Flashcards in Lab 6a - Cholorplasts and Mitochondria Deck (22)
Summerize the reaction of photosynthesis
6CO2 + 12H2O --light E--> Glucose + 6O2 + 6H2O
Summarize Cellular Respiration.
Glucose (C6H12O6) + 6O2 + 6H2O ---> 6CO2 + 12H2O + ATP
What does it mean when someone says chloroplasts have a double membrane system?
It means there is an outer membrane and an inner membrane
What is the Stroma?
Fluid filled region that is enclosed by the inner membrane
What is a thylakoid?
Interconnected set of flat disk like sacs
What is the space inside the thylakoid (enclosed by the thylakoid membrane) called?
The thylakoid lumen
What are stacks of thylakoid's called?
Where do the light reactions take place? Where do the dark reactions take place?
Light reactions: thylakoid membrane
Dark reactions: stroma
Name the organisms that have this type of chloroplast and how many of that type of chloroplast it has.
Spiral shaped: Spirogyra - NA
C-shaped: Ulothrix - 1
Star shaped: Zygnema - 2
Circular/Oval: Elodea - Many! 50+
Ribbon: Mougeotia - 1
Why might scientists believe that mitochondria evolved before chloroplasts?
Because if for example chloroplasts evolved before mitochondria, then there would be some cells that contain only chloroplasts, but on the contrary, we only see cells that have either both mitochondria and chloroplasts or only mitochondria.
How does the symbiotic theory explain the double membrane system of the 2 organelles?
1. Cell that was engulfed was a prokaryotic aerobe (single membrane)
2. Cell that engulfed the aerobe did so by phagocytosis which added another layer of membrane (now double membraned)
Discuss how G. nostochinearum and C. paradoxa are both eukaryotic cells that contain cyano bacterium, since this shows that it's possible to for 2 organisms to co-exist, this supports symbiotic theory.
During the cauliflower assay, what is the main constituent of the first pellet?
In the cauliflower assay, after the nucleus, what the other constituent?
Where is the mitochondria located after the first centrifugation?
In the supernatant
What is the main constituent of the second pellet (after second centrifugation)?
What 4 things support symbiotic theory?
1. Double membrane system of chloroplast and mitochondria
2. No cholesterol on inner membrane
3. Independent genetic machinery + 1 long strand of genetic material like prokaryotes
4. Size of ribosomes and antibiotic sensitivity will be similar to prokaryotes
What is symbiotic theory?
The theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts evolved by symbiotic relationships between ancient prokaryotes
Function of the outer membrane in mitochondria?
1. Phospholipid synthesis
2. Fatty acid desaturation and elongation
What is the function of the inner membrane of the mitochondria?
1. Electron transport chain
2. Oxidative phosphorylation
3. Metabolite transport
What's the difference between a chlamydomonas pyrenoid and and pilayella pyrenoid?
chlamydomonas pyrenoid is in the centre of the chloroplast and pilayella pyrenoid is burgeoning
What does a pyrenoid do?
⬆️ local [CO2]
Aids starch formation