Lab Exam 3 Study Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Exam 3 Study Guide Deck (113):
1

What does PMN stand for?

 polymorphnuclear neutrophils (PMN)

2

Name the WBC type, percentage and main purpose:

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Monocytes, 3-8% of all WBC. Purpose: Phagocytosis (after transforming into fixed or wandering macrophages)

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3

Name the WBC type, percentage and main purpose:

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Lymphocytes. 20-25% of WBCs. 

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4

Name the WBC type, percentage, and main purpose:

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Neutrophils. 60-70% of WBCs. 

Phagocytosis. Destruction of bacteria with lysozyme, defensins, and strong oxidants, such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hypochlorite anion.

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5

Name the WBC type, percentage, and main purpose:

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Eosinophils. 2-4% of WBCs. Defense against parasitic infections.

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6

Name the WBC type, percentage, and main purpose:

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Basophils. 0.5-1% of WBCs. Liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the overall inflammatory response 

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7

What is the name for differentiated B lymphocytes?

Plasma cells

8

What is the name for differentiated monocytes when they migrate into the
tissues?

macrophages

9

What are the two primary lymphatic organs?

contain stem cells that produce lymphocytes and are the site where these lymphocytes become immunocompetent:

red bone marrow and the thymus

10

What are the secondary lymphatic organs and tissues?

Sites for defense against invading agents and cancer cells:

lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphatic nodules.

11

What are the names of the two main lymphatic ducts?

Right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct (left lymphatic duct)

12

Where do these lymphatic ducts drain into the venous blood

subclavian vein

13

Where are the 3 main clusters of lymph nodes?

Inguinal (groin), axillary (armpit) and cervical (neck)regions.
There are clusters elsewhere, such as abdominal, popliteal & aurical areas.

14

Know the following components of a lymph node and what types of cells of tissue make up each:
Capsule

External fibrous capsule --  thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue
Trabeculae extend inward and divide the node into compartments

15

Know the following components of a lymph node and what types of cells or tissue make up each:
 afferent lymphatic vessels, efferent lymphatic vessels.

Do these vessels have valves? Why?

Endothelial cells -- Afferent lymphatic vessels transport lymph into the lymph node. Efferent lymphatic vessels transport lymph away from the lymph node. 

These vessels have valves to prevent backflow.

16

Know the following components of a lymph node and what types of cells or tissue make up each:
Trabeculae

extensions of the capsule that compartmentalize the lymph node. Fibrous connective tissue. 

17

Know the following components of a lymph node and what types of cells or tissue make up each:
subcapsular sinus, trabecular sinus, medullary sinus.

 

Know the route of flow of lymph through a lymph node.

The sinuses of the lymph node are located in the cortex and the medulla and are separated by the trabeculae and medullary cords respectively

 

Lymph enters each node through the afferent vessels and travels through the subscapular sinus, trabecular sinuses, and medullary sinueses and exits the node via efferent vessels.

18

Know the following components of a lymph node and what types of cells or tissue make up each:
Outer cortex, germinal centers, inner cortex, medulla.

Lymph node is composted of reticular tissue. The cortex is the superficial region and the medulla is the deep region. 

The cortex of a lymph node contains many lymph follicles (dendritic cells surrounding germinal centers) which are separated by connective tissue trabeculae and the cortex contains a branching system of channels which route lymph from the afferent lymphatic vessels to the medulla; antigen-presenting macrophages and T and B lymphocytes in the cortex are involved in immune reactions to specific antigens.

 The medulla of a lymph node contains medullary cords (thin inward extensions of cortical lymphoid tissue) and lymph sinuses spanned by crisscrossing reticular fibers which act as a filter for the passage of lymph from the cortex to the efferent lymphatic vessels which carry lymph away from the lymph node at the hilus; the medulla also contains many macrophages.

 

germinal center - The light-staining interior of a lymph follicle which contains a few dendritic cells, some antigen-presenting macrophages and many activated proliferating T and B lymphocytes, particularly B lymphocytes, which are involved in immune reactions to specific antigens.

19

What are reticular fibers? What is their role in the lymph node?

reticular fibers form a network that supports other cell types in lymphoid organs and tissues.

 

Reticular fiber is connective tissue composed of type III collagen secreted by reticular cells. Reticular fibers crosslink to form a fine meshwork (reticulin). This network acts as a supporting mesh in soft tissues.

20

What is present in red pulp in the spleen? What is
present in white pulp? What are the connective tissue components?

Red pulp: stores platelets and contains reticular fibers that cannot be seen at this magnification.

White pulp: resembles nodules with many lymphocytes and macrophages and appears dark purple when stained.

Contains reticular connective tissue and encapsulated by fibrous connective tissue. 

21

Define the terms: immunogenicity, antigen, antibody

immunogenicity: the ability to provoke an immune response

antigen: A substance that has immunogenicity and reactivity (the ability to react with antibodies or cells that result from an immune response)

antibody: a protein produced by plasma cells in response to specific antigen. The antibody combines with that antigen to neutralize, inhibit, or destroy it. Antibodies are sometimes called immunoglobulins. Since antibodies circulate in the serum, they are often called anti-(X) serum e.g. anti Rh serum would be an antibody that binds to Rh facotr

22

Define the terms: agglutinogen, agglutinin, agglutination, hemolysis.

agglutinogen: antigens found on the surface of erythrocytes (red blood cells)

agglutinin:  an agglutinin is a substance that causes particles to coagulate to form a thickened mass

agglutination: clumping of RBCs

hemolysis: rupture of RBCs

23

Know what type of agglutinogens and what type of agglutinins are present in types A, B, AB, O and Rh+ blood.

Type A blood: anti-B antibodies (B is an agglutinin), A antigens (agglutinogens)

Type B blood: Anti-A antibodies (A is an agglutinin), B antigens (agglutinogens)

Type O Blood: Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies (A and B are agglutinins), neither A nor B antigens (agglutinogens) (universal donor)

Type AB blood: neither Anti-A nor Anti-B antibodies (neither are agglutinins), both A and B antigens (agglutinogens) (universal recipient)

 

Rh+ blood: have Rh antigen (agglutinogens)

24

Why do you need to match blood types for transfusions?

To avoid immune response to foreign antigens resulting in clumping of blood.

25

Be able to interpret data from a blood type analysis such as the one we performed in the lab.

clumping of blood in response to A antibody means that the blood has the A antigen on it (Type A or AB))

clumping of blood in reponse to B antibody means that the blood has the B antigen on it (Type B or AB)

etc.

26

Define the terms: endocrinology, hormone, endocrine

 Endocrinology: the study of endocrine glands, horomones and the mechanisms by which hormones exert their effects.

Hormone:  a chemical that travels via the blood from an endocrine gland to affect target cells or organs that have specific receptors that recognize and bind the horomone.

Endocrine: means that the hormone travels via the blood to affect cells in re remote location.

27

Define the terms: paracrine, autocrine, homeostasis.

paracrine: the horomones released affect processes in adjacent or nearby cells

autocrine: the horomones released affect the releasing cell itself

homeostasis: the maintenance of steady states in the animal by co-ordinated physiological processes or feedback mechanisms.

28

What surrounds the major endocrine glands?

these glands are surrounded by a capsule of dense irregular
connective tissue.

29

Where is the pituitary gland?

the pituitary gland sits in a depression of the sphenoid bone known
as the sella turcica.

30

What part of the neurosecretory cells is present in the neurohypophysis?

neurohypophysis = posterior pituitary

axons of neurosecretory cells are located in neurohypophysis

31

What is the function of pituicytes?

pituicytes are connective tissue cells that support the axons of the neurosecretory cells

32

What two hormones are secreted by the neurosecretory cells of the
neurohypophysis?
Where are the cell bodies of these neurosecretory cells located?

ADH (antidiuretic horomone) and oxytocin

cell bodies are located in the hypothalamus (in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei)

33

Know the five different cell-types of the adenohypophysis and the hormones they secrete.

Adenohypophysis = anterior pituitary

Somatotrophs: Human growth hormone

Thyrotrophs: Thyroid-stimulating hormones

Gonadotrophs: follicle-stimulating homone and luteinizing hormone

Lactotrophs: Prolactin

Corticotrophs: Adrenocorticotropic hormone and melanocyte-stimulating hormone

34

Thyroid gland: What hormones are secreted by follicular cells?

Thyroxine and triiodothyroinine

35

Thyroid gland:  What horomone is secreted by C cells?

calcitonin (involved in calcium ion homeostasis)

36

Thyroid gland:  What is the major component of colloid?

Thyroglobulin, a precurser molecule for thyroid hormones

37

Parathyroid gland:

What cell types are present?
What hormone is secreted?

Principal cells and oxyphil cells.

Principal cells secrete parathyroid hormone

38

Adrenal Glands:
Below the capsule, what is the name of the outermost layer of the adrenal cortex and what hormone does it secrete?

Zona glomerulosa, secretes mineralcorticoids (e.g. aldosterone)

39

Adrenal Glands:
Below the capsule, what is the name of the middle layer of the adrenal cortex and what hormone does it secrete?

zona fasciculata, secretes glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol)

40

Adrenal Glands:
Below the capsule, what is the name of the inner layer of the adrenal cortex and what hormone does it secrete?

zona reticularis, small amount of male androgen DHEA

41

What is the name of the cells in the adrenal medulla and what hormones do they secrete? How is the adrenal medulla innervated?

Chromaffin cells (like modified post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons)

secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Innervated by sympathetic neurons.

42

Pancreas: Know the cell-types present in the pancreatic islets and the hormones secreted by each.

Alpha: glucagon

Beta: Insulin

Delta: Somatostatin

F: pancreatic polypeptide

43

Major Endocrine glands. Define 6-10.

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6. Pituitary gland

7. Thyroid gland

8. Thymus

9. Ovaries

10. Testes

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44

Major Endocrine glands. Define 1-5.

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1. Pineal Gland

2. Parathyroid gland

3. Adrenal gland

4. Pancreas

5. Hypothalamus

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45

The Pituitary Gland. Define 5-8.

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5. Hypothalamus

6. Infundibulum

7. Anterior pituitary

8. Posterior pituitary

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46

The Pituitary Gland. Define 9-10

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9. Posterior Pituitary

10. Anterior Pituitary

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47

The Pituitary Gland. Define 1-4.

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1. Posterior Pituitary

2. Hypothalamus

3. Infundibulum

4. Anterior Pituitary

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48

The Thyroid and Parathyroid glands. Define 1-5.

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1. Right lobe of thyroid gland

2. Thyroid cartilage of larynx

3. Isthmus of thyroid gland

4. Trachea

5. Left lobe of thyroid gland

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49

The Thyroid and Parathyroid glands. Define 6-11.

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6. Left lobe of thyroid gland

7. left parathyroid glands

8. right parathyroid glands

9. trachea

10. right lobe of thyroid gland

11. isthmus of thyroid gland

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50

Sectional views of thyroid and Parathyroid glands. Define 1-2.

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1. Parathyroid gland

2. Thyroid gland

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51

Sectional views of thyroid and Parathyroid glands. Define 3-5.

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3. Follicular cell

4. Parafollicular cell (C cell)

5. Colloid-filled follicle

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52

Adrenal glands. Define 1-3.

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1. Right Adrenal gland.

2. left adrenal gland

3. kidney

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53

Adrenal glands. Define 4-6.

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4. Capsule

5. Adrenal cortex

6. Adrenal medulla

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54

Adrenal glands. Define 7-12.

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7. Capsule

8. Zona glomerulosa

9. Zona fasciculata

10. zona reticularis

11. Adrenal medulla

12. Adrenal cortex

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55

Pancreas. Define 1-3.

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1. Head of pancreas

2. Body of pancreas

3. Tail of pancreas

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56

Pancreas. Define 4-5.

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4. Acini cells

5. Pancreatic islet

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57

Lymphatic capillaries. Define 1-4.

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1. tissue cell

2. interstitial fluid

3. blood capillary

4. lymphatic capillary

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58

Lymphatic capillaries. Define 5-7.

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5. interstitial fluid

6. tissue cell

7. lymph in lyphatic capillary

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59

Lymphatic vessels. Define 1-6.

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1. right lymphatic duct

2. lymphatic vessel in arm

3. thoracic duct in thorax

4. cisterna chyli

5. lymphatic vessel in leg

6. thoracic duct draining into subclavian vein

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60

Lymph drainage. Define 7 and 8.

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7. area drained by right lymphatic duct

8. area drained by thoracic duct

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61

Lymphatic vessels, define 9-14.

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9. right jugular trunk

10. right subclavian trunk

11. right lymphatic duct

12. cisterna chyli

13. thoracic duct

14. thoracic (left lymphatic) duct in thorax

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62

Lymphatic organs and tissues. Define 1-3.

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1. pharyngeal tonsil

2. palatine tonsil

3. lingual tonsil

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63

Lymphatic organs and tissues. Define 11-16.

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11. mammary lymph node

12. thoracic lymph node

13. spleen

14. Peyer's patches (aggregated lymphatic follicles)

15. iliac lymph node

16. inguinal lymph node

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64

Lymphatic organs and tissues. Define 4-10.

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4. submandibular lymph node

5. cervical lymph node

6. thymus

7. intestinal lymph node

8. appendix

9. red bone marrow

10. axillary lymph node

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65

Flow of Lymph. stages 1-14.

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1. blood capillaries

2. interstitial fluid

3. lymphatic capillaries

4. lymphatic vessels

5. inguinal lymph nodes

6. lymphatic vessels

7. iliac lymph nodes

8. lumbar trunk

9. cisterna chyli

10. thoracic duct

11. junction of jugular and subclavian veins

12. brachiocephalic vein

13. superior vena cava

14. heart

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66

Lymph Node. Define 6-10.

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6.  Medulla

7. Medullary sinus

8. Efferent vessels

9. Hilum

10. Capsule

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67

Lymph Node. Define 1-5.

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1. trabecular sinus

2. afferent vessels

3. valve

4. subcapsular sinus

5. cortex

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68

Lymph Node. Photomicrograph. Define 11-15.

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11. Trabecula

12. Cortex

13. Medulla

14. Capsule

15. Germinal center in lymphatic nodule

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69

Lymph Node. Photomicrograph of reticular tissue. Define 16-17.

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16. Reticulocyte

17. Reticular fiber

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70

Thymic Lobules. Define 1-5.

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1. Capsule

2. Cortex

3. Thymic corpuscle

4. Medulla

5. Trabecula

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71

Spleen. Define 4-6.

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4. Capsule

5. White pulp

6. Trabecula

 

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72

Spleen. Define 1-3.

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1. Splenic Artery

2. Splenic vein

3. Hilum

 

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73

What is a gonad and what is a gamete?

Gonad: a reproductive gland (as an ovary or testis) that produces gametes

Gamete: one of the cells that join together to begin making a person or other creature (sperm and egg)

74

Testes and Scrotum. Define 1-4.

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1. Cremaster muscle

2. Dartos muscle

3. Scrotum

4. Tunica albuginea of testis

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75

Testis with seminiferous tubules. Define 5-7.

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5. Tunica albuginea

6. Lobule

7. Septum

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76

Testis with seminiferous tubules. Define 1-4.

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1. Efferent duct

2. Seminiferous tubules

3. straight tubule

4. rete testis

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77

Testis and epididymis. Define 1-4.

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1. Ductus (vas) deferens

2. Epididymis

3. Spermatic cord

4. blood vessels and nerves

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78

Male reproductive Organ. Define 1-6.

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1. Ampulla of vas deferens

2. Ejaculatory duct

3. prostate gland

4. membranous urethra

5. Epididymis

6. Testis

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79

Male reproductive Organ. Define 7-12.

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7. Scrotum

8. Ductus (vas) deferens

9. Prostatic urethra

10. spongy urethra

11. penis

12. external urethral orifice

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80

Male reproductive Organ. Posterior View.  Define 1-9.

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1. Seminal vesicle

2. Prostate gland

3. Prostatic urethra

4. membranous urethra

5. Ductus (vas) deferens

6. Ampulla of ductus deferens

7. Ejaculatory duct

8. Bulbourethral gland

9. Spongy urethra

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81

Accessory male sex glands. Define 1-3.

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1. Seminal vesicle

2. Prostate gland

3. Bulbourethral gland

82

Penis. Define 6-10.

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6. Spongy urethra

7. glans penis

8. bulbourethral gland

9. prepuce

10. external urethral orifice

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83

Penis. Define 1-5.

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1. Prostate gland

2. Prostatic urethra

3. membranous urethra

4. corpus spongiosum penis

5. corpora cavernosa penis

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84

Penis. Define 11-13.

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11. Corpora cavernosa penis

12. Corpus spongiosum penis

13. spongy urethra

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85

Penis. What is the function of 1-7.

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1. Secretes 60% of semen volume; alkaline pH; prostaglandins

2. Secretes 25% of semen volume; increases viability and motility of sperm

3. Secretes mucus for lubrication of glans; alkaline pH

4. Site of storage and maturation of sperm

5. Organ that produces sperm

6. Copulatory organ; passageway for urine and sperm

7. Carries sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct

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86

Spermatogenesis. Define 1-5.

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1. Spermatogonium

2. Spermatozoa (n)

3. Spermatid (n)

4. secondary spermatocyte (n)

5. primary spermatocyte (2n)

 

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87

Spermatogenesis. Define 11-14.

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11. Primary spermatocyte

12. Spermatogonium

13. basement membrane

14. Leydig (interstitial) cells

 

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88

Spermatogenesis. Define 6-10.

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6. Spermatozoa

7. late spermatid

8. early spermatid

9. secondary spermatocyte

10. Sertoli cells

 

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89

Photomicrograph of seminiferous tubules. Define 1-5.

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1. Lumen

2. Tails of spermatozoa

3. basement membrane

4. Leydig (interstitial) cells

5. Interstitial space

 

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90

Sperm cell. Define 1-6.

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1. Acrosome

2. Nucleus

3. Mitochondria

4. Head

5. midpiece

6. tail (flagellum)

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91

Know the function of the dartos and cremaster muscles.

The dartos muscle: wrinkles and raises the scrotum when contracted

The cremaster muscle: continuations of the internal oblique -- contracts/relaxes in response to temperature to adjust the distance from the testes to the body.

92

Know the pathway of flow of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the
spermatic cord.

-Sperm preduced in tiny seminiferous tubules

-seminiferous tubules then form straight tubules that carry the sperm into a network of tubules called the rete testis

-Efferent ducts then conduct the sperm from the rete testis to the epididymus.

-From the epididymus, goes to the ductus deferens/vas deferens, which enterst the spermatic cord.

93

Know location and functions: spermatogenic cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig
cells.

Spermatogenic cells: aka spermatogonia, stem cells in the outer portion of the seminiferous tubule wall just beneath the basement membrane.

Sertoli cells: surround the cells undergoing spermatogenesis, providing the chemical environemnt for the process and assisting cells to move from the basement membrane to the lumen.

Leydig cells: located in the interstitial spaces, secrete testosterone (stimulated by luteinizing hormone from anterior pituitary)

94

Define spermatogenesis, haploid, diploid. Know how many chromosomes
present in haploid and diploid cells.

Spermatogenesis:  the production or development of mature spermatozoa.











 

Diploid refers to any cell that has two sets of chromosomes

Haploid refers to any cell that has one set of chromosomes

95

What are the female gonads called?
What are the female gametes called?

Female gonads: Ovaries

Female gametes: Oocytes

96

What part of the wall of the uterus is lost during menstruation?

The inner functional layer of the endometrium

97

Which of the following cell-types are diploid and which are haploid? – oogonia, primary oocytes, secondary oocytes.

Oogonia - diploid

Primary oocyte - diploid

Secondary oocyte -- haploid

98

Know the steps in oogeneses.

 

oogenesis step 1

oogonia reproduce by mitosis and then begin mitosis but stop at prophase I

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oogenesis step 2

meiosis I continues for one cell a month beginning at puberty. In the first division, there is an uneven cell division and the one with more cytoplasm continues to form a viable egg (the other cell, called a polar body, will degenerate)

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oogenesis step 3

IF the egg is fertilized, it will undergo the final stages of meiosis

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oogenesis step 4

when meiosis II is complete the mature egg and another polar body are produced and the haploid nucleus of the egg cell then fuses with the haploid nucleus of the sperm to create a diploid zygote

99

Know the steps in spermatogenesis

 

spermatogenesis step 1

beginning at puberty, spermatogonia reproduce by mitosis and the resulting cells undergo meiosis to form four haploid cells

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spermatogenesis step 2

after meiosis II, the cells undergo a final set of developmental stages to develop into mature sperm

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spermatogenesis step 3

the nucleus and certain other required molecules are arranged into a head, the mitochondria (many) are in the midsection, and a flagellum at the end (for movement)

100

Ovaries. Define 1-9.

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1. Infundibulum

2. Ampulla

3. Isthmus

4. Uterine tube

5. Fimbriae

6. suspensory ligament

7. Ovary

8. Ovarian ligament

9. broad ligament

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101

Female Reproductive Organs, Define 1-7.

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1. Uterine cavity

2. Myometrium of uterus

3. Vagina

4. Ovary

5. round ligament

6. cervix

7. urinary bladder

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102

Female Reproductive Organs, Posterior View. Define 1-7.

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1. Uterine cavity

2.  Endometrium

3. Myometrium

4. Perimetrium

5. round ligament

6. Internal os

7. cervical canal

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103

Female Reproductive Organs, Posterior View. Define 8-14.

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8. Cervix

9. Rugae of vagina

10. fundus

11. broad ligament

12. body of uterus

13. external os

14. vagina

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104

Female Reproductive Structures. Define 1-8.

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1. Anus

2. Vaginal orifice

3. public symphysis

4. mons pubis

5. clitoris

6. external urethral orifice

7. labium minus

8. labium majus

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105

Female Genitalia. Define 1-9.

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1. Labia majora

2. labia minora

3. hymen

4. anus

5. mons pubis

6. prepuce

7. clitoris

8. external urethral orifice

9. vaginal orifice

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106

Mammary glands. Define 1-7.

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1. lobule with alveoli

2. mammary duct

3. lactiferous sinus

4. lactiferous duct

5. adipose tissue

6. areola

7. nipple

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107

Posterior view of Ovaries. Give function for 1-6.

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1. lobule with alveoli

2. mammary duct

3. lactiferous sinus

4. lactiferous duct

5. adipose tissue

6. areola

7. nipple

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108

Oogenesis. Define 1-10.

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1. secondary oocyte

2. sperm cell

3. ovum

4. zygote

5. oogonium

6, primary oocyte

7. meiosis I

8. 1st polar body

9. 2nd polar body

10. meiosis II

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109

Histology of the Ovary. Define 1-8.

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1. Primordial follicles

2. Primary follicles

3. secondary follicle

4. secondary oocyte

5. graafian (mature) follicle

6. ovulated secondary oocyte

7. corpus luteum

8. corpus albicans

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110

Histology of the Ovary. Define 9-12.

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9. Primodian follicles

10. primary follicle

11. primary oocyte in primary follicle

12. primary oocyte in secondary follicle

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111

Histology of the Ovary. Define 13-16.

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13. Primordial follicles

14. ovarian cortex

15. primary oocyte in primary follicle

16. granulosa cells

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112

Histology of the Ovary. Define 17-19.

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17. Follicular fluid in antrum

18. Primary oocyte

19. Granulosa cells

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113

Histology of the Uterus. Define 1-5

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1. Endometrium

2. Endometrial glands

3. Stratum functionalis

4. Stratum basalis

5. Myometrium

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