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Flashcards in Neurological Development One Deck (70):
1

What are the major Gyri?

Pre central gyrus = motor cortex
Post central gyrus = sensory cortex
Sup,mid,inf frontal gyrus
Sup,mid,inf temporal gyrus
Sup,inf parietal gyrus

2

What are the possible divisions of the brain?

Gray matter or white matter.

Forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain.

Dominant and non-dominant

3

How is the primary motor cortex and primary sensory cortex organized?

Somatopically

Motor homunculus and sensory homunculus

4

What is the function of Broca's area?

Motor aspect of speech

5

What is the function of wernickes area?

Sensory area of what sound and speech means.

6

What is the function of exners area?

Motor control of the hand.

7

What is the function of the supramarginal gyrus?

Reading

8

What is the function of angular gyrus?

Writing

9

What is the function of the occipital cortex?

Vision

10

What controls the motor aspect of speech?

Broca's area

11

What controls the sensory aspect of what sounds and speech mean?

Wernickes area

12

What controls the motor control of the hand?

Exners area

13

What processes reading information?

Supramarginal gyrus

14

What controls writing?

Angular gyrus

15

What are the functions of the frontal association cortex?

- Intelligence
- Behaviour
- Mood
- Personality

16

What are the functions of the parietal association cortex?

Spatial skills
3D recognition
Shapes and Faces

17

What are the functions of the temporal association Area?

Memory
Aggression
Intelligence

18

What are the types of fibres between areas?

Association fibres (within hemisphere)
Commissural fibres (between hemispheres)
Projection fibres (between brain and spinal cord or muscle)

19

What is the difference between Primary areas and Secondary association areas of the brain?

Primary Areas process mechanical information (input). While secondary areas process the information received by the primary areas.

20

It was previously thought that the brain function was a result of the entire brains collaboration. What is the understanding now?

Specific regions of the brain have a individual functionality.

21

Are all areas of the brain understood?

No, there are areas with unknown function.

22

What are some examples of association areas?

Frontal association area
Temporal association area
Parietal association area

23

What is the function of brocas area?

The planning of motor movement required for speech.

24

Where is brocas area located?

In the planning area of the frontal cortex adjacent the motor homunculus area responsible for vocalization.

25

How does brocas area work?

It sends output to the primary motor area to activate the neurons responsible for the production of speech in a order planned by brocas area.

26

What connect brocas area and wernickes area?

The arcuate fasiculus

27

What happens when someone has a lesion to their arcuate fasiculus?

Can understand speech but the respond they give to a question will be irrelevant to the question

28

How can a lesion of the arcuate fasiculus be detected?

Asking a person to repeat a word you say and they are incapable of doing so.

29

What is the clinical name for a arcuate fasiculus lesion?

Connection Aphasia

30

What does damage to wernickes area result in?

Fluent aphasia

31

What does damage to brocas area result in?

Non-fluent aphasia

32

What is the function of wernickes area?

To understand speech

33

What is an example of association fibres?

Arcuate fasiculus (within hemisphere)

34

What is an example of commissural fibres?

Corpus collosum (between hemispheres)

35

What is an example of projection fibres?

Corticospinal tract (brain to spinal cord or muscles)

36

What is a sulcus?

A deep groove

37

What is a gyrus?

A ridge

38

What are some major sulci?

Central Sulcus
parieto-occipital sulcus (obvious in midsaggital view)

39

What are some major landmarks of the brain?

Pre-occipital notch
Lateral fissure
Central sulcus
Cerebellum

40

With regards to functional input what is important in regards to hemisphere responsibility?

There is a dominant hemisphere, mostly the left due the significant proportion of right handed people. Some left handed people have left dominant hemispheres and a minority have right dominant hemispheres therefore it is important to remember as a clinician that this is the case.

41

How is the primary auditory area arranged?

Tonotopically, therefore each region of it is dedicated to a specific tone.

42

What nuclie are found in the basal ganglia?

Caudate nucleus
Putamen

(Together the caudate nucleus and the putamen form the striatum)

Globus pallidus (internal and external)
Subthalamic nucleus
Substantia niagra (pars compacta and pars reticularis

43

Where does the basal ganglia recieve input from?

Cerebral cortex

44

Where is the output of the basal ganglia to?

Prefrontal, premotor, and motor cortices via the thalamus.

45

Where is the head of the caudate nucleus located?

Lateral aspect of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle.

46

Where is the tail of the caudate nucleus?

Follows the course of the lateral ventricle.

47

How is the striatum divided?

In two by the internal capsule. Allows communication between the cortex and the thalamus.

48

What is the external capsule?

A white matter tract that divides the putamen from the claustrum.

49

What is lateral to the claustrum?

The extreme capsule.

50

What is lateral to the extreme capsule?

Insular cortex and temporal operculum

51

What is the thalamus?

A relay station. Relaying sensory information to the brain and output from the brain to the target organs or structures.

52

What nuclie are found in the thalamus?.

VA-VL

53

What structures are found in the brain stem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla Oblongata

54

Listing structures anterior to posterior, what is found in the midbrain?

Crus cerebri
Substantia niagra
Tegmentum
Tectum (1- corpa (body) quadrigemina (four nerve budles) 2- Sup and inf colliculus)

55

What is the function of substantia niagra?

Projects and recieves fibres from the striatum. Dopamine rich.

56

What is the function of the tegmentum?

Sensory pathways.
Anterolateral system (pain and temperature)

57

What is the function of the crus cerebri?

Motor information pathway

58

What is the function of the Superior colliculis of the tectum?

Reflex orientation from retina information I.e see something and it outputs by activating muscles to orientate eyes or head in the direction of unusual sight.

59

what is the function of the inferior colliculis of the tectum?

Reflex orientation with regards to sound.

60

List the structures of the pons anterior to posterior?

Pars basilaris (continuation of motor pathway)
Tegmentum pontine
cerebral peduncles

61

What is the function of the pars basilaris?

Contain corticopsinal tract fibres from motor cortex to medullary pyramids.

62

What are the functions of the cerebral peduncles?

Allows fibres to and from the cerebellum

63

What are the structures of the medulla oblongata ant to post?

Medullary pyramids
Tegmentum (medullary part)

64

What is the function of the medullary pyramids?

Allow decusation of corticospinal fibres

65

What are three differences between motor and sensory humunculus?

Sensory humunclus has genitals motor doesnt.
Hands are much larger for motor humunclus
Sensory humunclus has includes gums, teeth etc.

66

What observations can be made of the ventricles?

The system is symmetrical.

Contains:
Lateral ventricles
Third ventricle with interventricular foreman
Cerebral aqueduct
Fourth ventricle
Central Canal

67

What do the lateral ventricles look like?

Goats horns

68

What does the pars basilaris have a lot of?

Nuclie

69

Why does the pars basilaris have a lot of nuclei and what are the implications of this?

The nuclie give rise to neurons of the face e.g trigeminal nerve. This means that the motor fibres e.g corticospinal tract must diverge and split to go around the nuclei, hence the bulged appearance

70

What is the difference between cerebral and cerebellum control of the body?

Cerebellum controls the same side the cerebral cortex is the opposite.