L9 - Child: Friends Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L9 - Child: Friends Deck (38):

A 'friend' typically includes notions of:

Reciprocity (not necessarily an even exchange)


Mutuality (shared liking and preference to spend time together)


At what age do babies appear to try and get attention of other babies?


When do they try to imitate their peers?

Attention: 6-9 months


Imitation: 9-12 months


Are babies primed to form relationships?



Very young babies show excitement when see each other and often stares at other babies


At what age do toddlers show peer preference?

As early as 12-18 months

Observations of touching, smiling, interacting


From 20 months - start to see peer preferences

Deliberate initiation of more interactions with some children rather than others. Contribute more in games with them.



What factors do we typically see in developing new friendships in toddlers?

Pretend Play


Shared understanding


Higher rates of conflict (but more likely to resolve it)


In pre-school friendships, what is the defining feature?

Concrete reciprocities -

"I know Joe is my friend because we play this way" "we play with..."


What is the defining feature of friends in primary school (6-8 years)

Shared activities  

- "fun to be with"


What is the defining feature of friends in primary school (9-10 years)

More sensitive to the needs of others


Concept of loyalty develops


What is the defining features of friends in adolescents?

Support (friends turn to each other for support needs)


Context for self-exploration (self identityif I try this out, will I get away with it etc.)


Validation (validates who you are as a person if you fit in)


Other high emotional content 


What are the 5 stages (0-4) of Selman's friendship model?

0: Momentary Playmates

1: One Way Assistance

2: Fair Weather Cooperation

3: Intimate/Mutually Shared

4: Mature Friendship


Name, site the age and explain stage 0 of Selman's friendship model.

Momentary Playmates (3-7years)

Friends live close by

Person plays with child at that moment

About having fun

More about specific encounters

Little understanding of enduring relationship


Name, site the age and explain stage 1 of Selman's friendship model.

One Way Assistance (4-9 years)

- Whats in it for me

- Someone who does nice things for you

- Little thought about what you do for the friend

- Close friend is someone you knkow better than others


Name, site the age and explain stage 2 of Selman's friendship model.

Fair Weather Cooperation (6-12 years)

- Becoming more reciprocal

- Still focused more on specific incidents and less about enduring relationship

- Concern with fairness


Name, site the age and explain stage 3 of Selman's friendship model.

Intimate/Mutually Shared (11-15 years)

- Begin to reflect on intimacy and mutuality

- Help each other without keeping score

- Confidant

- Problem solve together

- Inseparable


Name, site the age and explain stage 4 of Selman's friendship model.

Mature Friendship (12+ years)

- Emotional closeness, trust and support

- Common interests

- Deeper feelings

- Friendships endure even when not in close proximity


What are criticisms of Selman's stage model of friendship?

1) Stages are not concrete - development can alter depending on the individual 

(friendship heavily socially situated, whats happening in the immediate environment)

2) Age and stages are not necessarily reliable



According to Selman, in general how do friendships develop?

In general, friendship develops as children are increasingly able to balance intimacy needs as well as autonomy needs


What are typical gender differences in friendships in childhood development?

Activities and expectations tend to differ

Boys: Activity, achievement

Girls: Emotional closeness, self-disclosure


Where is there little difference in male friendships and female friendships?

Amount of conflict reported

Time spent together


What are some age-related changes that occur in regards to friendship with different genders?

Mixed-gender friendships common in pre-school children, re-emerge in adolescents. Less common in primary school aged children.


What are 6 cognitive and social skills developmental benefits of friendship?

1) Understanding and moderating emotion

2) Elaborating and developing ideas

3) Problem solving

4) Enhancing creativity

5) Protective buffer against bullying/teasing

6) Complexity of play


There are long-term benefits of friendships

What can having reciprocated friendships at grade 5 predict?

More success academically and in family and social life at age 23

Lower incidence of problems with the law

Less mental health issues

Greater feelings of self-worth in adulthood


Early friendships make a big difference in later life (doesn't have to be long lasting friendships, just what they rate as good)


Friendships build resilience.

What are 3 ways in which friendships build resilience?

1) Good quality friendships may compensate for poor family socialisation

2) Friendship may provide a buffer for family stress/breakdown

3) Having a good friend buffers against social ioslation or victimisation


Research suggests friends are especially useful in times of stress


What is the difference between friendship and peers?

Friendship = closer circle


Peers = broader circle (from which your friends will normally come)


What are the 4 characteristics of peers?

1) People of approximately same age and status

2) Share many of the same interests, provide validation of characteristics that the group members have in common

3) Provide a sense of belonging

4) Don't have the same level of emotional closeness, affiliation as friends (still influential in social development)


In early adolescence, how does peer group influence social development?

There is a high value in conforming to group's norms 

e.g. dress, behaviour etc.


As adolescence age, how does that change their social behaviour when in peer groups compared to early adolescence?

They look for more autonomy

Individual relationships increase and importance of peer group decreases


In middle childhood most children become part of a stable friendship group

What 3 things does this provide the child?

1) They share interests with peers

2) Provides validation

3) Provides a sense of belonging


How do peer norms and status present a challenge to friendship?

Changing behaviour to fit in and gain a higher status might damage close friendships.


Especially in boys where intimacy is less of a focus and status is more important.


How do cultural norms play a role in friendships and peer groups?

Childs contact with unrelated peers varies around the world

Norms around intimacy vary around the world


How do we typically define bullying?

Behaviour that is intentionally negative or hurtful to others

An imbalance of power involved

Repeated and unfair attacks

Over or covert (physical, verbal or social, relational) 


What are the features of overt bullying?

Direct physical aggression 

Hitting, kicking, intimidation, theft, destruction of property

Direct verbal aggression

e.g. name calling, jeering, teasing, threats


What are the 5 features of covert bullying?

Social exclusion and isolation


Rumour spreading

'stealing' friends

Directed towards damaging self-esteem and/or social status


What does the evidence suggest that frequent bullying/victimisation has on children?

Loss of self-esteem

Psychological problems including loneliness

Absenteeism, poor school performance


What are the 3 types of bully interventions?

School Based Interventions

Individual - for victims

Individual - for bullies


What is a school based bullying intervention?

What is typically the problem with these?

Whole school approaches - anti-bulling policies and management strategies at all levels


Problems: Relatively few properly evaluated


What is the main thing involved with bullying interventions for individual victims?

What are 6 features of this?

Empowerment for victims

 1) Understanding a dealing with feelings

2) Recognition and reasons for bullying

3) Building self-esteem

4) Developing confident communication skills

5) Social Supports

6) Management strategies 


What are 4 things involved with bullying intervention for bullies?

1) Reactive bullying - attribution re-training

2) Investigation of family factors (e.g. intervention with parents)

3) Modeling social concern, promoting pro-social behaviour

4) Consistent consequences for bullying behaviour