Laboratory One - Gross Neuroanatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Laboratory One - Gross Neuroanatomy Deck (33):
1

Where in relation to the brain is the spinal cord?

Caudal

2

A cross section of the spinal cord would be cut in what plane?

Transversely

3

What is the volume of the rat CNS?

2.5cm3

4

What are some obvious differences between the rat and the human brain?

Rhinecephalon (rostral bluldges from frontal cortex)
The Vermis (between cerebellums)
Parafloccus (lateral ridges on cerebellum)
Massive trigeminal nerves (whiskers)

5

What is the largest cranial nerve on the rat? and why?

The trigeminal nerve- whiksers, sensory

6

What are the twelve cranial nerves for the human?

Olfactory
Optic
Oculormotor
Trochlear
Trigeminal
Abducens
Facial
Vestibulochochlear
Glossopharyngeal
Vagus
Accessory
Hypoglossal

7

What is the fourth ventricle?

A cavity containing CSF, acts to protect the brain

8

What is the function of the ventricular system?

To allow the circulation of CSF that protects the brain by cushioning it.

9

What is the function of the spinal cord?

Transmission of neural signals between the brain and the body.

10

What is the significance between the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord?

Dorsal = Sensory pathways

Ventral = Motor pathways

11

What is an important functional role of the pons?

- Contains nuclie that give rise to the nerves that innervate the face
- Has cerebral peduncles that are WMT that connect the cerebellum to the CNS
- Contains sensory (tegmentum pontine) and motor pathways(pars basilaris)

12

What is the significance of the medulla?

-Contains medullary pyramids = pyramidal decussation
- House many nucle that are important for breathing, pH detection/regulation, thermoregulation...

13

What is a function of the superior and inferior colliculi?

Superior colliculi = Visual reflex orientation
Inferior colliculi = Auditory reflex stimuli

14

What structures are a part of the midbrain?

Superior and inferior colliculi + corpus quadrigemina
= Tectum
Tegmentum
Substantia Niagra
Crus Cerebri
periaqueductal grey region therefore ventricles- 4th

15

What is the function of the thalamus?

Relay station for SENSORY information to the brain

16

What is the function of the hypothalamus?

Links the nervous system with the endocrine system, synthesizes hormones and regulatory hormones.

17

What is the function of the midbrain periaqueductal grey region?

- Mediates opoid based analgesia
- Pain modulation
-

18

Where is the midbrain periaqueductal grey region found?

Within the midbrains tegmentum

19

What is the corpus callosum?

WMT - commisural fibres - between hemispheres

20

What is the corona radiata?

A WMT- biggest projection fibres between the cerebral cortex and the medulla oblongata

21

What is the function of the hippocampus?

- Memory and learning
- Emotions

22

What is the volume of the rat cerebellum and what portion does it make up the the CNS?

0.5cm3 therefore 20%

23

What is the functional role of the vermis in the rat?

maintaining equilibrium and coordinating speech, eye and body movement, specifically along the extremities

24

What is the function of the cerebellar hemispheres?

Motor Control

25

What is the function of the flocculus?

The flocculus is a part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex system and is used to help stabilize gaze during head rotation about any axis of space

26

What is the physiological distinction between grey and white matter?

White: Myelonated axons
Grey : Neurons cell bodies and dendrites+ axon terminals

27

What is the difference between dorsal and ventral horns?

The horns of the spinal cord contain cell bodies.

Dorsal = Sensory Ventral = Motor

28

What is the main function of dorsal and ventral columns?

Contain the axonds of their respective bodies to transmit signals

29

What is the difference between the fasiculus gracalis and fasiculus cuneatus?

Fasiculus gracalis = Lower limbs sensory tracts
Fasiculus cuneatus = Upper limbs sensory tracts

30

How does the proportion of grey and white matter vary between rostral and caudal regions of the spinal cord and why?

The rostral region of the spinal cord contains more grey matter as it has more body to innervate than the caudal region which contains more white matter- which has less body to innervate

31

What is the function of the area postrema?

Vomiting and ANS control

32

What is the role of the descending trigeminal?

Crude touch, pressure, Pain and temperature pathway for the face, head, neck regions

33

Damage to the hippocampus results in:

Anterograde amnesia )inability to form new memories)