L5 - Personality Theories 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in L5 - Personality Theories 2 Deck (28):

What are the 5 personality traints of the big 5?


Openness - willing to take reisks, try new things

Conscientiousness - organised, efficient, dependable

Extraversion - outgoing attitudes

Agreableness - Empathy, caring cooperation

Neuroticism - stable vs emotionally vulnerable


What does the big 5 say about how our personalities change over our lives?

Generally they dont

There is a high correlation of big 5 features over the lifespan


Changes that do happen tend to be positive

Emotional stability and functioning increase with age

Biggest level of conscientiousness increases in your 20's

Agreeableness increases in your 30s

Neuroticism changes with age



How does the big 5 get your personality ranking?

Compares you to other members of the population


This means that even though you might change slightly over time, compared to the population who are going through similar changes you will stay roughly the same


What did the Mills College Study when they tested women at 21, 27, 43 and 52 find in regards to how our personalities change over time?

At 27 women were higher on emotional dependence than partners, there was no difference between them and their partners at 52


However, their mothers were still high on dependence at 52


Why was the mothers of the Mills College Study still high on dependence at age 52 but their children weren't?

Environmental and Social Context


womens rights movement sociocultural context is important


Objective measures of ageing are good because they are scientific and bad because...

they define what counts as 'successful ageing' very tightly


definitions may differ


What are the four components for successful ageing articulated by Rowe and Kahn






When evaluating life satisfaction (subjective) how are individualist and collectivist cultures different?

individual: values independence as they age


collectivist: don't rate independence as important


What  did the Kansas City Studies use to test the 'typical' middle aged women in a cross-sectional comparison with a 6 year longitudinal follow up?


What were they interested in?



Thematic Apperception Test (ambiguous pictures)


Interested in how these changed over time


What do thematic apperception tests supposed to reveal?

Unconscious concerns, conflict and underlying world view


Ego energy reflects vigorous, passitionate engagement with life vs withdrawal


Mastery style reflects triumph and success over problems


What were the results of the Kansas City Studies?

Starting in 50s ego energy and mastery declined

Interiority (internal focus) increased


Less interested in the outside world, more preoccupied with self


Describe what the disengagement theory of ageing suggested

A natural process of disengagement occurs in late middle age

There was a mutual withdrawal – self left society / society left individual


What were the concerns and impact that disengagement theory had on ageing individuals?

Because elderly were suggested to leave society, problems arose

Concerns: fluency decline, discomfort with testing, sample used was problematic, Psychoanalytic underpinnings used for it not correct

Broader concerns: allowed for ageism, had political implications, doesn't apply cross-culturally


What theory became prominant after disengagement theory went into decline?

Activity Theory


What were the key tenants for successful ageing outlined in activity theory?

Successful ageing = replacing roles with new ones as roles and relationships change

keeping busy and active is the key



What does activity theory link with successful ageing?

Being active: socially, physically, in leisure activities

leads to wellbeing, functional outcomes and reduces mortality


What are the concerns with activity theory?

Emphasis on the individual rather than structural issuses.


This could marginalise already marginalised older groups and they may become isolated

- these limitations can be structural and can block individuals from actively achieving these goals


What relationship does life satisfaction have with age?

little relationship until oldest-old

people dont report being unhappy with age and lifesatisfaction until they are very old and lose their mental and physical health


What impacts life satisfaction the most?

Poor living conditions, ill-health, loss of relationships


What is the paradox of happiness?

Your way of looking at the world influences how happy you are, not your objective situation

it depends on comparative status, who you compare yourself, what dimensions you compare yourself across, what matters more to you etc.


Is socio-economic status a predictor of well-being because you have more money?

No, having more money doesn't make you happier

It is a predictor because of the opportunities it can bring



Who is happier, someone who spends money on themselves or others

Spends money on others


Actual health or self-reported health is a better predictor of wellbeing

Self-reported health


What you consider your health to be


Name the predictors of wellbeing


What personal resources are predictors of wellbeing?

Sense of control


Socio-cognitive skills

Sense of purpose/usefulness


What cognitive functions are predictors of wellbeing

Evaluation, expectation, interpretation

in relation to how you are ageing


Purpose is a very strong predictor of ______



Marital closeness is a predictor of ____