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Flashcards in Lab Test #2 Deck (228):
1

What are multicellular, capable of locomotion or movement, have cells without a rigid cell wall, and are heterophobic?

Animals

2

Animals that lack vertebrates?

Invertebrates

3

What kind of symmetry can be divided into two equal halves?

Bilateral symmetry

4

What means definite head?

Cephalization

5

Which phylum contains animals known as sponges?

Porifera

6

What does Porifera mean?

Bearing pores

7

Sponges are what?

Multicellular

8

Most sponges are ( ), while all forms are aquatic.

Marine

9

Sponges are ( ), as adults but many disperse as free-swimming larvae

Sessile

10

What means immobile and attached to a surface?

Sessile

11

Sponges possess many different types of cells but lack what?

Definite tissue

12

Sponges are ( ), cannot be cut into two halves.

Assymetrical

13

The walls of sponges have numerous tiny openings called ( ), through which currents of water enter carrying food and oxygen to the central internal cavity called what?

Ostia
Spongocoel

14

In a sponge, water exists through a large opening called what?

Osculum `

15

In a sponge, the movement of water is produced by the beating of the flagella of what?

Collar cells, choanocytes, in the flagellated chambers, or radial canals

16

In a sponge what captures and digests food particles brought in by the water currents?

Choanocytes

17

A sponge has how many body layers?

3

18

In a sponge, the outer layer of flat epithelial cells, among which are contractile celled called ( ) that regulate the sizes of the ostia

Pinacytes

19

In a sponge, the middle layer of a gelatinous non-living matrix containing living mesenchyme celled ( ), which are capable of amoeboid movement

Amoebocytes

20

Amoebocytes function in the collecting of food from the flagellated collar cells, secrete the gelatinous matrix, collect wastes, produce ( ) and can differentiate into any of the other cell types

Spicules

21

In a sponge, what are the supportive skeleton of the sponge that are minute crystalline structures composed of either calcium carbonate or siliceous material

Spicules

22

In a sponge, what does the inner layer possess?

Collar cells

23

In a sponge, reproduction occurs how?

Asexually by budding, fragmentation, and in freshwater forms by gemmule formation

24

What consist of a ball of amoebocytes surrounded by a capsule of spicules and dead cells

A gemmule

25

Can sexual reproduction happen in sponges?

Yes

26

Most sponges are ( or ) meaning an individual has both male and female reproductive structures producing eggs and sperm from amoebocytes at different times in the life cycle

Monoecious or hermaphroditic

27

In a sponge, sperm can be produced from what?

Collar cells

28

In a sponge, the fusion of the eggs and the sperm results in a ( ) which develops into a free-swimming ciliated larva

Zygote

29

Phylum Cnidaria=

Coelenterates

30

Class Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Anthozoa are in what Phylum?

Cnidaria

31

Which class are hydras and Obelia

Hydrozoa

32

Which class are true jellyfish and Aurelia

Scyphozoa

33

Which class are sea anemone

Anthozoa

34

( ) are aquatic and found mostly in shallow marine environments, with the exception of the freshwater hydras

Cnidaria

35

Cnidaria show ( ) of organization

Tissue level

36

Cnidaria have mostly what kind of symmetry

Radial symmetry

37

which phylum has a gut and a definite nerve net

Cnidaria

38

Which phylum has the body types of sessile polyp is cylindrical in shape and the free swimming medusa

Cnidaria

39

The free swimming medusa is what shape

Bell or umbrella shaped

40

What are all carnivorous and possess tentacles with nematocysts that capture invertebrates and vertebrate prey

Cnidiaria

41

What are the stinging elements that are discharged by a combination of mechanical and chemical stimuli

Nematocysts

42

In phylum Cnidaria, what is the reproduction?

Sexual reproduction- monoecious or dioecious
Asexual reproduction- budding

43

Which class has a mobile individual polyp?

Hydrozoa

44

In class Hydrozoa, what is the reproduction?

Budding `

45

An outgrowth, or ( ) forms on the body, becoming a new hydra

Bud

46

What are the female gonads that contain the eggs and appear as rounded lumps on the side of the body

Ovaries

47

What are the male gonads which produce sperm and appear as numerous cone shaped knots on the body

Testes

48

The Obelia has ( ) extending from the bell

Tentacles

49

In the medusa form, the ( ) is the umbrella-like portion with the manubrium extending from the center and including the mouth

Bell

50

Which class includes most of the true jellyfish

Scyphazoa

51

In class Scyphozoa, most of their life is spent in what

Medusas

52

In Scyphozoa, the majority of these organisms float freely in open sea and may range in size from ( ) in diameter

4-20cm

53

The largest and most important class of Cnidarians includes what

Sea anemones, sea fans, and corals

54

What class are sea anemones, sea fans, and corals in?

Anthozoa

55

Anthozoa spend most of their life as what?

Hydrozoas

56

Phylum Platyhelminthes=

Acoelomate flatworms

57

Class Turbellaria, Trematoda, and Cestoda are in what phylum

Platyhelminthes

58

Planaria is what class

Turbellaria

59

Flukes, Clonorchis sinensis are what class

Trematoda

60

Tapeworms, Taenia are what class

Cestoda

61

The planaria is characterized by visible what

Eyespots

62

What are light-sensitive areas on the anterior dorsal surface

Eye spots

63

What are divided into the anterior and posterior lateral branches

Intestines

64

Food enters the mouth and extends through a tubular what

Pharynx

65

Flukes have an oval body and tubular what

Digestive system

66

Flukes are ( ) with ovaries and testes in the same individual

Hermaphroditic

67

In a tapeworm the head is also called the what

Scolex

68

The scolex is covered in ( and ) for attachment to the intestine of the host and for sucking in the digested food material

Hooks and suckers

69

What phylum have the organisms that thrive nearly everywhere and may be the most abundant animals alive

Phylum Nematoda

70

What are the two distinct features of the round worm

The tube within a tube body plan and a pseudocoelom

71

The tube within a tube has both the mouth and what

Anus

72

The pseudocoelom is completed lined with ( ) which allows the internal organs freedom of movement

Mesoderm

73

What is a tiny free living nematode that can live in unpasteurized vinegar

Vinegar eel

74

What is an intestinal round worm common throughout the world

Ascaris

75

What includes those known as heartworms in dogs

Filarial worms

76

The Ascaris are ( ), with the male and female reproductive organs in separate individuals

Dioecious

77

The Ascaris have tubular intestine and both a ( and ) cord

Dorsal and nerve cord

78

Pseudocoelomates include round worms( ) and rotifers( )

Nemtoda- Rotifera

79

The tiny openings in the wall of a sponge are called what

Ostia

80

"Bearing pores"

Porifera

81

What are living mesemchyme cells capable of movement

Amoebocytes

82

Collar cells are called what

Choanocytes

83

A ball of amoebocytes surrounded by a capsule of spicules and dead cells

Gemmule

84

Contractile cells regulating the size of ostia

Pinacytes

85

Hermaphroditic

Monoecious

86

Supportive structures composed of calcium carbonate or glass like material

Spicules

87

Opening through which water exists a sponge

Osculum

88

Central internal cavity of a sponge

Spongocoel

89

The spicules that are viewed in the wet mount slide are composed of what

Calcium carbonate

90

( ) is the flexible substance that provides skeletal support in some sponges

Spongin

91

With respect to the body form in Cnidarians, what is meant by the phrase "radially symmetrical"

You will always have equal halves

92

Nematocysts are located on the what

Tentacles

93

Nematocysts are what

Stinging cells

94

What does planarian do when light is on it

Moves away from light

95

Describe the feeding action of the planarian.

They feed in a swooping/swirl on their prey

96

Describe the motion of the vinegar eels on the slide

The wiggle

97

Mollusks demonstrate bilateral symmetry and what

Cephalization

98

Class Polyplacophora, Gastropda, Bivalvia, and Cephalopoda are apart of what Phylum?

Molluca

99

Chitons are apart of what class?

Polyplacophora

100

What are slow moving sedentary gazers with dorsal shell in 8 plates

Chitons

101

"Stomach foot" is apart of what class

Gastropoda

102

Snails, sea slugs, and land slugs are apart of what class

Gastropoda

103

"Two valved shells" are apart of what class

Bivalvia

104

Clams, mussles, scallops, and oysters are apart of what class

Bivalvia

105

"head foot" is apart of what class

Cephalopoda

106

Squids, octopuses, and nautiluses are apart of what class

Cephalopoda

107

What are the largest, swiftest, and most intelligent of the invertebrates

Cephalopoda

108

The 2 shells ( ) are held closed by the anterior and posterior adductor muscles

Valves

109

The ( ) is extended when the shells open and is used for locomotion

Muscular foot

110

Gas is exchanged through the ( ) located just under the valves

Gills

111

The ( ) secretes enzymes into the stomach and intestine

Digestive gland

112

The most striking annelid characteristic is the division of the ( ) into a series of similar segments

Cylindrical trunk

113

Annelida has a true body cavity called what

Coelem

114

The coelem is more or less divided by septa into components within each segment, each lined by what

Peritoneum

115

In Phylum Annelida, the circulatory system is not segmented. T or F q

True

116

The rhythmic contractions of these muscles, called ( ) allows food to be moved through the digestive tract without the movement of the entire animal

Peristalsis

117

Class Polychaeta, Hirudinea, and Oligochaeta are apart of what Phylum

Annelida

118

What represents the largest class of annelids

Polychaete

119

Polychaetes possess fleshy tentacles on the head and two fleshy appendages, ( ), on each segment except the first and last

Parapodia

120

Many ( ), or chitnous bristles are found on the parapodia, which are used for swimming, burrowing, crawling, and gas exchange

Setae

121

Marine clamworm are an example of what class

Polychaeta

122

Leeches lack what three things?

Tentacles, parapodia, and setae

123

Leeches have what interesting feature?

Two muscular suckers

124

Leeches have small anterior suckers that surround the ( ) and large posterior suckers that are used for ( and )

-Mouth
-Locomotion and attachment

125

Members of this class inhabit damp soil and freshwater

Oligochaeta

126

Which class lack parapodia and have setae

Oligochaeta

127

What is a specimen of the Lumbricus called

"Night crawler" earthworm

128

On an earthworm, what is the very first segment that overhangs the mouth

Prostomium

129

On an earthworm, the large hypodermal glands responsible for the formation of the what

Cocoon

130

On an earthworm, the swollen segments comprise the ( ), which is located anteriorly

Clitellum

131

The ( ) is located at the end of the last segment

Anus

132

An earthworm has how many hearts surrounding the esophagus

5 pair

133

An earthworm has one heart pair in which segments

7-11

134

What color are the hearts of an earthworm

Black

135

In an earthworm, the digestive tract expands into this and this is where food is stored

Crop

136

In an earthworm, posterior to the crop is a thick-walled( ) a mastication organ

Gizzard

137

In an earthworm, the ( ) is located beyond the gizzard and leads to the anus

Intestine

138

Earthworms can fertilize themselves. T or F

False

139

Each earthworm produces a cocoon containing what

Eggs

140

Class that has segmented bodies

Annelida

141

Class that includes muscles and scallops

Bivalvia

142

Most with shells of calcium carbonate

Mollusca

143

Class that have leeches

Hirudinea

144

Class that have chitons

Polyplacophora

145

Class that have marine clamworms

Polychaeta

146

Class that have nautiluses

Cephalopoda

147

Class of earthworms

Oligochaeta

148

Class of snails

Gastropoda

149

Body cavity of annelids

Coelem

150

Food storage in the earthworm

Crop

151

The first segment of an earthworm

Postomium

152

Mastication organ of an earthworm

Gizzard

153

Chitinous bristles

Setae

154

Fleshy appendages

Parapodia

155

Swollen segments of earthworm functioning in reproduction

Clitellum

156

Rhythmic muscular contractions

Peristalsis

157

What is an ancient group that does not conform to the normal rules of zoology

Echinoderms

158

Echinoderms are free moving but have why symmetry

Radial Symmetry

159

Radial symmetry is usually associated with ( ) forms, while bilateral symmetry is associated with ( ) forms

-Sessile forms
-Free moving forms

160

Echnidoerms are entirely what

Marine

161

A unique characteristics of Echinoderms is that there is a presence of what

A water vascular system

162

A spiny endoskeleton of calcareous plates is what Phylum?

Echinoderm

163

"spiny skin" means what

Echinodermata

164

What are the tiny pincer like devices located among the spines of the skin, that are used to kill prarsites and remove debris from the skin surface

Pedicellariae

165

What are the very thin membraned projections on the skin surface that allows of the exchange of gases(respiration)

Dermal Brachiae, or Dermal Gills or Papulae

166

On the Sea Urchin, small pointed structures

Spines

167

On the Sea Urchin, the anterior opening of the digestive tract

Mouth

168

On the Sand Dollar, the small hole located anteriorly

Lunule

169

On the Sand Dollar, resembles petals of a flower; used to movewatewr into its vascular system which allows for movement

Petaloid ambulacra

170

On the Starfish, the anterior openin gf the digestive tract

Mouth

171

On the Starfish, extensions protrudingfrom the body that are used for locomotion

Tube feet

172

On the Starfish, located in the middle of each arm bordered by tube feet

Ambulacral Groove

173

On the Starfish, small pointed structures

Spines

174

On the Starfish, tiny pincher like devices located among the spines

Pedicellariae

175

On the Starfish, the perforated pore thrugh which water is admitted to the water vascular system

Madreporite

176

On the Starfish, rounded area in the center of the starfish

Central disk

177

On the Starfish arm, the brownish looking area where digestive enzymes are produced

Digestive glands

178

On the Starfish arm, the gamete producing gland; reproductive structures

Gonads

179

On the Starfish arm, located out each arm along the body used for locomotion

Tube feet

180

On the Starfish arm, where food is stored

Stomach

181

On the Starfish arm, located in the middle of each arm under the digestive glands

Ambulacral ridge

182

What material composes the spiny endoskeleton

Calcarous piares

183

What are trhe most successful of all living phyla

Anthropoda

184

Anthropodas compirise over ( ) species

Million

185

The body of an anthropod is usually covered by a thick, protective exoskeleton ( ) which contains chitin

Cuticle

186

Several classes in phylum Anthropoda are primarily what

Terrestrial

187

Inscets, centipedes, millipedes, and spiders are apart of what phylum

Anthropoda

188

The members of phylum Anthropoda that are adapted to ( ) water enviornments include crabs, lobster, and shrimp

All

189

What aid crayfish in catching prey

Chelicrae and Chelipeds

190

What are the anterior appendages on a crayfish

Chelicerae

191

What are the terminal fangs on a crayfish which can be used to aid in locomotion

Chelipeds

192

What are two things that aid in locomotion on the crayfish

Telson and Uropods

193

On a crayfish, what is the nonsegmented end of the fan tail

Telson

194

Ona crayfish, what form the outside part of the tail fan

Uropods

195

On a crayfish, what makes up the head and throax

Cephalothorax

196

What is the hard covering around the cephlathorax on a crayfish called that protects them from potential predators

Carapace

197

Centipede= class

Chilopoda

198

Millipede= class

Diplopoda

199

Scorpion= class

Insecta

200

Shrimp= class

Crustacea

201

Spider= class

Arachnida

202

How are anthropods better adapted to a land enviornment than other invertebrates

Because of their cuticle, efficient internal respiratory organs, exoskeleton and jointed appendages

203

What are the four common characteristics of phylum Chordata

Possession of notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharynx with gills, and a tail that extends past the anus

204

What is a rod of stiffened tissue

Notochord

205

what may eventually become the spinal cord

Dorsal nerve cord

206

What are members of subphylum Urochordata known as

Tunicates

207

Subphylum Urochordata and Subphylum Cephalochordata do not contan a what

Vertebrae

208

Subphylum Urochordata filter feed by siphoning water through their what

Gill Slits

209

The most common and well known class of SubPhylum Urochordata is what

Sea Squirts

210

What are memebers of Subphylum Cephalochordata known as

Lancelots

211

What is genus name for lancelots

Amphioxus

212

In subphylum Cephlochordata, the blood is ( ) as it lacks erythrocytes and hemoglobin which are responsible for transporting oxygen

Colorless

213

Class Myxini, Cephalaspidomorphi, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia are apart of what phylum

Subphylum Vertebrata

214

Hagfish are apart of what class

Class Myxini

215

What are long eel like fishes with a termional mouth and four pairs of tentacles

Hagfish

216

Hagfish have full use of their eyes. T or F

False

217

What are marine bottom dwelling scavengers feeding on dead or dying fish, annelids, mollusks, and crustacean

Hagfish

218

What are long eel like in form but have a sucking disc around the mouth internally covered with small rasping teeth

Lamprey

219

What are found in marine and freshwater bodies and have well developed eyes

Lampreys

220

Many lampreys are ( ) to other vertebrates

Parasitic

221

Lamprey are apart of what class

Class Cephalspidomorphi

222

Cartilagnious Fishes are apart of what class

Class Chondricthyes

223

Bony Fish are apart of what class

Class Osteichthyes

224

What is the most diverse class of vertebrae including 24,000 species

Osteichthyes

225

Approximately 95% of bony fish are what

Rayfinned fishes

226

Tetrapods are apart of what class

Amphibia

227

When the skin absorbs oxygen through a process called what

Crutaneous Respiration

228

Amphibians, like fish are what

Ecotothermic