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Flashcards in Lab Textbook Chapter 1 Deck (31):


Relating to head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body



Relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis


Body Orientation-Superior/Inferior

Above/below; placement of the structure along the long axis of the body


i.e. Nose is superior to the mouth


Body Orientation- Anterior/Posterior

Front/back; I humans the most anterior structures are those that are most forward - the face, chest, abdomen

Posterior structures are those toward the backside of the body


i.e. The spine is posterior to the heart


Body Orientation- Medial/Lateral

Toward the midline/away from the midline or median plane


i.e. The sternum (breastbone) is medial to the ribs; the ear is lateral to the nose


Body Orientation-Cephalad (cranial)/Caudal

Toward the head/toward the tail; in humans these terms are used interchangably with superior and inferior, but in four legged animals they are synonymous with anterior and posterior, respectively


Body Orientation- Dorsal/Ventral

Backside/belly side; used chiefly to discuss the comparative anatomy of animals


Body Orientation- Proximal/Distal

Nearer the trunk or attached end/farther from the trunk or point of attachment

These terms are used primarily to locate various areas of the body limbs


i.e. The fingers are distal to the elbow; the knee is proximal to the toes


Body Orientation- Superficial/Deep

Toward or at the body surface/away from the body surface; These terms locate body organs according to their relative closeness to the body surface


i.e. The skin is superficial to the skeleton; the lungs are deep to the rib cage


Body Planes and Sections- Sagittal Plane

A sagittal plane runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts


If it divides the body into equal parts, right down the midline of the body, it is called a median, or midsagittal, plane


Body Planes and Sections- Frontal Plane

Sometimes called a coronal plane. the frontal plane is a longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts


Body Planes and Sections- Transverse Plane

A transverse plane runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts. When organs are sectioned along the transverse plane, the sections are commonly called cross sections


Body Cavities- Dorsal Body Cavity

The dorsal body cavity can be subdivided into the cranial cavity, which contains the brain within the rigid skull, and the vertebral (or spinal) cavity, within which the spinal cord is protected by the bony vetebral column.

These cavities are continuous with each other.


Body Cavities- Ventral Body Cavity

The ventral body cavity is subdivided into:

  • Thoracic cavity- separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by the diaphragm; the heart and lungs are protected by the bony rib cage
  • Abdominal cavity- the area that houses the stomach, intestines, liver and other organs
  • Pelvic cavity- the region that is partially enclosed by the bony pelvis and contains the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum


Body Cavities- Oral Cavity

Commonly called the mouth, contains the tongue and teeth; it is continuous with the rest of the digestive tube


Body Cavities- Nasal Cavity

Located within and posterior to the nose, the nasal cavity is part of the passages of the respiratory system


Body Cavities- Orbital Cavities

The orbital cavities (orbitis) in the skull houses the eyes and present them in an anterior position


Body Cavities- Middle Ear Cavity

Each middle ear cavity lies just medial to an eardrum and is carved into the bony skull; these cavities contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ears


Body Cavities- Synovial Cavities

Synovial cavities are joint cavities- they are enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable joints of the body, such as those btween the vertebrae and the knee and hip joints


Like the serous membranes of the ventral body cavity, membranes lining the synovial cavities secrete a lubricating fluid that reduces friction as the enclosed structures move across one another


Serous Membranes of the Ventral Body Cavity

The walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of the organs it contains are covered with an exceedingly thin, double layed membrane called the serosa, or serous membrane.


The part of the membrane lining the cavity walls is referred to as the parietal serosa, and it is continuous with a similar membrane, the visceral serosa, covering the external surface of the the organs within the cavity.


These membranes produce a thin lubricating fluid that allows the visceral organs to slide over one another or to rub against the body wall with minimal friction.


Serous membranes also compartmentalize the various organs so that infection of one organ is prevented from spreading to others.


The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering the organs is the peritoneum, that enclosing the lungs is the pleura, and that around the heart is the pericardium.


Surface Anatomy- Cephalic

  • Frontal - forehead
  • Orbital - bony eye socket (orbit)
  • Otic - ear
  • Occipital - posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
  • Nasal - Nose
  • Buccal - Cheek
  • Oral - Mouth
  • Mental - Chin


Surface Anatomy- Cervical

Neck region


Surface Anatomy- Thoracic

  • Sternal - region of the breastbone
  • Axillary - armpit
  • Mammary - breast region


Surface Anatomy - Abdominal

Umbilical- Naval


Surface Anatomy -Pelvic

Inguinal - Groin area


Surface Anatomy - Pubic

Genital region


Surface Anatomy - Dorsum

  • Scalpular - scalpula or shoulder blade area
  • Vetebral - area of the spinal cord
  • Lumbar - area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
  • Sacral - region between the hips (overlaying the sacrum)
  • Gluteal - buttocks
  • Perineal - region between the anus and external genitalia


Surface Anatomy - Upper limb

  • Acromial - point of the shoulder
  • Brachial - arm
  • Antecubital - anterior surface of the elbow
  • Olecranal - posterior aspect of the elbow
  • Antebrachial - forearm
  • Carpal - wrist


Surface Anatomy - Manus

  • Pollex - thumb
  • Palmar - palm of the hand
  • Digital - fingers or toes


Surface Anatomy - Lower limb

  • Coxal - hip
  • Femoral - thight
  • Patellar - anterior knee (kneecap) region
  • Popliteal - back of the knee
  • Crural - leg
  • Sural - calf or posterior surface of the leg
  • Fibular or peroneal - side of the leg



Surface Anatomy - Pedal (foot)

  • Tarsal - ankle
  • Calcaneal - heel of the foot
  • Digital - fingers or toes
  • Plantar - sole of the foot
  • Hallux - great toe