L9 - Infection control Flashcards Preview

Seminars in Translational Medicine > L9 - Infection control > Flashcards

Flashcards in L9 - Infection control Deck (22):

Infetions that develop associated with the healthcare system is estimated to cost __ million per year

$40 million


How can infections be transferred?

Contact direct/indirect and airbourne

patient --> patient

Patient --> healthcare worker

Visitor --> patient

May be acquired from:
-the environment
- contaminated equipment or therapies

Occasional foodborne source


List some examples of healthcare associated infections:

UTI - Especially in people with urinary catheter

Wound infectiom after surgery

Pneumonia - Especially in ICU patients on ventilator

IV related blood stream infection


What are the risk factors for healthcare associated infections?

Severity of underlying illness - the sicker you are the worse

invasive medical devices that breach normal defence mechanisms

Frequent contact with healthcare personnel

Prolonged length of stay

Prolonged exposure to antimicrobial agents

Decreased immunity e.g diabetes, chemotherapy


which organisms are resistant to all available antibiotics and how are they combated?


need to use antibiotics previously abandoned because of toxicity e.g colistin


What is MRSA and what does it cause?

methicillin resistant S. Aureus

causes many different infections

resistant to many antibiotics

carried in nose, throat, groin, intestine - mainly transmitted on contaminated hands


What is VRE and what does it cause and how is it transmitted?

Vacomycin-resistant enterococcus

causes UTIs, heart valve infection

Found in GIT, skin

transmitted on
-contaminated hands
-inaminate objects/environment


Which virus is responsible for causing explosive outbreaks of diarrhoea and vomiting on hospitals, cruise ships? How is it transmited?


transmitted via contaminated food or water

Environmental contamination important


What is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and is more common MRSA in some places

Clostridium difficile

spread from patient to patient on contaminated hands


Carbanapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is resistant to ____ and may be _____

Carbanapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is resistant to carbapenems and may be untreatable


What are examples of droplet transmission?

whooping cough, flu, SARS other resp. viruses


Whats the difference between droplet and airborne transmission?

airborne remains airborne - can get into air conditioning

droplets travel


What are the two types of control measures for healthcare associated infections - and examples of each?

Non-specific - apply to all patients regardless of disease status
- hand hygiene (esp alcohol)
- standard and additional precautions with blood, body fluids etc
- anitbiotic stewardship
- sterilisation of equipment
- cleaning environment

Patient specific measures - identify individual patients affected by disease by screening


Infectious diseases are ________. Must be conducted in context of clinical care. There are many ________ factors

Infectious diseases are transmissible. Must be conducted in context of clinical care. There are many uncontrollable factors


What are the problems with randomisation in infectiosu disease sudy?

Feasibility - wards are different
ethics - can't deny preventionq


True or false

there is always an independence of outcomines in infectioous disease research


There is a lack of independence of outcomes - and stats usually assumes this


What is the problems with infection control literature?

Control of epidemic vs. endemic situation

retrospective studes (they suck)

small numbers

multiple interventions

Bad stats analysis

Assumption that intervention is responsible for fall in numbers

reporting bias


What is the Hawthorne effect?

When poeple are being watched they change their behaviour

when the auditors there you're going to work differently


Describe an interupted time series analysis

provides results as change in level of outcome and trend

controls for secular trend and previous interventions

can control for other confounding factors


What are the explicit protocols necessary in study design of infectious control?

Nature and timing of intervention
comparison groups

description of participants, setting, confounding factors, other infection control practices, lab procedures

Appropriate stats analysis


true or false

Healthcare associated infections cause morbidity/mortaility but many are preventable



True of false

infeciton control research fits neatly into usual research methods


but good clinical research practice essential
- methodology