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Flashcards in Lab Exam 1 Study Guide Deck (99):
1

What is meant by the term mastication?

Chewing

2

What are peristaltic waves and what is their purpose?

Contraction of smooth muscle of stomach, churns food and mixes it with gastric juices to aid digestion

3

In what way does mechanical digestion aide the process of chemical digestion?

Creates a greater surface area for digestive enzymes to do their work

4

How do you define chemical digestion?

Chemical enzymes breaking down food macromolecules

5

Are enzymes proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids?

Proteins

6

What is the function of digestive enzyme?

Break down large molecules into smaller ones that can be digested.

7

What type of macromolecule is starch?

A Carbohydrate

8

What enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of starch and what are the products?

Amylases break down starch into disaccharides and monosaccharides. Amylases are found in the saliva and secreted by the pancreas.

9

What class of enzymes catalyzes the breakdown of lipids and what are the products?

Lipase breaks down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.

10

What class of enzymes catalyze the breakdown of proteins and what are the products?

proteases break down proteins into peptides and amino acids.

11

What does pepsin digest?

Proteins

12

What is the precursor molecule for pepsin and from where is it secreted?

Pepsinogen, secreted by chief cells in the stomach

13

What is the optimal pH for pepsin activity

Acidic -- pH 1-3

14

What is the optimal pH for amylase activity?

Neutral - pH 7

15

Explain how indigestion medication such as alka seltzer that contains bicarbonate works. (Include equation)

H20 (water) + C02 (Carbon Dioxide) = H2C03 (carbonic acid) = HCO3- (bicarbonate) + H+ (Proton) Bicarbonate bonds to protons, turning into carbonic acid, and then to H20 and C02, making the solution more alkaline.

16

Name two other classes of medication to treat overproduciton of stomach acid and explain how they work.

PPIs: proton pump inhibitor, directly inhibits proton pump thats pumping protons into the stomach (making it acidic) Antihistamines: Histamine stimulates acid secretion, antihistamine helps block that.

17

How many layers are found in the walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine?

4 layers -- From interior/deep to external/superficial: The mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.

18

What is the name of the deepest layer (in the walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) and what type of tissues make up this layer?

The Mucosa, which is a moist layer that includes the surface epithelium, connective tissue (lamina propria), and smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae).

19

What type of tissue is found in the submucosa?

Areolar connective tissue

20

What type of tissue is found in the muscularis? How many layers in each location?

two layers in all but the stomach -- an inner layer of circular smooth muscle and an outer layer of longitudinal smooth muscle. The stomach has three layers, an inner oblique, middle circular, and an outer longitudinal smooth muscle layer.

21

What is meant by the term peritoneum? How many layers has the peritoneum? Is the peritoneum a part of the GI wall?

The peritoneum is the largest serous membrane in the body. there are two layers of the peritoneum, with the parietal peritoneum lining the inner surface of the abdominopelvic wall and the visceral peritoneum covering organs within the abdominopelvic cavity. Secures organs together and to the abdominal wall.

22

What and where is the greater omentum? What and where is the lesser omentum?

The greater omentum is a large, fatty-looking apron that attaches to the transverse colon. It forms a pouch that hands between the body wall and the anterior surface of the small intestine. Loosely covers transverse colon and small intestine. The lesser omentum connects the medial curve of the stomach with the liver.

23

Are the salivary glands endocrine glands or exocrine glands? What do you give this answer?

Exocrine. Endocrine glands secrete directly into the blood.

24

What do salivary glands secrete and what is the purpose of these secretions?

Enzymes that intiate chemical digestion of carbohydrates and lipids.

25

Where are the parotid glands located?

anterior and inferior to the ears between the skin and the masseter muscle.

26

Where are the submandibular glands located?

in the posterior part of the mouth floor just medial to the madnible, deep to the mylohyoid muscle.

27

Where are the sublingual glands located?

under the tongue.

28

Name 3 functions of the tongue and state how the tongue achieves each of these functions.

Taste, chewing/swallowing, and speech.

29

What is the name for children's teeth and how many are present?

Deciduous teeth (or primary teeth). 20 teeth total

30

What is the name for adult teeth and how many are present?

Permanent or secondary teeth. 32 teeth total

31

Write out the dental formula for childrens teeth.

upper teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 0 premolars, 2 molars x 2 lower teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 0 premolars, 2 molars x 2

32

What is the dental formula for adult teeth.

Upper teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 2 premolars, 3 molars x 2 Lower teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 2 premolars, 3 molars x 2

33

Where is the pancreas located?

Posterior to the stomach.

34

What is the purpose of the exocrine pancreas? Name 4 enzymes secreted by the exocrine pancreas.

The exocrine protion secretes digestive enzymes pancreatic amylase, trypsin, chemotrypsin, and pancreatic lipase. In clusters called acinii.

35

What is the name for the endocrine part of the pancreas? Name 2 horomones secreted by the endocrine pancreas.

islets of langerhans (pancreatic islets). Insulin and glucagon.

36

Describe where the liver and gallbladder are located.

Liver is inferior to the diaphragm and touches the diaphragm all along the livers superior border. The gall bladder is located on the inferior surface of the liver between the right lobe and the quadrate lobe.

37

How many liver lobes are present in the human? What are their names?

4 - the right lobe, the left lobe, the caudate lobe, and the quadrate lobe.

38

What is the main digestive function of the liver?

Make bile to be delivered to the gallbladder for concentration and storage.

39

What is the main purpose of the gallbladder?

store and secrete bile.

40

What is the name of the ligament that binds the liver to the anterior abdominal wall?

falciform ligament

41

What specialized secretory cells are present in the gastric glands and what do they secrete?

Mucous neck cells = secrete mucous

Parietal Cells = secrete HCI and intrinsic factor

Chief cells = secrete pepsinogen

G Cells (endocrine) = secrete gastrin

42

Where would you expect to find Kupffer cells? What do they do?

Fixed macrophages in the sinusoids of the liver lobules

43

Flow of blood and bile through a liver lobule. Define 1-3.

1. Bile canaliculus

2. Hepatic vein

3. Central vein

44

Flow of blood and bile through a liver lobule. Define 4-6.

4. sinusoids

5. portal triad

6. bile duct

45

Flow of blood and bile through a liver lobule. Define 7-9.

7. Hepatocytes

8. branch of the hepatic portal vein

9. branches of the hepatic artery

46

What is this sample?

Define 21-23.

Liver Lobule.

21. Hepatocytes

22. Sinusoids

23. Central Vein

47

What is this sample? Define 19 and 20.

Histology of the pancreas.

19. Acini

20. Pancreatic islet

48

What is this Sample? Define 13 - 15.

Duodenum of small intestine. 

13. Simple columnar Epithelium

14. Goblet cell

15. Villus

49

What is this Sample? Define 16 - 18.

Duodenum of small intestine. 

16. Lamina propria

17. Intestinal gland

18. Duodenal gland in submucosa

50

What is this sample? Define 9-12.

Fundic Mucosa of the stomach. 

9. Gastric pit

10. simple columnar epithelium

11. lamina propria

12. gastric glands

51

What is this sample? Define 1-4.

Wall of the esophagus.

1. Stratified squamous epithelium

2. Lamina propria

3. circular layer of smooth muscle

4. longitudinal layer of smooth muscle

52

What is this sample? Define 5-8.

Wall of the esophagus.

5. Mucosa

6. Submucosa

7. Muscularis

8. Serosa

53

Pancreas, liver, and gallblader. Define 21-25.

21. Quadrate Lobe

22. Left Lobe

23. Caudate Lobe

24. Right Lobe

25. Gallbladder

54

Pancreas, Liver, and gallbladder. Define 17-20.

17. Duodenal papilla

18. Hepatopancreatic ampulla

19. common bile duct

20. pancreatic duct

55

Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 1-4.

1. Right hepatic duct

2. Cystic duct

3. gallbladder

4. duodenum

56

Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 5-8.

5. Hepatopancreatic ampulla

6. falciform ligament

7. left lobe of liver

8. left hepatic duct

57

Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 9-12.

9. Common hepatic duct

10. Common bile duct

11. Accessory pancreatic duct

12. Tail of pancreas

58

Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 13-16.

13. Body of pancreas

14. Pancreatic duct

15. Head of pancreas

16. Jejunum

59

Teeth and tongue. Define 28-30.

28. External anal sphincter

29. anal column

30. anus

60

Frontal section of Anal canal. Define 25-27.

25. Rectum

26. Anal canal

27. Internal anal sphincter

61

Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 9-12.

9. Right colic flexure

10. ascending colon

11. ileum

12. ileocecal sphincter

62

Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 13-16.

13. Cecum

14. Appendix

15. Rectum

16. Transverse colon

63

Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 17-20.

17. Left colic flexure

18. descending colon

19. teniae coli

20. epiploic appendages

64

Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 21- 24.

21. Haustra

22. Sigmoid colon

23. Anal canal

24. Anus

65

Small intestine and large intestine. Define 1-4.

1. Duodenum

2. Ascending Colon

3. Jejunum

4. Ileum

66

Small intestine and large intestine. Define 5-8.

5. Stomach

6. Transverse colon

7. descending colon

8. rectum

67

Esophagus and stomach. Define 1-4.

1. Lesser curvature

2. body

3. Cardia

4. lower esophageal sphincter

 

68

Esophagus and stomach. Define 5-8.

5. Esophagus

6. Fundus

7. Longitudinal muscle layer

8. Circular muscle layer

 

69

Esophagus and stomach. Define 9-12.

9. Oblique muscle layer

10. Greater curvature

11. rugae

12. pyloric antrum

70

Esophagus and stomach. Define 13-15.

13. Pyloric canal

14. Pyloric sphincter

15. pylorus

71

Mouth and Pharynx. Define 1-5.

1. Nasopharynx

2. Soft palate

3. uvula

4. fauces

5. oropharynx

72

Mouth and Pharynx. Define 6-10.

6. Laryngopharynx

7. Esophagus

8. Hard palate

9. Oral cavity

10. tongue

73

The mouth. Define 1-4.

1. Hard palate

2. Soft palate

3. Uvula

4. Cheek

74

The mouth. Define 5-8.

5. Vestibule

6. Superior Lip

7. Fauces

8. Palatine tonsil

75

The mouth. Define 9-12.

9. Tongue

10. Gingivae

11. Inferior labial frenulum

12. inferior lip

76

Periotoneal folds. Define 11.

11. Lesser omentum

77

Peritoneal folds. Define 12, 13, 14.

12. Greater omentum (reflected)

13. Mesocolon

14. mesentery

78

Peritoneal folds. Define 9 and 10.

9. Falciform ligament

10. Greater omentum

79

Peritoneal Folds. Define 1-4.

1. Retroperitoneal organs

2. lesser omentum

3. mesocolon

4. mesentery

80

Peritoneal Folds. Define 5-8.

5. Greater omentum

6. Parietal peritoneum

7. visceral peritoneum (serosa)

8. Peritoneal cavity

81

Layers of the gastrointestinal tract. Define 1-4.

1. Mucosa

2. Submucosa

3. Serosa

4. Muscularis

82

Organs of the digestive system. Define 6-11. 

6. Large intestine

7. Oral cavity

8. stomach

9. pancreas

10. Small intestine

11. Anus

83

Organs of the digestive system. Define 1-5. 

1. Salivary glands

2. Pharynx

3. Esophagus

4. Liver

5. Gallbladder

84

Location of Salivary Glands. Define 1-4.

1. Parotid gland

2. Parotid duct

3. Opening of parotid duct

4. Opening of subliguinal ducts

85

Location of Salivary Glands. Define 5-7.

5. Sublinguinal gland

6. Submandibular duct

7. Submandibular gland

86

Tooth. Define 8-11. 

8. Crown

9. Neck

10. Root

11. Enamel 

87

Tooth. Define 12-15. 

12. Dentin

13. Gingiva

14. Blood supply

15. Pulp cavity with pulp

88

Tooth. Define 16-20. 

16. Cementum

17. Root canal

18. Periodontal ligament

19. Nerve

20. Apical foramen

89

Teeth and tongue. 24 - 26. 

24. Incisors

25. Tongue

26. Lingual frenulum

90

Teeth and tongue. 21 - 23. 

21. Molars

22. Premolars

23. cuspid

91

LIVER -- What 3 components make up a portal triad?

hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct

92

TEETH -- Know the different types of teeth, where they are and how they function. 

Incisors cut food.

Cuspids tear food.

Premolars and molars crush and grind food.

93

SALIVARY GLANDS -- Know the function and location of the major salivary glands and their ducts.

Saliva moistens food and contains enzymes that initiate chemical digestion of carbohydrates and lipids. 

Parotid glands - located anterior and inferior to the ears between the skin and masseter muscle.

Submandibular glands -- posterior part of the mouth floor just medial to the mandible, deep to the mylohyoid muscle.

Sublingual glands -- under the tongue. 

94

GALLBLADDER -- What does bile do?

Bile emulsifies lipids, which breaks down large spheres of lipids into smaller ones.  Bile salts aid in digestion by breaking down lipids.

95

DIGESTIVE ENZYMES -- What is the optimal temperature for enzyme activity? What would happen if the digestion temperature is too high? What would happen if the temperature is too low?

Body temperature -- 37 degrees celsius. They denature and become inactive if the temperature is two high, and i suspect do not react if the temperature is too low. 

96

PEPSIN -- Know where pepsin is produced and the food component that it digests. What is the optimal pH for pepsin activity?

Pepsin is produced as pepsinogen in cheif cells in the stomach. pepsin digests protein, and functions optimally at an acidic pH (1-3)

97

AMYLASE -- Know where amylase is produced and what food component it digests. Know a simple method you can use to test for amylase function.

Amylase can be found in saliva and secreted by the pancrease. Amylase digests carbohydrates.  chew something with carbohydrates and see how long it takes to taste sweet (as salivary amylase breaks down the carbohydrates into disaccarides and monosaccarides.)

98

GI TRACT -- 

You should be able to name the different areas of the colon.

The large intestine is composed of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.

Ascending colon to transverse colon  to the descending colon, to the sigmoid colon, to the rectum.

99

GI TRACT WALL -- What is the name for the squamous epithelial layer of the serosa?

Mesothelium