of materials into the ground, which migrate down or horizontally into groundwater -- it will hit the water table and plume
For surface drains, when is a permit required?
For anything other than rainwater
What is a foul sewer?
Domestic and trade effluent to sewage treatment works via foul sewers
What influences water quality?
Geology, rainfall, season, pollutants (type and amount)
What are direct affects on water quality?
Sewage discharge, agricultural discharge, industrial processes and incidents
What are indirect affects on water quality?
Runoff, leaching, air pollution, floods/droughts/abstraction levels
When was the EU action programme?
What are the 3 main forms of EU directives with examples?
1. Those which adopt emission standards
e.g. Black List
2. Those which impose quality objectives
e.g. Bathing and Drinking Waters
3. Those which regulate particularly polluting processes
e.g. Waste Treatment
Which Article of the WFD outlines it purpose?
What are the 5 main purposes of the WFD?
1. Preventing and Reducing Pollution
2. Promoting sustainable water use
3. Protecting the aquatic environment
4. Improving the status of aquatic ecosystems
5. Mitigation of the effects of floods and droughts
What is the main requirement of the WFD as outlined in Article 4?
To achieve GOOD status
Which Article of the WFD outlines the priority substances?
Article 16 (2)
What must the MS do with the priority substances?
Produce there own list of specific pollutants to be controlled for their waters (e.g. UK RED LIST)
Give 5 key features of the WFD
1. Integrated River Basin Management
2. Analyse the state of the River Basin Districts and influencing processes
3. Work actively with stakeholders
4. Programmes of measures to achieve good status
5. Monitoring programmes for biological and chemical parameters
Where has the WFD been transposed in England and Wales?
The Water Environment (WFD) (England and Wales) Regulations 2003, SI 2003/3242
Who are the regulators?
Where have offences been outlined previously and where are they outlined now?
The Old Law: Water Resources Act 1991
The New Law: Environmental Permitting Regulations 2010
What are the 2 main offences?
To discharge without a permit and to contravene
Which Schedule outlines water discharge activities ?
Which Schedule outlines groundwater discharge activities ?
Which regulation outlines offences?
What are the penalties?
Same as for permitting £50,000/12months imprisonment of unlimited/5 years imprisonment
What are the defences?
Avoiding danger to human health, notified the regulator and mines abandoned before 2000