Flashcards in Neurological Development One Deck (70):
What are the major Gyri?
Pre central gyrus = motor cortex
Post central gyrus = sensory cortex
Sup,mid,inf frontal gyrus
Sup,mid,inf temporal gyrus
Sup,inf parietal gyrus
What are the possible divisions of the brain?
Gray matter or white matter.
Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.
Dominant and non-dominant
How is the primary motor cortex and primary sensory cortex organized?
Motor homunculus and sensory homunculus
What is the function of Broca's area?
Motor aspect of speech
What is the function of wernickes area?
Sensory area of what sound and speech means.
What is the function of exners area?
Motor control of the hand.
What is the function of the supramarginal gyrus?
What is the function of angular gyrus?
What is the function of the occipital cortex?
What controls the motor aspect of speech?
What controls the sensory aspect of what sounds and speech mean?
What controls the motor control of the hand?
What processes reading information?
What controls writing?
What are the functions of the frontal association cortex?
What are the functions of the parietal association cortex?
Shapes and Faces
What are the functions of the temporal association Area?
What are the types of fibres between areas?
Association fibres (within hemisphere)
Commissural fibres (between hemispheres)
Projection fibres (between brain and spinal cord or muscle)
What is the difference between Primary areas and Secondary association areas of the brain?
Primary Areas process mechanical information (input). While secondary areas process the information received by the primary areas.
It was previously thought that the brain function was a result of the entire brains collaboration. What is the understanding now?
Specific regions of the brain have a individual functionality.
Are all areas of the brain understood?
No, there are areas with unknown function.
What are some examples of association areas?
Frontal association area
Temporal association area
Parietal association area
What is the function of brocas area?
The planning of motor movement required for speech.
Where is brocas area located?
In the planning area of the frontal cortex adjacent the motor homunculus area responsible for vocalization.
How does brocas area work?
It sends output to the primary motor area to activate the neurons responsible for the production of speech in a order planned by brocas area.
What connect brocas area and wernickes area?
The arcuate fasiculus
What happens when someone has a lesion to their arcuate fasiculus?
Can understand speech but the respond they give to a question will be irrelevant to the question
How can a lesion of the arcuate fasiculus be detected?
Asking a person to repeat a word you say and they are incapable of doing so.
What is the clinical name for a arcuate fasiculus lesion?
What does damage to wernickes area result in?
What does damage to brocas area result in?
What is the function of wernickes area?
To understand speech
What is an example of association fibres?
Arcuate fasiculus (within hemisphere)
What is an example of commissural fibres?
Corpus collosum (between hemispheres)
What is an example of projection fibres?
Corticospinal tract (brain to spinal cord or muscles)
What is a sulcus?
A deep groove
What is a gyrus?
What are some major sulci?
parieto-occipital sulcus (obvious in midsaggital view)
What are some major landmarks of the brain?
With regards to functional input what is important in regards to hemisphere responsibility?
There is a dominant hemisphere, mostly the left due the significant proportion of right handed people. Some left handed people have left dominant hemispheres and a minority have right dominant hemispheres therefore it is important to remember as a clinician that this is the case.
How is the primary auditory area arranged?
Tonotopically, therefore each region of it is dedicated to a specific tone.
What nuclie are found in the basal ganglia?
(Together the caudate nucleus and the putamen form the striatum)
Globus pallidus (internal and external)
Substantia niagra (pars compacta and pars reticularis
Where does the basal ganglia recieve input from?
Where is the output of the basal ganglia to?
Prefrontal, premotor, and motor cortices via the thalamus.
Where is the head of the caudate nucleus located?
Lateral aspect of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle.
Where is the tail of the caudate nucleus?
Follows the course of the lateral ventricle.
How is the striatum divided?
In two by the internal capsule. Allows communication between the cortex and the thalamus.
What is the external capsule?
A white matter tract that divides the putamen from the claustrum.
What is lateral to the claustrum?
The extreme capsule.
What is lateral to the extreme capsule?
Insular cortex and temporal operculum
What is the thalamus?
A relay station. Relaying sensory information to the brain and output from the brain to the target organs or structures.
What nuclie are found in the thalamus?.
What structures are found in the brain stem?
Listing structures anterior to posterior, what is found in the midbrain?
Tectum (1- corpa (body) quadrigemina (four nerve budles) 2- Sup and inf colliculus)
What is the function of substantia niagra?
Projects and recieves fibres from the striatum. Dopamine rich.
What is the function of the tegmentum?
Anterolateral system (pain and temperature)
What is the function of the crus cerebri?
Motor information pathway
What is the function of the Superior colliculis of the tectum?
Reflex orientation from retina information I.e see something and it outputs by activating muscles to orientate eyes or head in the direction of unusual sight.
what is the function of the inferior colliculis of the tectum?
Reflex orientation with regards to sound.
List the structures of the pons anterior to posterior?
Pars basilaris (continuation of motor pathway)
What is the function of the pars basilaris?
Contain corticopsinal tract fibres from motor cortex to medullary pyramids.
What are the functions of the cerebral peduncles?
Allows fibres to and from the cerebellum
What are the structures of the medulla oblongata ant to post?
Tegmentum (medullary part)
What is the function of the medullary pyramids?
Allow decusation of corticospinal fibres
What are three differences between motor and sensory humunculus?
Sensory humunclus has genitals motor doesnt.
Hands are much larger for motor humunclus
Sensory humunclus has includes gums, teeth etc.
What observations can be made of the ventricles?
The system is symmetrical.
Third ventricle with interventricular foreman
What do the lateral ventricles look like?
What does the pars basilaris have a lot of?
Why does the pars basilaris have a lot of nuclei and what are the implications of this?
The nuclie give rise to neurons of the face e.g trigeminal nerve. This means that the motor fibres e.g corticospinal tract must diverge and split to go around the nuclei, hence the bulged appearance