Lab 8 (part 1 of 2) - Digestive System Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 8 (part 1 of 2) - Digestive System Anatomy Deck (61):
1

The organs of the digestive system are traditionally separated into these 2 major groups

1. Alimentary canal (GI tract)
2. Accessory digestive organs

2

The alimentary canal consists of what organs?

1. Mouth
2. Pharynx
3. Esophagus
4. Stomach
5. Small intestine
6. Large intestine

3

List the 5 functions of the digestive system

1. Ingestion
2. Propulsion
3. Digestion
- Mechanical
- Chemical
4. Absorption
5. Defecation

4

List the 4 tunic layers of the alimentary canal wall

1. Mucosa
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis externa
4. Serosa

5

Describe mucosa

- Nearest to lumen
- Contains:
# Simple columnar epithelium
(in most cases)
# Lamina propria
# Some smooth muscle

6

What are the functions of mucosa?

1. Secretion
2. Absorption
3. Protection

7

Describe submucosa

- Beneath mucosa
- Contains:
# Dense CT
# Blood and lymphatic vessels
# Lymph nodules
# Nerves
# Submucosal nerve plexus

8

What are the functions of submucosa?

1. Nutrition
2. Support
3. Protection

9

Describe muscularis externa

- Beneath submucosa
- Contains:
# 2 bands of muscle:
Circular muscle deep
to longitudinal muscle
# Myenteric nerve plexus

10

What is the function of the muscularis externa?

Movement of food

11

Describe serosa

- Beneath muscularis externa
- Contains:
# Mesothelium
# Areolar CT

12

What are the functions of serosa?

1. Protection
2. Lubrication
3. Anchoring tissue

13

Serosa is called ___ in the esophagus.

Adventitia

14

What is the difference between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion?

Mechanical:
- Chewing
- Churning

Chemical:
- Enzymatic hydrolysis

15

With what type of epithelium are the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus made?

Stratified squamous epithelium

16

With what type of epithelium are the stomach and intestines made?

Simple columnar epithelium

17

What tonsils are found in the region of the mouth?

1. Palatine tonsil
2. Lingual tonsil

18

What epithelium is the mucosa of the:

Mouth

Stratified squamous epithelium

19

What are the functions of the mouth?

1. Ingestion
2. Propulsion
3. Mechanical digestion
4. Chemical digestion (starch)

20

What is the pH of the mouth?

7 (neutral)

21

In terms of digestion, what is the chemical reaction occurring in the mouth?

Starch
|
| Salivary amylase
|
\|/
Sugars

22

What epithelium is the mucosa of the:

Pharynx

Stratified squamous epithelium

23

Which regions of the pharynx are associated with digestion?

Oro and laryngo

(Nasopharynx is not involved in digestion)

24

What is the function of the pharynx?

Propulsion

25

What epithelium is the mucosa of the:

Esophagus

Stratified squamous epithelium

26

What is the function of the esophagus?

Propulsion

27

What structure in the esophagus controls food passage into the stomach?

Gastroesophageal sphincter

28

How does the esophagus transport food into the stomach?

It utilizes peristalsis.

Peristalsis: wavelike movement of food

29

What epithelium is the mucosa of the:

Stomach

Simple columnar epithelium

30

List the 4 regions of the stomach

1. Cardiac (w/ sphincter)
2. Fundus
3. Body
4. Pyloric (w/ sphincter)

31

The stomach has lesser and greater ___.

Curvatures

32

The stomach has an additional ___ ___ ___ for grinding food.

Oblique muscle layer

33

Mucosal folds of the stomach

Rugae

34

The stomach has ___ ___ and ___ ___ with parietal cells (___) and chief cells (___).

- Gastric pits
- Gastric glands
- HCl
- Pepsinogen

35

List the functions of the stomach

1. Propulsion
2. Temporary food storage
3. Mechanical digestion
4. Chemical digestion
# Primarily proteins

36

When food leaves, it liquefies and becomes ___ in the stomach.

Chyme

37

What is the pH of the stomach?

2 (acidic)

38

In terms of digestion, what is the chemical reaction occurring in the stomach?

Proteins
|
| Pepsin,
| HCl
|
\|/
Peptides

39

What epithelium is the mucosa of the:

Small intestine

Simple columnar epithelium

40

The ___ ___ are circular folds/ridges in the walls of the small intestine; their main function is to increase surface area.

Plica circulares

41

The small intestine is divided into what 3 regions?

1. Duodenum
2. Jejunum
3. Ileum

42

List the functions of the small intestine

1. Propulsion
2. Chemical digestion
- Carbohydrates
- Proteins
- Fats
3. Absorption of nutrients

43

What epithelium is the mucosa of the:

Duodenum

Simple columnar epithelium

44

The submucosa of the duodenum contains ___ ___, which produce mucus.

Duodenal glands

(Brunner's glands)

45

What structures in the duodenum are responsible for increasing surface area?

- Microvilli
- Villi

46

What structure in the duodenum is responsible for producing intestinal juice?

Intestinal crypts

(Crypts of Lieberkühn)

47

The duodenal glands produce ___ ___ to ___ ___ of chyme leaving the stomach.

- Alkaline mucus
- Neutralize pH

48

Which has less villi: the duodenum or the ileum?

The ileum has less villi than the duodenum.

49

The ileum contains ___ ___, which are lymphoid nodules for fighting bacteria.

Peyer's patches

50

What is the pH of the small intestine?

7 (neutral)

51

In terms of digestion in the small intestine, what are the 3 main types of molecules chemically broken down?

1. Starch
2. Peptides
3. Fats

52

In terms of starch digestion, what is the chemical reaction occurring in the small intestine?

Starch
|
| Pancreatic amylase
|
\|/
Sugars

53

In terms of peptide digestion, what is the chemical reaction occurring in the small intestine?

Peptides
|
| Pancreatic proteases
|
\|/
Amino acids

54

In terms of fat digestion, what is the chemical reaction occurring in the small intestine?

Fats
|
| Pancreatic lipase
|
\|/
Fatty acids

55

What epithelium is the mucosa of the:

Large intestine

Simple columnar epithelium

56

In the large intestine, what is order of the colon?

1. Ascending colon
2. Transverse colon
3. Descending colon
4. Sigmoid colon

57

What are the 3 longitudinal muscle bands associated with the large intestine?

Teniae coli

58

Pocket-like sacs on the colon in the large intestine

Haustra

59

List the subdivisions of the large intestine

1. Colon
2. Cecum
3. Vermiform appendix
4. Rectum
5. Anus

60

List the functions of the large intestine

1. Propulsion
2. Water absorption
3. Defecation of feces
4. Synthesis of Vitamins B and K

61

The large intestine contains numerous ___ ___, but no ___.

- Goblet cells
- Villi