L1 - Ageing Lectures Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L1 - Ageing Lectures Deck (44):

The is the "hill metaphor of development"

youth = growth

middle age = plateu

old age = decline


We start out growing but once we get to a certain age we can expect cognitive and physical decline (over the hill)



Paul Bates - Lifespan Development Perspective suggests that development is a _____ process



In the Lifespan development perspective (Paul Baltes), what is development like in regards to individuals?

Varies between and within individuals


What does plasticity and modifiability mean in the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes)?

Difference in skill within individuals grows as we age


your best and worst skill when you are young is far less different that your best and worse skill when you are older


What does historical embeddedness mean in the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes)?

We see things through a historical lens and we don't notice this lens until we look back at historical trends of th epast


What does joint occurrence of growth and decline refer to in the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes)?

Development is not about grwoth or decline, rather that while some things are growing others are declining


The streotypical view of agining is the _________ view

"over the hill" decline as we age view


In the Lifespan Development Perspective (Paul Baltes) - what are the 3 major influences that are interacting as we age that influence how we age?


"interaction of 3 major influences"

1. Normative age-graded influences

2. Normative history-graded influences

3. Non normative life events


What are normative age-graded influences?

• Occur in similar way, for similar groups

• Closely related to chronological age

 Eg puberty, menopause, starting school, retiring


normative = typical of what happens to most people


What are Normative history-graded influences?

Common to people of a generation or cohort

• Eg War, Great Depression, changing role of women


influences in development that are common in certain generations or cohorts



What are non-normative life events?

More unique to the individual rather than common to group


unique things that happen to you that are not the norm

Eg Lottery win, Frequently moving schools



Explain which interactive influence is most impactful at what age of the life span?


 Age-graded normative - most impact at beginning and end

History-graded - most impact in adolescence and young adulthood

Non normative - cumulative effect


Chronological age is?

Time elapsed since birth


Is chronological age good at explaining behaviour?

No, seen as a dummy variable


What is better to use than chronological age?

Distance to death


What are the multifaceted aspects to age? (3 variables) - what are the 3 types of age

Biological age

Psychological age

Social age


What is biological age?

Your age


What is psychological age

Your maturity (your resilience)


What is your social age?

Social milestones that you have achieved


What is “longevity”

Number of years a person lives


What is “life expectancy”

Age at which individual born into a particular cohort is expected to die”


Do men or women live longer?

Women (84-80 compared to men)


What is the lifespan difference for indigenous Australians?

10 years less


Between 2004 and 2101 the proportion of men aged 85+ will increase from 32% to _____ of the population



What is a supercentinarian?

someone over the age of 110


What does the "rectangularisation of age structure" in our society mean?

We used to have an "age triangle" but as older are living longer and people are having less children this is more a rectangle


What is senescence in aging?

Senescence – breakdown in surveillance, repair and replacement process in the body


Why has lifespan increased?

Improved healthcare (vaccines), less wars, babies aren't dying as much etc.


What are the four cellular theories for ageing?

‘Wear and tear’

Programming theories;

Hayflick limit 

Telomere hypothesis


What is the wear and tear cellular theory for ageing?

Ageing is happening at the cellular level and don't reproduce as well as we age - this is due to errors in transmission (e.g. next cell wont be as perfect as starting cells)


As cells die they become impacted by things in the environment such as pollutants and oxygen free radicals.




What is the programming theory of cellular theory for ageing?

Our cells are programmed to die at roughly a certain age


The number of times a cell produces is roughly 50 (Hayflick limit)


What is the hayflick limit?

The number of times a cell can successfully reproduce

50 times


What are the leading causes of death in Australia for women and men?

M: Heart disease, trachea & lung cancer, stroke

W: Heart disease, dementia, stroke


What changes can we make to our diet to increase longevity?

Reducing caloric intake while providing essential vitamins and nutrients

- CRON (calorie restriction optimal nutrients)


What are blue zones?

Areas with high rates of healthy centenarians


e.g. sardina, okinawa, nicoya


What are common features of lifestyle of people living in blue zones?

1. High physical activity

2. Purposeful life

3. Family and Social Engagement

4. Good diet

5. Contribute to society

6. Good stress management


Is social engagement important for healthy ageing?

Very important

- need to have a sense of purpose and optimism 


How can social support be a "double edged sword"?

mid-life people do most social support and can get burned out if looking after elderly and young members of society


What is CRON and how is it related to ageing?

CRON = calorie restriction optimal nutrients


Animals who had a restricted diet lived longer and had a more youthful look and maintained cognitive function for longer.


What is a telemere?

At the tip of every cell there is a telemere gene which produces telemorays, which is necessary for cell devision.


What is the telomere hypothesis

After every cell replication a bit of the telomere 'snips off' 

Once this happens too many times it runs out and can no longer replicate - this leads to ageing


What things influence telomere length?

Damaged by stress 


Maintained through exercise and active functioning 


What impact does exercising have on healthy ageing?

Reduces depression

Increses happiness

Reduces risk of dimentia

Increases telomere length


important to exercise throughout the day


What is the biggest predictor for fatality in elderly people?

If they have a fall and break their hip

- makes them not self sustaining, they lose purpose and don't exersise and deteriorate