What is meant by the term mastication?
What are peristaltic waves and what is their purpose?
Contraction of smooth muscle of stomach, churns food and mixes it with gastric juices to aid digestion
In what way does mechanical digestion aide the process of chemical digestion?
Creates a greater surface area for digestive enzymes to do their work
How do you define chemical digestion?
Chemical enzymes breaking down food macromolecules
Are enzymes proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids?
What is the function of digestive enzyme?
Break down large molecules into smaller ones that can be digested.
What type of macromolecule is starch?
What enzyme catalyzes the breakdown of starch and what are the products?
Amylases break down starch into disaccharides and monosaccharides. Amylases are found in the saliva and secreted by the pancreas.
What class of enzymes catalyzes the breakdown of lipids and what are the products?
Lipase breaks down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids.
What class of enzymes catalyze the breakdown of proteins and what are the products?
proteases break down proteins into peptides and amino acids.
What does pepsin digest?
What is the precursor molecule for pepsin and from where is it secreted?
Pepsinogen, secreted by chief cells in the stomach
What is the optimal pH for pepsin activity
Acidic -- pH 1-3
What is the optimal pH for amylase activity?
Neutral - pH 7
Explain how indigestion medication such as alka seltzer that contains bicarbonate works. (Include equation)
H20 (water) + C02 (Carbon Dioxide) = H2C03 (carbonic acid) = HCO3- (bicarbonate) + H+ (Proton) Bicarbonate bonds to protons, turning into carbonic acid, and then to H20 and C02, making the solution more alkaline.
Name two other classes of medication to treat overproduciton of stomach acid and explain how they work.
PPIs: proton pump inhibitor, directly inhibits proton pump thats pumping protons into the stomach (making it acidic) Antihistamines: Histamine stimulates acid secretion, antihistamine helps block that.
How many layers are found in the walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine?
4 layers -- From interior/deep to external/superficial: The mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa.
What is the name of the deepest layer (in the walls of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) and what type of tissues make up this layer?
The Mucosa, which is a moist layer that includes the surface epithelium, connective tissue (lamina propria), and smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae).
What type of tissue is found in the submucosa?
Areolar connective tissue
What type of tissue is found in the muscularis? How many layers in each location?
two layers in all but the stomach -- an inner layer of circular smooth muscle and an outer layer of longitudinal smooth muscle. The stomach has three layers, an inner oblique, middle circular, and an outer longitudinal smooth muscle layer.
What is meant by the term peritoneum? How many layers has the peritoneum? Is the peritoneum a part of the GI wall?
The peritoneum is the largest serous membrane in the body. there are two layers of the peritoneum, with the parietal peritoneum lining the inner surface of the abdominopelvic wall and the visceral peritoneum covering organs within the abdominopelvic cavity. Secures organs together and to the abdominal wall.
What and where is the greater omentum? What and where is the lesser omentum?
The greater omentum is a large, fatty-looking apron that attaches to the transverse colon. It forms a pouch that hands between the body wall and the anterior surface of the small intestine. Loosely covers transverse colon and small intestine. The lesser omentum connects the medial curve of the stomach with the liver.
Are the salivary glands endocrine glands or exocrine glands? What do you give this answer?
Exocrine. Endocrine glands secrete directly into the blood.
What do salivary glands secrete and what is the purpose of these secretions?
Enzymes that intiate chemical digestion of carbohydrates and lipids.
Where are the parotid glands located?
anterior and inferior to the ears between the skin and the masseter muscle.
Where are the submandibular glands located?
in the posterior part of the mouth floor just medial to the madnible, deep to the mylohyoid muscle.
Where are the sublingual glands located?
under the tongue.
Name 3 functions of the tongue and state how the tongue achieves each of these functions.
Taste, chewing/swallowing, and speech.
What is the name for children's teeth and how many are present?
Deciduous teeth (or primary teeth). 20 teeth total
What is the name for adult teeth and how many are present?
Permanent or secondary teeth. 32 teeth total
Write out the dental formula for childrens teeth.
upper teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 0 premolars, 2 molars x 2 lower teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 0 premolars, 2 molars x 2
What is the dental formula for adult teeth.
Upper teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 2 premolars, 3 molars x 2 Lower teeth: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 2 premolars, 3 molars x 2
Where is the pancreas located?
Posterior to the stomach.
What is the purpose of the exocrine pancreas? Name 4 enzymes secreted by the exocrine pancreas.
The exocrine protion secretes digestive enzymes pancreatic amylase, trypsin, chemotrypsin, and pancreatic lipase. In clusters called acinii.
What is the name for the endocrine part of the pancreas? Name 2 horomones secreted by the endocrine pancreas.
islets of langerhans (pancreatic islets). Insulin and glucagon.
Describe where the liver and gallbladder are located.
Liver is inferior to the diaphragm and touches the diaphragm all along the livers superior border. The gall bladder is located on the inferior surface of the liver between the right lobe and the quadrate lobe.
How many liver lobes are present in the human? What are their names?
4 - the right lobe, the left lobe, the caudate lobe, and the quadrate lobe.
What is the main digestive function of the liver?
Make bile to be delivered to the gallbladder for concentration and storage.
What is the main purpose of the gallbladder?
store and secrete bile.
What is the name of the ligament that binds the liver to the anterior abdominal wall?
What specialized secretory cells are present in the gastric glands and what do they secrete?
Mucous neck cells = secrete mucous
Parietal Cells = secrete HCI and intrinsic factor
Chief cells = secrete pepsinogen
G Cells (endocrine) = secrete gastrin
Where would you expect to find Kupffer cells? What do they do?
Fixed macrophages in the sinusoids of the liver lobules
Flow of blood and bile through a liver lobule. Define 1-3.
1. Bile canaliculus
2. Hepatic vein
3. Central vein
Flow of blood and bile through a liver lobule. Define 4-6.
5. portal triad
6. bile duct
Flow of blood and bile through a liver lobule. Define 7-9.
8. branch of the hepatic portal vein
9. branches of the hepatic artery
What is this sample?
23. Central Vein
What is this sample? Define 19 and 20.
Histology of the pancreas.
20. Pancreatic islet
What is this Sample? Define 13 - 15.
Duodenum of small intestine.
13. Simple columnar Epithelium
14. Goblet cell
What is this Sample? Define 16 - 18.
Duodenum of small intestine.
16. Lamina propria
17. Intestinal gland
18. Duodenal gland in submucosa
What is this sample? Define 9-12.
Fundic Mucosa of the stomach.
9. Gastric pit
10. simple columnar epithelium
11. lamina propria
12. gastric glands
What is this sample? Define 1-4.
Wall of the esophagus.
1. Stratified squamous epithelium
2. Lamina propria
3. circular layer of smooth muscle
4. longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
What is this sample? Define 5-8.
Wall of the esophagus.
Pancreas, liver, and gallblader. Define 21-25.
21. Quadrate Lobe
22. Left Lobe
23. Caudate Lobe
24. Right Lobe
Pancreas, Liver, and gallbladder. Define 17-20.
17. Duodenal papilla
18. Hepatopancreatic ampulla
19. common bile duct
20. pancreatic duct
Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 1-4.
1. Right hepatic duct
2. Cystic duct
Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 5-8.
5. Hepatopancreatic ampulla
6. falciform ligament
7. left lobe of liver
8. left hepatic duct
Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 9-12.
9. Common hepatic duct
10. Common bile duct
11. Accessory pancreatic duct
12. Tail of pancreas
Pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. Define 13-16.
13. Body of pancreas
14. Pancreatic duct
15. Head of pancreas
Teeth and tongue. Define 28-30.
28. External anal sphincter
29. anal column
Frontal section of Anal canal. Define 25-27.
26. Anal canal
27. Internal anal sphincter
Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 9-12.
9. Right colic flexure
10. ascending colon
12. ileocecal sphincter
Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 13-16.
16. Transverse colon
Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 17-20.
17. Left colic flexure
18. descending colon
19. teniae coli
20. epiploic appendages
Large Intestine, anterior view. Define 21- 24.
22. Sigmoid colon
23. Anal canal
Small intestine and large intestine. Define 1-4.
2. Ascending Colon
Small intestine and large intestine. Define 5-8.
6. Transverse colon
7. descending colon
Esophagus and stomach. Define 1-4.
1. Lesser curvature
4. lower esophageal sphincter
Esophagus and stomach. Define 5-8.
7. Longitudinal muscle layer
8. Circular muscle layer
Esophagus and stomach. Define 9-12.
9. Oblique muscle layer
10. Greater curvature
12. pyloric antrum
Esophagus and stomach. Define 13-15.
13. Pyloric canal
14. Pyloric sphincter
Mouth and Pharynx. Define 1-5.
2. Soft palate
Mouth and Pharynx. Define 6-10.
8. Hard palate
9. Oral cavity
The mouth. Define 1-4.
1. Hard palate
2. Soft palate
The mouth. Define 5-8.
6. Superior Lip
8. Palatine tonsil
The mouth. Define 9-12.
11. Inferior labial frenulum
12. inferior lip
Periotoneal folds. Define 11.
11. Lesser omentum
Peritoneal folds. Define 12, 13, 14.
12. Greater omentum (reflected)
Peritoneal folds. Define 9 and 10.
9. Falciform ligament
10. Greater omentum
Peritoneal Folds. Define 1-4.
1. Retroperitoneal organs
2. lesser omentum
Peritoneal Folds. Define 5-8.
5. Greater omentum
6. Parietal peritoneum
7. visceral peritoneum (serosa)
8. Peritoneal cavity
Layers of the gastrointestinal tract. Define 1-4.
Organs of the digestive system. Define 6-11.
6. Large intestine
7. Oral cavity
10. Small intestine
Organs of the digestive system. Define 1-5.
1. Salivary glands
Location of Salivary Glands. Define 1-4.
1. Parotid gland
2. Parotid duct
3. Opening of parotid duct
4. Opening of subliguinal ducts
Location of Salivary Glands. Define 5-7.
5. Sublinguinal gland
6. Submandibular duct
7. Submandibular gland
Tooth. Define 8-11.
Tooth. Define 12-15.
14. Blood supply
15. Pulp cavity with pulp
Tooth. Define 16-20.
17. Root canal
18. Periodontal ligament
20. Apical foramen
Teeth and tongue. 24 - 26.
26. Lingual frenulum
Teeth and tongue. 21 - 23.
LIVER -- What 3 components make up a portal triad?
hepatic portal vein, hepatic artery, bile duct
TEETH -- Know the different types of teeth, where they are and how they function.
Incisors cut food.
Cuspids tear food.
Premolars and molars crush and grind food.
SALIVARY GLANDS -- Know the function and location of the major salivary glands and their ducts.
Saliva moistens food and contains enzymes that initiate chemical digestion of carbohydrates and lipids.
Parotid glands - located anterior and inferior to the ears between the skin and masseter muscle.
Submandibular glands -- posterior part of the mouth floor just medial to the mandible, deep to the mylohyoid muscle.
Sublingual glands -- under the tongue.
GALLBLADDER -- What does bile do?
Bile emulsifies lipids, which breaks down large spheres of lipids into smaller ones. Bile salts aid in digestion by breaking down lipids.
DIGESTIVE ENZYMES -- What is the optimal temperature for enzyme activity? What would happen if the digestion temperature is too high? What would happen if the temperature is too low?
Body temperature -- 37 degrees celsius. They denature and become inactive if the temperature is two high, and i suspect do not react if the temperature is too low.
PEPSIN -- Know where pepsin is produced and the food component that it digests. What is the optimal pH for pepsin activity?
Pepsin is produced as pepsinogen in cheif cells in the stomach. pepsin digests protein, and functions optimally at an acidic pH (1-3)
AMYLASE -- Know where amylase is produced and what food component it digests. Know a simple method you can use to test for amylase function.
Amylase can be found in saliva and secreted by the pancrease. Amylase digests carbohydrates. chew something with carbohydrates and see how long it takes to taste sweet (as salivary amylase breaks down the carbohydrates into disaccarides and monosaccarides.)
GI TRACT --
You should be able to name the different areas of the colon.
The large intestine is composed of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal.
Ascending colon to transverse colon to the descending colon, to the sigmoid colon, to the rectum.
GI TRACT WALL -- What is the name for the squamous epithelial layer of the serosa?