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Flashcards in L4 orthopedic Deck (55)
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1

how many bones and the function

206 bones

- structural support

- movement

- strength

- protection of vital organs

- reservoirs for minerals and assist with blood cell production

2

classification of the bone - flat bone

3

clasification of bone- long bone

4

short bone

5

cubodial bone

6

sesamoid bone

7

e.g. of different types of bones

8

types of jointes

- fibrous

- syndesmosis

- cartilagenous

- synovial

9

whats the difference between tendon and ligament

ligament- hold bone to bone

tendon - hold muscle to bone

10

define dislocation and subluxation

11

tendon and ligament injury 

use RICE, rest ice elevation and compression

12

vascular injury

13

nerve injury

14

fracture and cause

15

classification of fractures

Fractures are classified by:

– Stable vs non-stable
– Type
– Open or closed

– Anatomical location of #

16

Stable vs unstable (Undisplaced vs displaced)

17

orientation of fracture

18

description of fracture

19

open VS closed fracture

20

anatomical location of #

21

vulnerable to fracture

– Elderly
– Osteoporosis
– Brittle bones
– Osteomalacia
– Pagets disease
– Perthes disease
– Anyone prone to falls

22

Surrounding Structures of bones

The musculoskeletal system and associated neurovascular system consists of;

– bones
– muscle
– ligament

– tendons and cartilage

– blood vessels
– nerves

Injuries to the bone also results in injury to the surrounding soft tissues and these other structures.

23

goal of treatment

Realign bone fragments – aka reduce

Immobilise to maintain alignment

Restore function

24

Treatment options - Closed reduction

Many fractures can be realigned via closed reduction under anaesthetic. Closed reduction is appropriate when fracture ends are not significantly displaced and position can be maintained with immobilisation.

25

Treatment options - Open Reduction Internal Fixation

– The fracture is realigned under direct visualisation and secured using a prosthesis e.g. screws, pins, plates or wire.

– There is a risk of infection and potential secondary trauma to the bone and surrounding structures.

26

Treatment options - External fixation

– –

External mechanical device attached to pins set within the affected bone fragments. Usedwherethereisminimalskinloss surrounding the fracture and are easily adjusted.

**Pin sites need to be dressed and well cared for to prevent infection**

27

Treatment Options - Traction

Pulling force used to maintain alignment of a fracture and reduce pain and muscular spasm.

Skin traction – direct application of a pulling force on the skin. Most commonly used as a temporary measure.

28

Skeletal Traction –

–  Insertion of a pin,the position for placement is dependent on the fracture

site.

–  The force is applied directly to the bone in a continuous strong steady pull.

–  Can be used as definitive treatment.

29

traction

30

cast