Lab 1 - Functional Anatomy Of The Endocrine Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 1 - Functional Anatomy Of The Endocrine Glands Deck (49):
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Chemicals that are secreted into the bloodstream

Hormones

1

Endocrine glands are ___ and work with the ___ ___.

Ductless

Nervous system

2

2 types of pituitary gland (hypophysis)

1. Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
2. Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)

3

Uses hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system; produces and releases 6 hormones

Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

4

6 hormones produced and released by anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

1. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
5. Growth Hormone (GH)
6. Prolactin (PRL)

5

Type of hormone that stimulates another gland

Tropic hormone

6

4 tropic hormones produced/released by AP

1. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

7

Regulates gamete production in ovaries/testes and hormonal activities if ovaries/testes

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

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Regulates adrenal cortex

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

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Functions in anabolism: protein synthesis and bone growth

Growth Hormone (GH)

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Functions in breast development, lactation (milk production), and testosterone production in males

Prolactin (PRL)

12

Uses the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract; stores and releases 2 hormones

Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)

13

2 hormones stored and released by PP

1. Oxytocin
2. Antidiueretic Hormone (ADH/vasopressin)

14

Made in the hypothalamus; responsible for uterine contraction and milk "let down" (ejection/release of milk)

Oxytocin

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Responsible for vasoconstriction and H2O absorption

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH/vasopressin)

16

Regulates thyroid gland

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

17

7 other endocrine glands that are not the pituitary gland

1. Thyroid gland
2. Parathyroid gland
3. Adrenal glands
4. Pancreas
5. Gonads
6. Thymus
7. Pineal gland

18

Produces and releases T4 and T3: increases body metabolism and calcitonin

Thyroid gland

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Lowers blood calcium

Calcitonin

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T3 and T4 are stored inside the ___.

Colloid

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Average 4 glands; produces and releases parathyroid hormone PTH

Parathyroid gland

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Increases blood calcium

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

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Aka suprarenal glands; the medulla and the cortex have different responsibilities

Adrenal glands

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Responsible for epinephrine/norepinephrine: "fight/flight" response

Adrenal medulla

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Produces 3 major groups of steroid hormones (aka corticosteroids)

Adrenal cortex

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3 corticosteroids produced by adrenal cortex

1. Mineralocorticoids
2. Glucocorticoids
3. Gonadocorticoids

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These (mainly aldosterone) are responsible for reabsorption of H2O and Na+

Mineralocorticoids

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These (especially cortisol) are responsible for increasing blood glucose levels and decreasing inflammation

Glucocorticoids

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These (chiefly androgens) are responsible for gonad development

Gonadocorticoids

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3 zones of adrenal cortex (in order from innermost to outermost)

1. Zona reticularis
2. Zona fasciculata
3. Zonal glomerulosa

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Adrenal cortex zone containing androgens

Zona reticularis

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Adrenal cortex zone containing aldosterone

Zona glomerulosa

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Behind the stomach; produces and releases insulin and glucagon

Pancreas

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Lowers blood glucose

Insulin

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Raises blood glucose

Glucagon

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Ovaries (females) or testes (males); produces and releases estrogen and progesterone (females) and testosterone (males)

Gonads

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Responsible for ova development and secondary sex characteristics

Estrogen

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Prepares uterus for menstruation and pregnancy and breasts for lactation

Progesterone

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Responsible for sperm development and secondary sex characteristics

Testosterone

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2 glands that have both endocrine and exocrine functions

1. Pancreas
2. Gonads

41

The part of the pancreas that has exocrine functions is the ___ ___.

Acinar cells

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In the pancreas, the hormones are made in a region called ____ ____
____.

Islets of Langerhans

43

Acinar cells are located outside of the ____, which are very small and have a lighter color than the rest of the slide.

Islets

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The exocrine tubes in the gonads are known as ____ ____.

Seminiferous tubules

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The ____ ____ in the male gonads are responsible for testosterone.

Interstitial cells

46

Near the heart and lungs; shrinks with age; produces and secretes thymosin

Thymus

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Responsible for T-Cell maturation (namely the WBC T-lymphocyte, which kills off viruses and cancer cells)

Thymosin

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Near 3rd ventricle in the brain; produces and secretes melatonin

Pineal gland

49

Responsible for circadian rhythm (highest at night) and mating behavior/sexual maturation

Melatonin