L1 - Ageing Lectures Flashcards Preview

S2 Foundations Health and Lifespan Development > L1 - Ageing Lectures > Flashcards

Flashcards in L1 - Ageing Lectures Deck (44):
1

The is the "hill metaphor of development"

youth = growth

middle age = plateu

old age = decline

 

We start out growing but once we get to a certain age we can expect cognitive and physical decline (over the hill)

 

2

Paul Bates - Lifespan Development Perspective suggests that development is a _____ process

lifelong

3

In the Lifespan development perspective (Paul Baltes), what is development like in regards to individuals?

Varies between and within individuals

4

What does plasticity and modifiability mean in the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes)?

Difference in skill within individuals grows as we age

 

your best and worst skill when you are young is far less different that your best and worse skill when you are older

5

What does historical embeddedness mean in the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes)?

We see things through a historical lens and we don't notice this lens until we look back at historical trends of th epast

6

What does joint occurrence of growth and decline refer to in the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes)?

Development is not about grwoth or decline, rather that while some things are growing others are declining

7

The streotypical view of agining is the _________ view

"over the hill" decline as we age view

8

In the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes) - what are the 3 major influences that are interacting as we age that influence how we age?

 

"interaction of 3 major influences"

1. Normative age-graded influences

2. Normative history-graded influences

3. Non normative life events

9

What are normative age-graded influences?

• Occur in similar way, for similar groups


• Closely related to chronological age


 Eg puberty, menopause, starting school, retiring

 

normative = typical of what happens to most people

10

What are Normative history-graded influences?

Common to people of a generation or cohort


• Eg War, Great Depression, changing role of women

 

influences in development that are common in certain generations or cohorts

 

11

What are non-normative life events?

More unique to the individual rather than common to group
 

 

unique things that happen to you that are not the norm

Eg Lottery win, Frequently moving schools

 

12

Explain which interactive influence is most impactful at what age of the life span?

 

 Age-graded normative - most impact at beginning and end

History-graded - most impact in adolescence and young adulthood

Non normative - cumulative effect

13

Chronological age is?

Time elapsed since birth

14

Is chronological age good at explaining behaviour?

No, seen as a dummy variable

15

What is better to use than chronological age?

Distance to death

16

What are the multifaceted aspects to age? (3 variables) - what are the 3 types of age

Biological age

Psychological age

Social age

17

What is biological age?

Your age

18

What is psychological age

Your maturity (your resilience)

19

What is your social age?

Social milestones that you have achieved

20

What is “longevity”

Number of years a person lives

21

What is “life expectancy”

Age at which individual born into a particular cohort is expected to die”

22

Do men or women live longer?

Women (84-80 compared to men)

23

What is the lifespan difference for indigenous Australians?

10 years less

24

Between 2004 and 2101 the proportion of men aged 85+ will increase from 32% to _____ of the population

45%

25

What is a supercentinarian?

someone over the age of 110

26

What does the "rectangularisation of age structure" in our society mean?

We used to have an "age triangle" but as older are living longer and people are having less children this is more a rectangle

27

What is senescence in aging?

Senescence – breakdown in surveillance, repair and replacement process in the body

28

Why has lifespan increased?

Improved healthcare (vaccines), less wars, babies aren't dying as much etc.

29

What are the four cellular theories for ageing?

‘Wear and tear’

Programming theories;

Hayflick limit 

Telomere hypothesis

30

What is the wear and tear cellular theory for ageing?

Ageing is happening at the cellular level and don't reproduce as well as we age - this is due to errors in transmission (e.g. next cell wont be as perfect as starting cells)

 

As cells die they become impacted by things in the environment such as pollutants and oxygen free radicals.

 

 

31

What is the programming theory of cellular theory for ageing?

Our cells are programmed to die at roughly a certain age

 

The number of times a cell produces is roughly 50 (Hayflick limit)

32

What is the hayflick limit?

The number of times a cell can successfully reproduce

50 times

33

What are the leading causes of death in Australia for women and men?

M: Heart disease, trachea & lung cancer, stroke

W: Heart disease, dementia, stroke

34

What changes can we make to our diet to increase longevity?

Reducing caloric intake while providing essential vitamins and nutrients

- CRON (calorie restriction optimal nutrients)

35

What are blue zones?

Areas with high rates of healthy centenarians

 

e.g. sardina, okinawa, nicoya

36

What are common features of lifestyle of people living in blue zones?

1. High physical activity

2. Purposeful life

3. Family and Social Engagement

4. Good diet

5. Contribute to society

6. Good stress management

37

Is social engagement important for healthy ageing?

Very important

- need to have a sense of purpose and optimism 

38

How can social support be a "double edged sword"?

mid-life people do most social support and can get burned out if looking after elderly and young members of society

39

What is CRON and how is it related to ageing?

CRON = calorie restriction optimal nutrients

 

Animals who had a restricted diet lived longer and had a more youthful look and maintained cognitive function for longer.

40

What is a telemere?

At the tip of every cell there is a telemere gene which produces telemorays, which is necessary for cell devision.

41

What is the telomere hypothesis

After every cell replication a bit of the telomere 'snips off' 

Once this happens too many times it runs out and can no longer replicate - this leads to ageing

42

What things influence telomere length?

Damaged by stress 

 

Maintained through exercise and active functioning 

43

What impact does exercising have on healthy ageing?

Reduces depression

Increses happiness

Reduces risk of dimentia

Increases telomere length

 

important to exercise throughout the day

44

What is the biggest predictor for fatality in elderly people?

If they have a fall and break their hip

- makes them not self sustaining, they lose purpose and don't exersise and deteriorate