Flashcards in Lab Test #2 Deck (228):
What are multicellular, capable of locomotion or movement, have cells without a rigid cell wall, and are heterophobic?
Animals that lack vertebrates?
What kind of symmetry can be divided into two equal halves?
What means definite head?
Which phylum contains animals known as sponges?
What does Porifera mean?
Sponges are what?
Most sponges are ( ), while all forms are aquatic.
Sponges are ( ), as adults but many disperse as free-swimming larvae
What means immobile and attached to a surface?
Sponges possess many different types of cells but lack what?
Sponges are ( ), cannot be cut into two halves.
The walls of sponges have numerous tiny openings called ( ), through which currents of water enter carrying food and oxygen to the central internal cavity called what?
In a sponge, water exists through a large opening called what?
In a sponge, the movement of water is produced by the beating of the flagella of what?
Collar cells, choanocytes, in the flagellated chambers, or radial canals
In a sponge what captures and digests food particles brought in by the water currents?
A sponge has how many body layers?
In a sponge, the outer layer of flat epithelial cells, among which are contractile celled called ( ) that regulate the sizes of the ostia
In a sponge, the middle layer of a gelatinous non-living matrix containing living mesenchyme celled ( ), which are capable of amoeboid movement
Amoebocytes function in the collecting of food from the flagellated collar cells, secrete the gelatinous matrix, collect wastes, produce ( ) and can differentiate into any of the other cell types
In a sponge, what are the supportive skeleton of the sponge that are minute crystalline structures composed of either calcium carbonate or siliceous material
In a sponge, what does the inner layer possess?
In a sponge, reproduction occurs how?
Asexually by budding, fragmentation, and in freshwater forms by gemmule formation
What consist of a ball of amoebocytes surrounded by a capsule of spicules and dead cells
Can sexual reproduction happen in sponges?
Most sponges are ( or ) meaning an individual has both male and female reproductive structures producing eggs and sperm from amoebocytes at different times in the life cycle
Monoecious or hermaphroditic
In a sponge, sperm can be produced from what?
In a sponge, the fusion of the eggs and the sperm results in a ( ) which develops into a free-swimming ciliated larva
Class Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Anthozoa are in what Phylum?
Which class are hydras and Obelia
Which class are true jellyfish and Aurelia
Which class are sea anemone
( ) are aquatic and found mostly in shallow marine environments, with the exception of the freshwater hydras
Cnidaria show ( ) of organization
Cnidaria have mostly what kind of symmetry
which phylum has a gut and a definite nerve net
Which phylum has the body types of sessile polyp is cylindrical in shape and the free swimming medusa
The free swimming medusa is what shape
Bell or umbrella shaped
What are all carnivorous and possess tentacles with nematocysts that capture invertebrates and vertebrate prey
What are the stinging elements that are discharged by a combination of mechanical and chemical stimuli
In phylum Cnidaria, what is the reproduction?
Sexual reproduction- monoecious or dioecious
Asexual reproduction- budding
Which class has a mobile individual polyp?
In class Hydrozoa, what is the reproduction?
An outgrowth, or ( ) forms on the body, becoming a new hydra
What are the female gonads that contain the eggs and appear as rounded lumps on the side of the body
What are the male gonads which produce sperm and appear as numerous cone shaped knots on the body
The Obelia has ( ) extending from the bell
In the medusa form, the ( ) is the umbrella-like portion with the manubrium extending from the center and including the mouth
Which class includes most of the true jellyfish
In class Scyphozoa, most of their life is spent in what
In Scyphozoa, the majority of these organisms float freely in open sea and may range in size from ( ) in diameter
The largest and most important class of Cnidarians includes what
Sea anemones, sea fans, and corals
What class are sea anemones, sea fans, and corals in?
Anthozoa spend most of their life as what?
Class Turbellaria, Trematoda, and Cestoda are in what phylum
Planaria is what class
Flukes, Clonorchis sinensis are what class
Tapeworms, Taenia are what class
The planaria is characterized by visible what
What are light-sensitive areas on the anterior dorsal surface
What are divided into the anterior and posterior lateral branches
Food enters the mouth and extends through a tubular what
Flukes have an oval body and tubular what
Flukes are ( ) with ovaries and testes in the same individual
In a tapeworm the head is also called the what
The scolex is covered in ( and ) for attachment to the intestine of the host and for sucking in the digested food material
Hooks and suckers
What phylum have the organisms that thrive nearly everywhere and may be the most abundant animals alive
What are the two distinct features of the round worm
The tube within a tube body plan and a pseudocoelom
The tube within a tube has both the mouth and what
The pseudocoelom is completed lined with ( ) which allows the internal organs freedom of movement
What is a tiny free living nematode that can live in unpasteurized vinegar
What is an intestinal round worm common throughout the world
What includes those known as heartworms in dogs
The Ascaris are ( ), with the male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals
The Ascaris have tubular intestine and both a ( and ) cord
Dorsal and nerve cord
Pseudocoelomates include round worms( ) and rotifers( )
The tiny openings in the wall of a sponge are called what
What are living mesemchyme cells capable of movement
Collar cells are called what
A ball of amoebocytes surrounded by a capsule of spicules and dead cells
Contractile cells regulating the size of ostia
Supportive structures composed of calcium carbonate or glass like material
Opening through which water exists a sponge
Central internal cavity of a sponge
The spicules that are viewed in the wet mount slide are composed of what
( ) is the flexible substance that provides skeletal support in some sponges
With respect to the body form in Cnidarians, what is meant by the phrase "radially symmetrical"
You will always have equal halves
Nematocysts are located on the what
Nematocysts are what
What does planarian do when light is on it
Moves away from light
Describe the feeding action of the planarian.
They feed in a swooping/swirl on their prey
Describe the motion of the vinegar eels on the slide
Mollusks demonstrate bilateral symmetry and what
Class Polyplacophora, Gastropda, Bivalvia, and Cephalopoda are apart of what Phylum?
Chitons are apart of what class?
What are slow moving sedentary gazers with dorsal shell in 8 plates
"Stomach foot" is apart of what class
Snails, sea slugs, and land slugs are apart of what class
"Two valved shells" are apart of what class
Clams, mussles, scallops, and oysters are apart of what class
"head foot" is apart of what class
Squids, octopuses, and nautiluses are apart of what class
What are the largest, swiftest, and most intelligent of the invertebrates
The 2 shells ( ) are held closed by the anterior and posterior adductor muscles
The ( ) is extended when the shells open and is used for locomotion
Gas is exchanged through the ( ) located just under the valves
The ( ) secretes enzymes into the stomach and intestine
The most striking annelid characteristic is the division of the ( ) into a series of similar segments
Annelida has a true body cavity called what
The coelem is more or less divided by septa into components within each segment, each lined by what
In Phylum Annelida, the circulatory system is not segmented. T or F q
The rhythmic contractions of these muscles, called ( ) allows food to be moved through the digestive tract without the movement of the entire animal
Class Polychaeta, Hirudinea, and Oligochaeta are apart of what Phylum
What represents the largest class of annelids
Polychaetes possess fleshy tentacles on the head and two fleshy appendages, ( ), on each segment except the first and last
Many ( ), or chitnous bristles are found on the parapodia, which are used for swimming, burrowing, crawling, and gas exchange
Marine clamworm are an example of what class
Leeches lack what three things?
Tentacles, parapodia, and setae
Leeches have what interesting feature?
Two muscular suckers
Leeches have small anterior suckers that surround the ( ) and large posterior suckers that are used for ( and )
-Locomotion and attachment
Members of this class inhabit damp soil and freshwater
Which class lack parapodia and have setae
What is a specimen of the Lumbricus called
"Night crawler" earthworm
On an earthworm, what is the very first segment that overhangs the mouth
On an earthworm, the large hypodermal glands responsible for the formation of the what
On an earthworm, the swollen segments comprise the ( ), which is located anteriorly
The ( ) is located at the end of the last segment
An earthworm has how many hearts surrounding the esophagus
An earthworm has one heart pair in which segments
What color are the hearts of an earthworm
In an earthworm, the digestive tract expands into this and this is where food is stored
In an earthworm, posterior to the crop is a thick-walled( ) a mastication organ
In an earthworm, the ( ) is located beyond the gizzard and leads to the anus
Earthworms can fertilize themselves. T or F
Each earthworm produces a cocoon containing what
Class that has segmented bodies
Class that includes muscles and scallops
Most with shells of calcium carbonate
Class that have leeches
Class that have chitons
Class that have marine clamworms
Class that have nautiluses
Class of earthworms
Class of snails
Body cavity of annelids
Food storage in the earthworm
The first segment of an earthworm
Mastication organ of an earthworm
Swollen segments of earthworm functioning in reproduction
Rhythmic muscular contractions
What is an ancient group that does not conform to the normal rules of zoology
Echinoderms are free moving but have why symmetry
Radial symmetry is usually associated with ( ) forms, while bilateral symmetry is associated with ( ) forms
-Free moving forms
Echnidoerms are entirely what
A unique characteristics of Echinoderms is that there is a presence of what
A water vascular system
A spiny endoskeleton of calcareous plates is what Phylum?
"spiny skin" means what
What are the tiny pincer like devices located among the spines of the skin, that are used to kill prarsites and remove debris from the skin surface
What are the very thin membraned projections on the skin surface that allows of the exchange of gases(respiration)
Dermal Brachiae, or Dermal Gills or Papulae
On the Sea Urchin, small pointed structures
On the Sea Urchin, the anterior opening of the digestive tract
On the Sand Dollar, the small hole located anteriorly
On the Sand Dollar, resembles petals of a flower; used to movewatewr into its vascular system which allows for movement
On the Starfish, the anterior openin gf the digestive tract
On the Starfish, extensions protrudingfrom the body that are used for locomotion
On the Starfish, located in the middle of each arm bordered by tube feet
On the Starfish, small pointed structures
On the Starfish, tiny pincher like devices located among the spines
On the Starfish, the perforated pore thrugh which water is admitted to the water vascular system
On the Starfish, rounded area in the center of the starfish
On the Starfish arm, the brownish looking area where digestive enzymes are produced
On the Starfish arm, the gamete producing gland; reproductive structures
On the Starfish arm, located out each arm along the body used for locomotion
On the Starfish arm, where food is stored
On the Starfish arm, located in the middle of each arm under the digestive glands
What material composes the spiny endoskeleton
What are trhe most successful of all living phyla
Anthropodas compirise over ( ) species
The body of an anthropod is usually covered by a thick, protective exoskeleton ( ) which contains chitin
Several classes in phylum Anthropoda are primarily what
Inscets, centipedes, millipedes, and spiders are apart of what phylum
The members of phylum Anthropoda that are adapted to ( ) water enviornments include crabs, lobster, and shrimp
What aid crayfish in catching prey
Chelicrae and Chelipeds
What are the anterior appendages on a crayfish
What are the terminal fangs on a crayfish which can be used to aid in locomotion
What are two things that aid in locomotion on the crayfish
Telson and Uropods
On a crayfish, what is the nonsegmented end of the fan tail
Ona crayfish, what form the outside part of the tail fan
On a crayfish, what makes up the head and throax
What is the hard covering around the cephlathorax on a crayfish called that protects them from potential predators
How are anthropods better adapted to a land enviornment than other invertebrates
Because of their cuticle, efficient internal respiratory organs, exoskeleton and jointed appendages
What are the four common characteristics of phylum Chordata
Possession of notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharynx with gills, and a tail that extends past the anus
What is a rod of stiffened tissue
what may eventually become the spinal cord
Dorsal nerve cord
What are members of subphylum Urochordata known as
Subphylum Urochordata and Subphylum Cephalochordata do not contan a what
Subphylum Urochordata filter feed by siphoning water through their what
The most common and well known class of SubPhylum Urochordata is what
What are memebers of Subphylum Cephalochordata known as
What is genus name for lancelots
In subphylum Cephlochordata, the blood is ( ) as it lacks erythrocytes and hemoglobin which are responsible for transporting oxygen
Class Myxini, Cephalaspidomorphi, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia are apart of what phylum
Hagfish are apart of what class
What are long eel like fishes with a termional mouth and four pairs of tentacles
Hagfish have full use of their eyes. T or F
What are marine bottom dwelling scavengers feeding on dead or dying fish, annelids, mollusks, and crustacean
What are long eel like in form but have a sucking disc around the mouth internally covered with small rasping teeth
What are found in marine and freshwater bodies and have well developed eyes
Many lampreys are ( ) to other vertebrates
Lamprey are apart of what class
Cartilagnious Fishes are apart of what class
Bony Fish are apart of what class
What is the most diverse class of vertebrae including 24,000 species
Approximately 95% of bony fish are what
Tetrapods are apart of what class
When the skin absorbs oxygen through a process called what